-annual deficit & debt contined to grow
-increasing gap between rich and poor
-high # of Canadians living below poverty line
New leader -> Brain Mulroney
-became leader of the soviet union in 1985.
-intentions for reform communism
-to get rid of system corruption, focus of human value's
-incouraged open debate, but only allowed one political party
Meech Lake Accord
1) reconigze Quebec as a distint society
2) Give more power to provinces (veto power) known as quebec round
-supported by Quebec bc it protects french language & culture
-Tradeau is critical bc this world isolate Quebec rather than making them a part of confederations
-Elijah Harper opposed of ML bc it didnt recognize abporiginals distinct society
Free Trade Agreement 1989
-first free trade agreement between the US & Canada (signed in 1989
-System of trading between countres without barriers such as tarrifs (taxes) & quotas (limits)
Dissolve of Soviet Union
Soviet Union desolves into 15 smaller states
New proposal, similar to meech lake
1) reforming senate, making it an elected body wth equal representation from all parts of the country
2) aboriginal self government
3) universal health care
4) workers rights
5) enviroment protection
North American Free Trade Agreement
Mexico joined Canada & the united states to create free trade between all three countries.
-helped improve canada's economy by increasing trade with the united states and by leading to an increase in American Investment.
-unsuccessful, a number of Canadian jobs were lost due to reloction, and some compaines moved to United States and Mexico
-Unseccessful, a number of canadian jobs were lost due to relocation, and some compaines moved to the US & Mexico
Bloc Quebecois 1994
Federal party in canada deoted to the protection of quebecs interests in the house of commons & promotion of quebecs sovereignty & supeme power/authority
Calgary Declaration 1997
canadian gov declared quebec a "unique society"
The Iraq War 2003
-united states invade iraq to disarm them of weapons of mass distruction -joined by countries: Britain, australia & poland -no weapons of mass distruction were found.
Refers to recognition of the unique nature, quebec should have special powers and priviledges to protect its language and culture.
-Puts Soviet Union into massive debt, because of expanding federal allowance
New Leader -> Boris Yeltsin
Leader of Russian Republic
-emeraged as the new leader of the soviet union
-tok futher steps such as outlawing the communist party in the russian republic
-This allowed independance movements in all republic
New federal approach -
Neo-conservatism: a reduction of government interfernce in the econmy, and increased relianceon market forces Supply & Demand.
financially secure baby boomers "Youth Urban Proffesionals"
20-40 in the 80's
Canadian Multiculturism Act (Bill C-93)
aimed to reinforce racial and culural equalirt with legal authority
Gre out of Western discontent, Western provinces felt thier concerns were being ignored by federal government in Ottawa.
They intended to reform the Constiution so that it would fairly repredtn the Western Provinces. They also opped Bilingualism, and opposed any special status for Quebec.
Additionally sough to cut social spending and immigration in half.
Amending Formula & "notwithstandingclause"
Amending formula: Proccess of changing Consitiution legally.
Not With Standing Clause: If you dont like a law, you can opt out for 5 years, than reapply in another 10 years
ex. "kitchen compromising"
-premiers excepted clause, french opted out of english laws, Canada offically independant fom Britian
Parti Quebecois cals referndum on full soverignty Act, 49.4% vote yes.
-no perma settlement was clear
-court rules Quebec does not have the right to sperate, would have to negitate seperation with gov't & provinces before doing so
Carity Act: ask once and once only
to promote cooperation, freer trade, & economic growth
-these were a part of globilization
Globilization: a process by which the regions and countried of the world are becoming economically & culturally interconnected
- aise living standards for everyone rich and ppor. Economic opptertunities created work enviroment issues.
-Oppose: believe it lowers cost of workers everywhere, lower labour costs, fewer enviroment regulations.
SDi Standard defence system
US wants a sheild to cover the pan of the Us to protect from Nucleur Armement
-Canada denies joining
END OF COLD WAR
-soviets could no longer afford arms race
-propsed massive cuts in arsenal of both superpowers
-Than bgan helping communist countres run more efficently & create greater freedom of speech
Persain Golf War 1990-1991
-The iraq army invades kuwait, its oil rich neighbor, making claimsit historically belonged to them. -led by george bush, united nations condemned economic boycott on Iraq, cutting off its oil trade. Boycott unsuccesful. -UN passed resolution which authorized the use of force o expel Iraq Army out of Kuwait. -Canda participated in Op Desert Storm. -successfully drove iraq army out of kuwait.
-was split into 6 small republics. -made of a number of ethnic groups that were hostile towards each other. The Serbs, The Croats, and the Kosovars
Slovia and Croatia 1992
-declared independance in 1991 -serb minority unprotected -saperation occured smoothly for slovenia not for croatia. Serb communitie began to be expelled from croatia. Croats did in fact ethnically cleanse Croatia of Serbs
-Civil war breaks out between croatians, bosnians and serbs. -UNPRFOR was set up, for peacekeeping, UN sent troops to ceasefire line. -While in unmilerterized zine to bring supplies to convoy, coratian forces attack canadians in a blood bath -canadians struggle to reoccupy ceasefire zone. Croats eventually retreat
-900 canadian soldiers sent to somolia on difficult peacekeeping mission called UNISOM. -distrubing events took place, bc of cnd army (shooting omolia intruders, beating to death of a teenager, and withholding & altering of information. -disbanded canadian airborm regiment & called a commision inquirary.
Afghanistam War 2001
A month after 9/11 US with support of UK went to afgan to take down Al Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden & Taliban. Many tablian were killed or fled, but the struggle was just begining. US helped to: build secrity for elections, help local police and military forces, many soldiers died in afghan.
peacekeeping is similar to policing in many ways. It rarely involves fierce fightin, since its purpose is to prevent conflict.
Two groups, Hutus & Tutsis. Tutsis put in position of dominince. Large amount of hutus were killed, they try to overthrow tutsi gov't. Begin murdering Tutsis & supporters. The genocide: hutus believed they could retain control if they killed off al tutsi, killing approx 1 million tutsis. france & belguim sent in troops UN mission (UNAMIR) -small detachment, did nothing