Grade 7B History - 1534 to 1855

  • Period: Apr 20, 1534 to

    Grade 7 History Timeline

  • Jul 24, 1534

    Jacques Cartier

    Jacques Cartier
    Cartier, on the Gaspe Peninsula, claims the area for France. He made three voyages in total from France to North America. King Francois I ordered him to find two things: a shipping route from the Orient to allow French traders to import silk and other fine products to Europe, as well as precious gems and metals such as gold to make France rich. He did find either in his voyages.
  • Oct 2, 1535

    Cartier arrives at Hochelaga

    Cartier arrives at Hochelaga
    On his voyage to Hochelaga (Montreal), Cartier passed Stadacona (Quebec City). At Hochelaga, Cartier was stopped by rapids in the river, which he named Lachine ("China") Rapids. He believed that China was not far away. He went back to Stadacona and had a difficult winter as many of his men became sick with scurvy. The Iroquois helped by telling him of a tea made from the leaves of the northern white cedar tree. As a result, all but 25 of his men survived the long winter.
  • Samuel de Champlain founds settlement at Quebec City ("Habitation")

    Samuel de Champlain founds settlement at Quebec City ("Habitation")
    This was the first permanent European settlement in North America.
  • Seigneurial System Introduced to New France

    Seigneurial System Introduced to New France
    This system was formally introduced to New France in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu. Under this system, the lands were arranged in long, narrow strips, called "seigneuries", along the St. Lawrence River. It was introduced in New France because the St. Lawrence River was like a highway. It provided water and a means of transportation which allowed settlements along the river to flourish.
  • Sainte-Marie-Among-the-Hurons established

    Sainte-Marie-Among-the-Hurons established
    Fathers Jerome Lalemant and Jean de Brebeuf established the mission at Sainte-Marie in November of 1639. The settlement was expanded to include a chapel, a smithy, a cookhouse, a residence for the Jesuits, as well as other buildings. The purpose of this settlement was to be a centre for the Jesuit operations in the land of the Wendat.
  • Louis XIV becomes King of France

    Louis XIV becomes King of France
    Louis XIV becomes King of France at the age of 4 years, 8 months.
  • Fathers Jean de Brebeuf and Gabriel Lalemant martyred at Sainte-Marie

    Fathers Jean de Brebeuf and Gabriel Lalemant martyred at Sainte-Marie
    The Iroquois killed Fathers Jean de Brebeuf and Gabriel Lalemant on this date, having been at war with the Huron for quite some time. The settlement at Sainte-Marie was later abandoned and a new centre was built on Christian Island, just off the coast of Lake Huron. However, in the winter of 1649, the Iroquois walked across the ice to Christian Island and destroyed the centre.
  • Jean Talon's decree to increase the population of New France

    Jean Talon's decree to increase the population of New France
    On this date, Jean Talon issued this decree to help increase the population of New France. Louis XIV had already started his "filles du roi" program in New France which spanned from 1663 to 1673.
    "...all inhabitants having 10 living children, born of a lawful marriage, will be paid a pension of 300 livres a year; ... for those having 12 (children), 400 livres ...; furthermore, all boys who marry at the age of 20 years or less and to girls of 16 years and less, wll be paid 20 pounds each..."
  • Hudson's Bay Company Founded

    Hudson's Bay Company Founded
    The Hudson's Bay Company was formed on this date. It started as a fur trading company, but with the decline of the fur trading industry, the company began to sell other important goods. It originally owned much of Canada (Rupert's Land) but the land later became part of the new Dominion of Canada in 1870 as part of the Northwest Territories.
  • Count Frontenac arrives in Quebec as Governor of New France

    Count Frontenac arrives in Quebec as Governor of New France
    Frontenac was the most well known governor of New France. His job was to ensure that the king's orders were carried out. He appointed members to the sovereign council and also was responsible for relationships between New France and other European groups in North America.
  • Acadian Expulsion

    Acadian Expulsion
    Winslow reads the order of expulsion to the Acadians in the Parish Church at Grand-Pre.
  • Seven Years War

    Seven Years War
    The Seven Years War was a world war that lasted from 1756 to 1763. It started in Europe on this date between Britain and France. It soon spread around the world including North America. Battles such as the Plains of Abraham were part of this war. It ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris.
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    This painting is a depiction of General Wolfe dying in the battle. The French and British fought this battle on the Plains of Abraham just outside of Quebec. The British used a strategy of the "Thin Red Line" and defeated a disorganied French force in a very quick battle. Both the British commander (Wolfe) and the French commander (Montcalm) died as a result of the battle. With the victory, the British now controlled New France.
  • Royal Proclamation of 1763

    Royal Proclamation of 1763
    The Royal Proclamation was issued by King George III on this date. It had a big effect on Quebec at the time.
  • The Quebec Act, 1774

    The Quebec Act, 1774
    The Quebec Act of 1774 replaced the Royal Proclamation of 1763. It established French rights, many of which had been lost by the Royal Proclamation.
  • Birchtown established by Black Loyalists

    Birchtown established by Black Loyalists
    On this date, Black Loyalists founded the community of Birchtown, near present-day Shelburne, Nova Scotia. Unfortunately, many Blacks were not treated well by the white Loyalists, and over time became disheartened and eventually went to Africa in hope of a better life.
  • North West Company established

    North West Company established
    The North West Company was a fur trading company established as a competitor to the Hudson's Bay Company which had a monopoly on fur trading at the time. The two companies competed with each other for a number of years, even having wars with each other, before merging in 1821.
  • Tecumseh helps Brock in winning Battle of Detroit in War of 1812

    Tecumseh helps Brock in winning Battle of Detroit in War of 1812
    Tecumseh uses bluff and deception techniques to cause American General Hull to surrender at the Battle of Detroit, even though the American forces substantially outnumbered the British forces.
  • Battle of Queenston Heights - War of 1812

    Battle of Queenston Heights - War of 1812
    The Battle of Queenston Heights was the first major battle of the War of 1812. Although the British won the battle, the victory was costly as General Isaac Brock was killed in action.
  • Laura Secord talking to James Fitzgibbon about American plans to invade

    Laura Secord talking to James Fitzgibbon about American plans to invade
    On this date, Laura Secord travelled approximately 32 km on foot to warn British commander James FitzGibbon of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams.
  • Battle of Lake Erie - War of 1812

    Battle of Lake Erie - War of 1812
    The Battle of Lake Erie was one of the biggest battles of the War of 1812. American ships defeated British ships to gain control of the lake for the rest of the war.
  • Charles de Salaberry

    Charles de Salaberry
    Lieutenant Charles de Salaberry was a commander of the British forces during the War of 1812. He played a key role in British victories in the Battle of Crysler's Farm and the Battle of the Chateauguay.
  • Battle of Lundy's Lane

    Battle of Lundy's Lane
    The Battle of Lundy's Lane was one of the battles in the War of 1812 and was fought in present-day Niagara Falls, Canada. It was one of the bloodiest battles in the War of 1812. Gordon Drummond and Phineas Riall led the British forces who suffered 878 casualties and losses during the battle. Jacob Brown and Winfield Scott commanded the American forces who endured casualties and losses numbering 853. The British achieved a key strategic victory in the battle.
  • Siege of Fort Erie - War of 1812

    Siege of Fort Erie - War of 1812
    The Siege of Fort Erie was one of the final battles between the British and American forces in the Niagara region in the War of 1812. From August 4 to September 21, 1814, the Americans successfully defended Fort Erie from the British. However, the Americans eventually abandoned the fort due to lack of supplies.
  • Lieutenant-Colonel John By comes to Upper Canada

    Lieutenant-Colonel John By comes to Upper Canada
    Lieutenant-Colonel John By was born in Britain, but spent several years in Lower and Upper Canada building canals and improving shipping routes on the St. Lawrence River. He also designed new fortifications in Quebec City. In 1826, By was sent to Upper Canada to build a canal connecting the Ottawa River and Lake Ontario. This canal, called the Rideau Canal, is 202 km long and was a direct response to the War of 1812.
  • Joseph Howe starts writing articles in Novascotian (newspaper) demanding reform

    Joseph Howe starts writing articles in Novascotian (newspaper) demanding reform
    After writing his articles in his newspaper and bringing the issue of responsible government out in the open, Joseph Howe was elected to the Nova Scotia legislature in 1836. He worked with the Reformers to press for responsible government and eventually succeeded in February 1848. Nova Scotia was granted responsible government and was the first British colony in the world to achieve this.
  • Louis-Joseph Papineau publishes Ninety-Two Resolutions to demand reform

    Louis-Joseph Papineau publishes Ninety-Two Resolutions to demand reform
    Papineau's Ninety-Two Resolutions document contained grievances (complaints) that the Lower Canadian legislative assembly had with the British government. He wanted to make the legislative council into a body elected by the people. He also wanted the executive council to "be responsible to" the legislative assembly. Also, he wanted to abolish the seigneuries and turn them into freehold (privately owned) farms. The British did not want to grant major reform and a rebellion occurred in 1837.
  • William Lyon Mackenzie expresses his anger towards the government

    William Lyon Mackenzie expresses his anger towards the government
    Mackenzie was angry with the government system and claimed that the officials at the top had all the power. He used his newspaper, the "Colonial Advocate" to publish articles that insulted his political enemies. His anger eventually led to a rebellion in Upper Canada just north of Toronto in December of 1837.
  • Lord Durham arrives in Quebec City

    Lord Durham arrives in Quebec City
    Lord Durham was sent from Britain to Canada on this date for two main reasons. First of all, he was to determine why the recent rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada had occurred. Also, he was to prepare and present a report including recommendations on how to prevent future violence. His report was presented to the Colonial Office on February 4, 1839. Lord Durham's work eventually led the way to responsible government in the Canadas.
  • Lord Durham's Report presented to the Colonial Office

    Lord Durham's Report  presented to the Colonial Office
    Lord Durham was sent to Quebec City to carry out two important tasks for the British government. Firstly, he was to find out why there had been rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. Secondly, he was to prepare and present a report making recommendations for avoiding further violence. Key highllights of his report included him wanting to assimilate the French in Lower Canada (i.e. change them into English people over time). He also wanted responsible government in the Canadas.
  • Bytown renamed Ottawa

    Bytown renamed Ottawa