Grade 7 History Timeline - 1534 to 1855

  • Period: Apr 20, 1534 to

    Grade 7 History Timeline

  • Jul 24, 1534

    Jacques Cartier

    Jacques Cartier
    Cartier, on the Gaspe Peninsula, claims the area for France. He made three voyages in total from France to North America. King Francois I ordered him to find two things: a shipping route from the Orient to allow French traders to import silk and other fine products to Europe, as well as precious gems and metals such as gold to make France rich. He did not find either in his voyages.
  • Oct 2, 1535

    Cartier arrives at Hochelaga

    Cartier arrives at Hochelaga
    On his voyage to Hochelaga (Montreal), Cartier passed Stadacona (Quebec City). At Hochelaga, Cartier was stopped by rapids in the river, which he named Lachine ("China") Rapids. He believed that China was not far away. He went back to Stadacona and had a difficult winter as many of his men became sick with scurvy. The Iroquois helped by telling him of a tea made from the leaves of the northern white cedar tree. As a result, all but 25 of his men survived the long winter.
  • Samuel de Champlain founds settlement at Quebec City ("Habitation")

    Samuel de Champlain founds settlement at Quebec City ("Habitation")
    This was the first permanent European settlement in North America.
  • Henry Hudson's 4th Voyage

    Henry Hudson's 4th Voyage
    Henry Hudson leaves from England on this date on his 4th voyage to find the Northwest Passage. He ends up spending a difficult winter on the shore of Hudson Bay, only to be cast off in a small boat the following spring by mutineers. He is never heard from again.
  • Seigneurial System Introduced to New France

    Seigneurial System Introduced to New France
    This system was formally introduced to New France in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu. Under this system, the lands were arranged in long, narrow strips, called "seigneuries", along the St. Lawrence River. It was introduced in New France because the St. Lawrence River was like a highway. It provided water and a means of transportation which allowed settlements along the river to flourish.
  • Marie de l'Incarnation leaves France for Quebec

    Marie de l'Incarnation leaves France for Quebec
    On this date, Marie de l"Incarnation leaves France to go to Quebec as a member of the Ursuline Nuns, in order to convert the First Nations peoples to Christianity. She built the Ursuline mission, making it one of the strongest arms of the Catholic church in Quebec. She died in 1672.
  • Sainte-Marie-Among-the-Hurons established

    Sainte-Marie-Among-the-Hurons established
    Fathers Jerome Lalemant and Jean de Brebeuf established the mission at Sainte-Marie in November 1639. The settlement was expanded to include a chapel, a smithy, a cookhouse, a residence for the Jesuits, as well as other buildings. The purpose of this settlement was to be a centre for the Jesuit operations in the land of the Wendat.
  • Louis XIV becomes King of France

    Louis XIV becomes King of France
    Louis XIV becomes King of France at the age of 4 years, 8 months.
  • Fathers Jean de Brebeuf and Gabriel Lalemant martyred at Sainte-Marie

    Fathers Jean de Brebeuf and Gabriel Lalemant martyred at Sainte-Marie
    The Iroquois killed Fathers Jean de Brebeuf and Gabriel Lalemant on this date, having been at war with the Huron for quite some time. The settlement at Sainte-Marie was later abandoned and a new centre was built on Christian Island, just off the coast of Lake Huron. However, in the winter of 1649, the Iroquois walked across the ice to Christian Island and destroyed the centre.
  • New France becomes a royal province

    New France becomes a royal province
    Louis XIV wanted to make New France more secure by making it a royal province. The Sovereign Council is to control New France under the authority of the King.
  • Carignan-Salieres Regiment arrives in New France

    Carignan-Salieres Regiment arrives in New France
    The Carignan-Salieres Regiment was sent from Paris to New France to reinforce the 100 soldiers who were defending New France at the time. They were regarded at the time as being the "saviours of New France" by many, including Marie de l'Incarnation.
  • Jean Talon becomes the Intendant of New France

    Jean Talon becomes the Intendant of New France
    Jean Talon is named the Intendant of New France, as the government structure is changed to reflect the structure of government in France.
  • Jean Talon's decree to increase the population of New France

    Jean Talon's decree to increase the population of New France
    On this date, Jean Talon issued this decree to help increase the population of New France. Louis XIV had already started his "filles du roi" program in New France which spanned from 1663 to 1673. "...all inhabitants having 10 living children, born of a lawful marriage, will be paid a pension of 300 livres a year; ... for those having 12 (children), 400 livres...; furthermore, all boys who marry at the age of 20 years or less and to girls of 16 years or less, will be paid 20 pounds each..."
  • Hudson's Bay Company Founded

    Hudson's Bay Company Founded
    The Hudson's Bay Company was formed on this date. It started as a fur trading company, but with the decline of the fur trading industry, the company began to sell other important goods. It originally owned much of Canada (Rupert's Land), but the land later became part of the new Dominion of Canada in 1870 as part of the Northwest Territories.
  • Count Frontenac arrives in Quebec as Governor of New France

    Count Frontenac arrives in Quebec as Governor of New France
    Frontenac was the most well known governor of New France. His job was to ensure that the king's orders were carried out. He appointed members to the sovereign council and also was responsible for relationships between New France and other European groups in North America.
  • Coureurs des bois - Voyageurs at peak of fur trade

    Coureurs des bois - Voyageurs at peak of fur trade
    The voyageurs were people who engaged in the transporting of furs by canoe during the fur trade era. Voyageur is a French word, which literally means "traveler"
  • Acadian Expulsion

    Acadian Expulsion
    The Acadians react as Winslow reads the order of expulsion to the them in the Parish Church at Grand-Pre.
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    This painting is a depiction of General Wolfe dying in the battle. The French and British fought this battle on the Plains of Abraham just outside of Quebec. The British used a strategy of the "Thin Red Line" and defeated a disorganied French force in a very quick battle. Both the British commander (Wolfe) and the French commander (Montcalm) died as a result of the battle. With the victory, the British now controlled New France.
  • Royal Proclamation of 1763

    Royal Proclamation of 1763
    The Royal Proclamation was issued by King George III on this date. It had a big effect on Quebec at the time.
  • The Quebec Act, 1774

    The Quebec Act, 1774
    The Quebec Act of 1774 replaced the Royal Proclamation of 1763. It established French rights, many of which had been lost by the Royal Proclamation.
  • American Declaration of Independence

    American Declaration of Independence
    The American Revolution, also known as the War of Independence, broke out in 1775 as a result of the anger of the British North Americans to the Quebec Act and the new taxes imposed by the British. Representatives from the Thirteen Colonies met in Philadelphia on this date and declared the United States of America to be an independent nation.
  • Birchtown established by Black Loyalists

    Birchtown established by Black Loyalists
    On this date, Black Loyalists founded the community of Birchtown, near present-day Shelburne, Nova Scotia. Unfortunately, many Blacks were not treated well by the white Loyalists, and over time became disheartened and eventually went to Africa in hope of a better life.
  • North West Company established

    North West Company established
    The North West Company was a fur trading company established as a competitor to the Hudson's Bay Company which had a monopoly on fur trading at the time. The two companies competed with each other for a number of years, even having wars with each other, before merging in 1821.
  • Joseph Brant is granted land in Upper Canada by Sir Frederick Halidmand (British commander in Quebec)

    Joseph Brant is granted land in Upper Canada by Sir Frederick Halidmand (British commander in Quebec)
    Sir Frederick Haldimand, the British commander in Quebec, felt that the loyal service Joseph Brant and his followers had given to the British during the American Revolution deserved recognition. Brant and the Six Nations were granted a long tract of land along the banks of the Grand River near present day Brantford, Ontario.
  • Constitutional Act, 1791

    Constitutional Act, 1791
    Due to the influx of the Loyalists, the British government passed the Constitutional Act. The Act made some changes to the Quebec Act of 1774, but the British didn't want to give the Loyalists too much power. It divided Quebec into two parts (Upper and Lower Canada), each Canada would have a lieutenant-governor, legislative council, and legislative assembly. Landowners in Lower Canada could land under the seigneurial or freehold system, but only under the freehold system in Upper Canada.
  • Tecumseh helps Brock in winning Battle of Detroit in War of 1812

    Tecumseh helps Brock in winning Battle of Detroit in War of 1812
    Tecumseh uses bluff and deception techniques to cause American General Hull to surrender at the Battle of Detroit, even though the American forces substantially outnumbered the British forces.
  • Battle of Queenston Heights - War of 1812

    Battle of Queenston Heights - War of 1812
    The Battle of Queenston Heights was the first major battle of the War of 1812. Although the British won the battle, the victory was costly as General Isaac Brock was killed in action.
  • Laura Secord talking to James FitzGibbon about American plans to invade

    Laura Secord talking to James FitzGibbon about American plans to invade
    On this date, Laura Secord travelled approximately 32 km on foot to warn British commander James FitzGibbon of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams.
  • Treaty of Ghent signed

    Treaty of Ghent signed
    The Treaty of Ghent was signed on this date, signifying the end of the War of 1812 between the British and Americans.
  • Colonel John By comes to Canada

    Colonel John By comes to Canada
    Lieutenant-Colonel John By was born in Britain, but spent several years in Lower and Upper Canada building canals and improving shipping routes on the St. Lawrence River. He also designed new fortifications in Quebec City. In 1826, By was sent to Upper Canada to build a canal connecting the Ottawa River and Lake Ontario. This canal, called the Rideau Canal, is 202 km long and was a direct response to the War of 1812.
  • Joseph Howe starts writing articles articles in Novascotian (newspaper) demanding reform

    Joseph Howe starts writing articles articles in Novascotian (newspaper) demanding reform
    After writing his articles in his newspaper and bringing the issue of responsible government out in the open, Joseph Howe was elected to the Nova Scotia legislature in 1836. He worked with the Reformers to press for responsible government and eventually succeeded in February 1848. Nova Scotia was granted responsible government and was the first British colony in the world to achieve this.
  • Louis-Joseph Papineau publishes Ninety-Two Resolutions to demand reform

    Louis-Joseph Papineau publishes Ninety-Two Resolutions to demand reform
    Papineau's Ninety-Two Resolutions document contained grievances (complaints) that the Lower Canadian legislative assembly had with the British government. He wanted to make the legislative council into a body elected by the people. He also wanted the executive council to "be responsible to" the legislative assembly. Also, he wanted to abolish the seigneuries and turn them into freehold (privately owned) farms. The British did not want to grant major reform and a rebellion occurred in 1837.
  • William Lyon Mackenzie expresses his anger towards the government

    William Lyon Mackenzie expresses his anger towards the government
    Mackenzie was angry with the government system and claimed that the officials at the top had all of the power. He used his newspaper, the "Colonial Advocate" to publish articles that insulted his political enemies. His anger eventually led a rebellion in Upper Canada just north of Toronto in December, 1837.
  • Lord Durham arrives in Quebec City

    Lord Durham arrives in Quebec City
    Lord Durham was sent from Britain to Canada on this date for two main reasons. First of all, he was to determine why the recent rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada had occurred. Also, he was to prepare and present a report including recommendations on how to prevent future violence. His report was presented to the Colonial Office on February 4, 1839. Lord Durham's work eventually led the way to responsible government in the Canadas.
  • Lord Durham's Report presented to the Colonial Office

    Lord Durham's Report presented to the Colonial Office
    Lord Durham was sent to Quebec City to carry out two important tasks for the British government. Firstly, he was to find out why there had been rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. Secondly, he was to prepare and present a report making recommendations for avoiding further violence. Key highlights of his report included him wanting to assimilate the French in Lower Canada (i.e. change them into English people over time). He also wanted responsible government in the Canadas.
  • Joseph Howe and James Boyle Uniacke form the first responsible government in BNA

    Joseph Howe and James Boyle Uniacke form the first responsible government in BNA
    The Reform Party, led by Joseph Howe and James Boyle Uniacke, a former conservative, win a majority of seats in the Assembly of Nova Scotia. Howe boasts that they did it without "a blow struck or a pane of glass broken." Uniacke becomes the first premier and Howe the provincial secretary.
  • Bytown renamed Ottawa

    Bytown renamed Ottawa