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Economy and Development

  • Sep 26, 1500

    The Amerindians’ Trading Systems (Part 1)

    The Amerindians’ Trading Systems (Part 1)
    Trading occurred between the Iroquois of the St. Lawrence Valley and the Algonquians in the 1500’s. The Iroquois offered their farming surplus (corn and beans) in exchange for the Algonquians' hunting surplus (fur and dry meat). The trading occurred on the land occupied by the Algonquian bands’ summer camps.
  • Sep 26, 1500

    The Amerindians’ Trading Systems (Part 2)

    The Amerindians’ Trading Systems (Part 2)
    The Huron-Wendat were merchants who belonged to the Iroquois family and acted as middlemen for trading between the different Algonquian nations. These trades occurred in a region encompassing the Great Lakes region, the Outaouais, the St. Maurice Valley and James Bay.
  • Period: Sep 26, 1500 to

    Economy and Development

  • Sep 27, 1500

    The European Fisheries

    The European Fisheries
    After the discovery of Newfoundland by John Cabot in 1497, European fishermen participated in cod fishing close to Labrador and Newfoundland Island. During this period, fish was in great demand as every Friday, the Catholic Church banned meat consumption. Since the trip across the Atlantic was so long, the fishermen were unable to bring back fresh fish to Europe. So, they would dry the fish before going back to Europe. The fishermen also came in contact with the Amerindians and traded with them.
  • The Birth of the Fur Trade

    The Birth of the Fur Trade
    The Amerindians offered furs to the European fishermen in exchange for metal objects such as pots and knives. For the Europeans, beaver pelts were worth much more than metal objects. It was the reverse for the Amerindians. The profit generated by sales of the pelts was far superior to the profit generated by fishing, so fishermen loaded their ships with metal objects to trade for furs in America. The alliances with the Amerindians enabled the French to develop the territory's resources.
  • Chartered Companies

    Chartered Companies
    The chartered companies were the Company of One Hundred Associates, The Compagnie des Habitants and The French West India Company. All three of these companies were unsuccessful, due to attacks by the British and Iroquois and poor management as well as strong competition. Despite the fact that their initial purpose was to administer and develop the colony, they did not do so, and instead focused on making money.
    Only the people with the rights to would be able to trade fur.
  • Alliances and Rivalries in Fur Trade (Part 1)

    Alliances and Rivalries in Fur Trade (Part 1)
    The Five-Nations Iroquois started running out of fur, and fought against the Hurons-Wendats, who were their main competitors. In 1649, they destroyed all the villages belonging to the Huron-Wendats. After the destruction of Huronia, the French were obliged to go to Algonquian territory in person in order to obtain their pelt supplies.
  • The Economy of Fur

    The Economy of Fur
    The Five-Nations Iroquois competed against the business arrangement established between the Hurons and the French because they also obtained their supplies from the Amerindian nations of the Great Lakes and the Outaouais. The Amerindians reached the trading posts in Quebec, Trois-Rivières, and Tadoussac. They traveled down the Hudson River to bring pelts to the Dutch and to the British. The French found themselves at a crossroads in the fur trade when they founded Ville-Marie in 1642.
  • Alliances and Rivalries in Fur Trade (Part 2)

    Alliances and Rivalries in Fur Trade (Part 2)
    The King of France imposed a 25% tax on the furs coming from New France. Since the British and the Dutch merchants did not have to pay this tax, they offered the Amerindians and coureurs de bois more for the pelts. So, the Amerindians and coureurs de bois would want to trade with them, as they received more for the same price. It became difficult to suppress trade with The British trading posts and the competition between France, Great Britain and Holland was vigorous.
  • Agriculture in New France before 1663

    Agriculture in New France before 1663
    Agriculture was a subsistence activity: Enough crops were planted to feed the family. The main crop was wheat. Children from large families made their own contribution by clearing new lands in lots granted by lords.
  • Attempts to Diversify the Economy after 1663

    Attempts to Diversify the Economy after 1663
    Jean Talon tried to diversify the economy but failed. In 1665, New France started to sell some surplus fur. However, this was difficult due to the cost of transportation. Also, there was simply too much demand for the fur trade and not enough people with different skills to diversify the trade.
  • Expansion of the Territory

    Expansion of the Territory
    The Northern continent was being explored due to the search of furs. Adventurers travelled the territory on the waterways. The Great Lakes, the Prairies, the Rocky Mountains, Hudson Bay, the Ohio Valley and the Mississippi River to Louisiana were all explored. The regions that were discovered there were disputed between the British and the French. Each group built forts to protect its commerce against the enemy.
  • Mercantilism

    Mercantilism is a financial organization theory. European Countries believed that it was essential to possess as much gold as possible. A way to accomplish is was by exporting more than was being imported, Natural resources from colonies that were being controlled by you were taken in, and finished goods made from those natural resources were sold by you.
  • Economy Based on Fur (Part 1)

    Economy Based on Fur (Part 1)
    After the British Empire takes over New France, the fur-trade economy passes to the hands of the English. Several Montreal merchants joined forces to form the Northwest Company in 1783. This company competed against the Hudson’s Bay Company.
  • Economy Based on Fur (Part 2)

    Economy Based on Fur (Part 2)
    The rivalry with the Hudson’s Bay Company was very costly: Both companies competed against each other, spending large amounts of money to build trading posts while the demand for fur declined. These circumstances led the two companies to merge in 1821. The fur trade would be based in Hudson Bay and no longer in Montreal.
  • Economy Based on Timber (Part 2)

    Economy Based on Timber (Part 2)
    With the timber industry booming, new jobs were created: lumberjacks, loggers, stevedores, and more. These jobs were usually seasonal, so they were taken by farmers who could not grow crops during the winter. The start-up of the timber industry led to the colonization of new regions such as Outaouais, Saguenay Lac St. Jean and the Mauricie. There was also an improvement and development of transportation such as canals, railroads, and steamships.
  • Economy Based on Timber (Part 1)

    Economy Based on Timber (Part 1)
    In the 18th century, Great Britain got its wood supply from northern Europe (Russia, Prussia and Norway). In 1806, Napoleon, a French Emperor, imposed a continental blockade against Great Britain. Great Britain got its wood from Canada instead. The increase in demand from the mother country attracted British investors who brought the necessary capital to develop this industry to Canada. The number of commercial ships using the ports of St. Lawrence went from 100 to 661 in a span of 13 years.
  • Economic Policies (Part 1)

    Economic Policies (Part 1)
    Canada’s trade with Britain was doing extremely well until Great Britain ceased its protectionist policies. These circumstances affected some Canadian industries greatly, particularly ship construction in Quebec, which failed. Canada had to search for new markets to sell its products to. The United States was the best candidate as it had a rapidly expanding economy which created a demand for timber and various farming products.
  • Economic Policies (Part 2)

    Economic Policies (Part 2)
    In 1854, Great Britain signed the Treaty of Reciprocity on behalf of Canada. It would last 10 years. This treaty meant that customs/duties between Canada and the United States would cease for as long as the treaty lasted. It was an advantage for Canadian producers because the United States were such a large market.
  • Population Changes (Part 2)

    Population Changes (Part 2)
    The rich lived well, but the rest did not. There was pollution everywhere, no piped water, poor sanitation, and diseases were rampant. Most of the working class was malnourished. 1 out of 3 children didn’t live to their first birthday, which rendered the mortality rate very high.
  • Population Changes (Part 1)

    Population Changes (Part 1)
    From 1871 to 1901, the population of Quebec and Canada rose 30-40%. The Quebec birth rate remained very high, however, people kept leaving Quebec as the farms were still overcrowded. People were moving to urban areas, as there were new demands for unskilled labor. There were also better jobs in the United States, Ontario, and Western Canada, so many people moved to those places.
  • Economic Policies (Part 3)

    Economic Policies (Part 3)
    In 1878, John A. MacDonald created the National Policy. Three main points occurred due to it. The first was the increase of Custom Duties. The Canadian industries were protected/promoted by ensuring Canadians brought Canadian goods. Secondly, railways were built. The Canadian Pacific Railway was to run from coast to coast, to unify the people and increase trade. Thirdly, immigration was encouraged. This was focused especially in Western Canada, as a bigger population would mean a bigger market.
  • The First Phase of Industrialization (Part 1)

    The First Phase of Industrialization (Part 1)
    The 1st phase industrialization in Quebec was from 1885-1900. Before, apprentices learned their trade from a master craftsman in exchange for accommodation or food. Now, they were salaried workers who executed duties requiring less training. This enabled the companies to hire unskilled labour at lower wages.
  • The First Phase of Industrialization (Part 2)

    The First Phase of Industrialization (Part 2)
    The birth of industrial capitalism also occurred in the 19th century: Major business, generally managed by English-Canadian investors, centralized their capital and competed against small entrepreneurs. Another sign of the transition to industrialization was the phenomenon of urbanization. The cities of Trois-Rivières, Montréal, and Québec were developing. Montréal grew in importance with capital and industries tending to be concentrated in this region. Montréal’s population grew rapidly.
  • The Phases of Industrial Development

    The Phases of Industrial Development
    Phase 1: From 1867-1990. The principal products were finished products.
    Phase 2: From 1900-1930. The principal products were raw materials. The extraction of natural resources was popular.
    War period: From 1939-1945. Females began working, as more supplies was needed for war. The Great Depression ended.
    Post-war period: From 1945-1970. Large amounts of immigrants came to Canada, boosting its economy.
    Since 1970: Hydroelectricity was developed. The source of capital is now from the USA.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    There was a stock market crash in 1929. People were buying shares in companies on borrowed money. When debts were called in, the stocks plummeted. One day, the stocks dropped below zero, and people were ruined. Many committed suicide. The boom that had occurred as a result of the first world war came to an abrupt end. Most sectors of the economy were hit hard, and there were massive layoffs. Families bought as little as possible, so companies made less money, and so on.
  • Government Solutions to the Great Depression

    Government Solutions to the Great Depression
    To help improve the situation, the government came up with solutions to increase the economy. Some of these solutions were: Public works projects to boost economy; Work Camps, which were camps during the summer where adults were paid by the government to work and make money; Direct aid such as food stamps; The encouragement of Farming. The start of WWII in 1939 led to a huge economic boost and the Great Depression ended.
  • Exploitation of Resources (Primary Sector)

    Exploitation of Resources (Primary Sector)
    With the mechanization of farming in the 1930’s, agriculture met a family’s food needs more often than not. After World War II, the countryside was electrified and got electric power and electric appliances. Mechanical milk extraction devices appeared. Agriculture became more diversified. The number of farms decreased while their size and productivity increased. At the end of the 19th century, many mines were opened, and a variety of ores were extracted: Iron, copper, silver, gold and more.
  • Exploitation of Resources (Secondary Sector)

    Exploitation of Resources (Secondary Sector)
    In the 1800’s, industrialization first affected light industries producing everyday necessities. In the 1900’s, industries more export-oriented joined these light industries. There other industries were: Pulp and paper and other wood-processed products, ore processing, chemical product manufacturing, and transportation material (particularly for railroads). Since the 1970’s, a proportion of the secondary sector industries has decreased.
  • The Tertiary Sector

    The Tertiary Sector
    Throughout the 20th century, the tertiary sector grew. Jobs in the fields of administration and finance were more numerous. This led to the new class of worker: office worker. Consumption increased, retail activities multiplied and larger retail chain stores opened. Some sectors such as tourism and leisure developed. Many jobs in the tertiary sector required fewer qualifications and were not well-paid. Many women worked in the tertiary sector, particularly as salespeople or cashiers in stores.
  • Workers' Demands

    Workers' Demands
    Workers are unhappy with working conditions. Unions of workers are created, such as CTCC and CSN. The demands usually had to do with working and living conditions that they wanted to improve. Strikes and lockouts occurred to prove the points of the workers.
  • The Quiet Revolution

    The Quiet Revolution
    The Quiet Revolution, or Révolution Tranquille, began in Quebec in 1960 with the electoral defeat of the Union Nationale by Jean Lesage and his Liberal Party. It was a rapid and far-reaching process of social, economic, and political reform in Quebec. It can be called the beginning of the welfare state, where there is a massive increase in government intervention.
  • The Economic Cycle

    The Economic Cycle
    Industrialized societies have periods of economic growth and periods of recession. Altogether, those events make economic cycles. The economy is great, and people invest in business. The bank gives out loans to people, but some loans are not paid back. So, the bank loses money. There is eventually no money left to loan. People that go to the bank see that the bank is running out of money. Some close their accounts. The bank goes bankrupt. The people who had savings there lost their savings.

    Canada entered a free trade agreement with the USA and Mexico. This is good for Canada and Mexico as they can now send things to America without paying taxes. This also means that the Canadian and Mexican companies have a bigger population (America) to sell to.