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Canadian History

  • The Seven Years War

    The Seven Years War
    A 7 year war began in 1756 mainly between Britain and France, in which many battles took place in North America. Both sides wanting to claim land along the Atlantic coast. (In the end, led to the treaty of Paris)
  • The Defeat of France

    The Defeat of France
    In 1759, the Battle on the Plains of Abraham determined the decisive victory of Britain over France. (All part of the Seven Years War) James Wolfe was the leader for Britain's side during the war, and Montclam for the French.
  • Hudson Bay Company Monopoly

    Hudson Bay Company Monopoly
    During this year, King Charles the second of England granted the Hudson Bay Company a monopoly on all trading that was around Hudson Bay. A monopoly was an exculsive control or service of a certain part of a market or business. The territory around Hudson Bay was called Rupert's Land, and colonization was forbidden in the area. In fact, forts were constructed for trading. <<<<< Map indicating Rupert's Land
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The treaty of Paris was a treaty in which an agreement was made that Frence was able to keep two small isands off of Newfoundland. France agreed and signed the treaty in the year of 1763.
  • British Colonial Rule

    Due to their victory in the Seven Years War over France, Britian owned most of the land, and ruled over. (See Treaty of Paris)
  • The Royal Proclamation

    A proclamation was a public announcement made by the ruling government. Since the defeat of France, many french speakers resided in Quebec so they were to follow British culture. The ruling British government enforced their laws, customs, religions, and English language onto the French people in Quebec. For they believed that the British culture would be adapted by the French overtime. However, this assumption was later on proved wrong by the French.
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    Occupation of the Great Lakes

    Since their victory of the Seven Years War, they took over the area around the great lakes for various purposes and advantages. (eg. transportation for goods)
  • The Quebec Act

    The Quebec Act was signed in 1774, which allowed the Canadiens (French speakers of Quebec) to maintain their French customs and habits. The reason the British did such, was because they were later on hoping for loyalty, to strengthen the British empire and gain rich-fur producing areas around Quebec. In addition, Quebec also had the advantage of the St. Lawrence river. (transportation, fishing, direct connection to Atlantic ocean, England, big fur trade business)
  • The American Revolution

    In 1783, the Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the American Revoloution (War of Independence) by Britain surrendering the lands south of the Great Lakes, formerly known as the Thirteen Colonies. The Loyalist Migration was based on the British loyalists in this area ended up migrating north along the coast. In addition, the Native americans who were loyalists settled in the northern area known as the 6 Nation Reserve. (Was led by Joseph Brant)
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    Fur Trade Companies

    During this time span, the fur trade was a massive part of the economy. In fact, the Hudson Bay Company was the largest. Later on, people who did not work for the Hudson Bay compnay fornmed the North West company in Montreal. This led to rivalry and further exploration of the west because of how much the Fur Trade business was booming. In result there were several conflicts between the Metis and settlers in the Red River settlement at Seven Oaks.
  • The Thirteen Colonies

    The Thirteen Colonies
    Due to Britain surrendering the lands south of the Great Lakes (The Thirteen Colonies), (See the American Revolution) the Thirteen colonies were eliminated and were replaced with two other colonies known as the colonies of New Brusnwick and Cape Breton Island.
  • The Constitutional Act

    Conflict arose between the English speakers who moved in Quebec and the French who were there. This led to the Constitutional act of 1791. In result, both sides had representative votes. In the end, Upper Canada was known as Canada West (English speaking, Ontario) and Lower Canada was known as Canada East. ( French Speaking, Quebec)
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    The War of 1812

    A war between the United States of America and Great Britain. Major battles were fought in Upper and Lower Canada. However, most battles were fought in Upper Canada. In the end, there was no clear winner. Sir Isaac Brock was the British Army Officer who led his army in defending Upper Canada against the United States.
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    The Great Migration

    The Great Migration was a significant event when a massive amount of people (mostly from Ireland) immigrated to North America. One main reason was because of the Irish famine, in which their main crop had failed because of a disease that strongly affected the growth of the potato crop. In result, many of the Irish had decided to migrate to the Atlantic provinces.
  • The Hudson Bay Company

    The Hudson Bay Company
    In 1821, due to several conflicts between the Metis and settlers in the Red River settlement at Seven Oaks, the North West Company and the Hudson Bay Company came to the agreement to merge together to become one company. (The Hudson Bay Company)
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    Political Rebellions of the British Government

    The British government was still in control at the time, and wanted all the power over Canada because they feared a revolution if too much freedom was given. Therefore, citizens started to rebel against the government because of their greed for power, the taxes, etc. Several significant figures in the rebellions included William Lyon Mackenzie King, Joseph Howe, and Louis Joseph Papineau. A list of demands were sent to the British government which was known as the 92 resolutions. (rejected)
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    Responsible Government In the Atlantic Colonies

    From around the 1840's and 1850's, the four atlantic colonies achieved their responsible governments.
  • The Act of Union

    The Act of Union was the act that united the two Canadas, and granting both of them responsible government to the British North America Colonies. Eventually, they both formed the country of Canada. They both started working together to build railways, expand industry, and increase growth in farming and forestry.
  • The Repeal of the Corn Laws

    The repeal of the corn laws guranteed that no cheap wheat (or corn as called in Britain) would be imported. The colonies of BNA were affected the BNA colonies because their farmers lost the guarantee that Great Britian would purchase only their wheat. At this time, Great britian now favoured globalization and bought the cheapest wheat they could find. Because of this new choice, farmers in British North America had to abandon their farms and sawmills and moved to South of the
  • Responsible Government in Canada

    Due to continued conflict and discussion, Responsible Government was finally achieved. Responsible government is when members of the Executive Council were chosen from the group with the most elected members in the Lergislative Assemble. (rather than the governor)
  • Rebellion Losses Bill

    During the rebellions, the people of Canada East wanted repayment for losses during rebellion, while Canada West had already been granted their repayment. This bill ended up enabling Canada East and West to develop their railways, expand their industries etc.
  • The Reciprocity Treaty

    Due to the Repeal of the Corn Laws, The BNA colonies could no longer maintain their economic stablity. Therefore, the current Governor General, Lord Elgin used his skilled persusion skills to persuade the US to join with the BNA Colonies. This treaty led to greater trade between the countries and increase in BNA stability.
  • The Grand Trunk Railway

    The Grand Trunk Railway
    The Grand Trunk Railway was an example of the quick-paced development in the country of Canada ever since it has experienced an Industrial Revolution. The Grand Trunk Railway stretched from Toronto to Montreal, This railway was the first of its kind, and was very beneficial to many people. It allowed much more convenient transport for people and goods.
  • Gold Found in Fraser River (British Columbia)

    Gold Found in Fraser River (British Columbia)
    In the year of 1858, gold was first found in the Fraser River lovated in British Columbia. This had a huge impact, not only on British Columbia, but also Canada and the United States. Many settlers were more attracted once news spread about the gold, which led to an increase of settlement in B.C. The settlers started developping the land there, as they built farms, ranches, etc. Although this major event created a beneficial effect towards Mcdonald's vision, Aboriginal Rights were ignored.
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    American Civil War

    During this time, the southern and northern regions of the United States were in conflict due to the various beliefs of Slavery. This had a big impact on Canada, because many people in Canada supported the northern region of America (against slavery). If the north side won, there is a chance that the south may partially take blame on Canada for supporting the North, and may attack Canada. On the contrary, if the northern side won, BNA could be invaded by the north, because of their newly
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    American Civil War (#2, Continued)

    developped dependence on Canada. This contradicts the country's prevention of American expansion. Therefore, if the colonies decided to join together, confederation would become a more powerful defense against manifest destiny from the Americans.
  • Political Deadlock in the Province of Canada

    Due to the significant differences in culture, beliefs, religion, language, etc. the government system became abrupt, resulting in many different strategies for Canada West and East to attempt to overcome the other. This aggressive competition led to political deadlock, and Canada was not becoming very self-sufficient at all. In fact, its development was somewhat slowing down due to the common diasgreements between parties. However, in 1863, political deadlock was broken by George Brown, due to
  • Political Deadlock in the Province of Canada (#2, Continued)

    his putting aside of his personal feelings and his independence, to work with other parties simply for the benefit of his country, Canada.
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    The Charlottetown Conference

    The Charlottetown Conference was a meeting held in the capital of Prince Edward Island: Charlottetown. It was hosted by John Hamilton Gray, the premier of P.E.I at the time. The purpose of this particular conference was to discuss the option of Martime union and confederation. In addition, concerns regarding the distance between Canada and the Maritime Colonies were also considered. Concepts and ideas were brought up and considered, such as how Canada West promoted free trade, and how Canada was
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    The Charlottetown Conference Continued (#1)...

    an advocate of the transcolonial railway, and often used the railway as a promotion for as many colonies possible to join them. Overall, the politicians and delegates that were invited (15 Maritime delegates, and members of the Great Coalition) discussed their views, opinions, and ideas. The final decision was that ideas would be further discussed into deeper deatil later in Quebec City the following month. This conference however, was still very significant, for everyone had more open relations
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    The Charlottetown Conference Continued (again, #3)

    with each other. And the idea of union had gained merit, for all coloineis had agreed upon the principle of federal union.
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    The Quebec Conference

    The Quebec Conference was mroe of a deeper discussion and coninuation of the matters that were brought up during the Charlottetown Conference in the previous month. The main purpose of this conference was to enforce the deatils abotu the already agreed on union of the Martime colonies and Canada. In result, delegates and politicians who attended (members who attended Charlottetown conference plus Newfoundland) came up with 72 Resolutions. The 72 resolutions was a list of concepts in which the
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    The Quebec Conference (#2, Continued)

    future country would be derived by. In the very end, the Maritime and Canadian Delegates agreed that confederation was beneficial, and that the delegates were to return home to convince their legislative assemblies to approve of the 72 resolutions. This conference was definitely very important because it was basically a pre-confirmation that led to final decision of confederation in the country of Canada.
  • Fenian Annexation Bill First Introduced

    Fenians were defined as a group of people who lived in Ireland, who followed Catholic religion and tradition. They were advocating the concept of Ireland being seperate from Britain, and wanted to become their own independent colony. In result, they attacked and rebelled against British North America (under British rule). The Fenians annexation bill was a bill that was brought up the American government asking for assistance at the American house of representatives. They wished to team up with
  • Fenians Annexation Bill Cont'd

    with the United States and take over the areas from British Columbia to Canada West. This posed a huge threat to Canada, for American Expansion was very unwanted at the time. In the end however, the bill was not passed by the American government and the Fenians did not get the support they wished for from the U.S.
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    The London Conference

    Finalization and confirmation fo the constitution and confederation of the New Dominion of Canada. During the process of the conference, minor changes to the 72 Revoluions and previously made BNA Act (Canada's first constitution) were made. The final result was the Queen Victoria signed the BNA Act, uniting Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia into the New Dominion of Canada. (final name)
  • The Purchase of Alaska

    The Purchase of Alaska
    Alaska was purchased from Russia by America during this year. THis automatically triggered worry and fear in Canadians for the threat of American Expansion into Canadian Territory was rising. In result, Canada quickly took over the territories in defense of America buying any more land in the north.
  • Confederation of Canada

    Confederation of Canada
    New nation of Canada officially declared as the Dominion of Canada. The four first colonies to join the newly formed Dominion of Canada are Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The 72 Resolutions and constitutions were already signed and approved by Queen Victoria. (See description for London Conference)
  • Confederation of Canada (Continued)

    Main Reasons for Confederation:
    -Political deadlock occurred too often, slowed down the development of Canada
    -American expansion was a threat, especially after the American Civil War
    -Britain wanted their colonies to be more self-sufficient
    -A transcolonial railway was needed for communication and transport
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    Red River Resistance

  • NWT and Rupert's Land

    NorthWest Territories and Rupert's land become a part of Canada, brought by Hudson Bay Company. This was benificial to key leader, John A. Macdonald and his vision of developping a country that stretched from "sea to sea".
  • Marking Land for Settlers (Continued)

    triggered the making of the National Committee. The purpose of the National Committee was to defend the land of the Red River for the Metis People, and also the fend for the Metis and to protect their future.
  • Marking off Land for Settlers

    During the summer of 1869, surveyors were sent to divide land for roads and boundaries and lots in the Red River Settlement areas.The surveyors used chains to divide the grid-like system to divide the land. However, the Metis and Settlers were consulted and not aware of this matter, and as a result of protest, they took down these chains. The surveyors/government made no big concern, and surveyors simply left. This event partially
  • Second Contact with Metis

    McDonald had hired a man known by the name of William McDougall to go and confront the settlers and possibly divide the land in the Red River. However, he was shunned by 14 armed Metis men, and was not allowed past. Eventually (during the same year) the Metis National committee seized Fort Garry. This was very useful for it provided a natural barrier (again weather), shelter, amo, and food. The Metis had settled in this fort . The next day, Louis Riel (leader of the Metis) surround John Schultz,
  • Second Contact with Metis (COntinued)

    , an antagonist of the Metis people. In addition, they imprisoned 50 guards and stored them in the cells of Fort Garry.
  • Metis Bill of Rights

    The Metis Bill of Rights was a list of demands and concepts that the Metis wanted the Canadian government to imply into their system in order to make life more fair for particulary the Metis group. This bill was brought by 2 representatives to Ottawa. The bill consisted of:
    -to own a legislative assembly to pass local aws
    -seperate schools for religions (money shared between them)
    -Both French and Enlighs to be recognized
    - Amnesty (Excusation) for those involved in the red river resistance
  • Provisional Government for Metis

    On this day, Metis National Committee sets up a provisional governemtn. which was basically a short term government. the government claimed that they wanted to maintain order, and they wanted the Metis' voices to be heard in Canada. This led to the Metis Bill of Rights.
  • Thomas Scott is Dead

    Thomas Scott is Dead
    Scott was an Irish protestant who was against teh Metis people. He was one of the prisoners during the attack of Fort Garry. He escaped the prison, but was recaptured, and charged for disobeying the law. He was also convictwed for treason, and was executed by a firing squadron on this day. The impact it had on the Metis people (particularly Metis) was that the Ontario Angophones were upset with Scott's death, as they believed Riel was to blame. Riel was then forced to flee to the U.S to escape
  • Thomas Scott is Dead

    the troops that McDonald sent in to capture Riel. Although Riel was safe in the U.S, they beat up Riel's uncle badly, and since many of the Metis supporters were afraid of McDonald's troops, many fled to Saskatchewan.
  • Manitoba Joins Confederation

    Manitoba joins the Dominion of Canada in 1870. They mainly joined confederation because the Metis wanted to be part of a province, for provinces had more control over affairs and land. In addition, they wanted shares of crown lands, whcih were lands owned by the government. Although they did obtain land, and both languages (English and French) were acknowledged, Manitoba was much smaller than expected.
  • Northwest Territories Join Confederation

  • British Columbia Unites with Canada

    British Columbia was at first very skeptical about joining Canada, for they were very far west, and it would be difficult for them to benefit from any actions that Canada took due to the far distance. However, they did end up joining in 1871, they joined because McDonald had promised them a transcolonial railway that was to built within a certain time period. In addition, he also promised that the colony's debt of over one million dollars would be paid. In addition, the Canadian governemnt promo
  • British Columbia Joins Canada ( COntinued)

    promoted that the people of B.C woud gain control of the crown lands. (lands owned by the government)
  • The Pacific Scandal

    The Pacific Scandal
    During the campaign of 1872, Macdonald required money for his campaign. He had a prommotion of land bidding, and borrowed 360 000 dollars from Hugh Allan. Many suspected that Hugh Allan wanted to win the bid, and as a result bribed McDonald, and gave him a lot of funds for his campaign just so he could win the land bid. This lowered McDonald's reputation which led to the lost of the Conservatives in 1874.
  • Dominions Land Act

    The Dominions Land Act was an act with the purpose of attractin settlers to settle in certain areas of Canada. This involved a ten dolar registration fee, but overall, many applied for htis act. Sttlements in prairies would make the construction of the CPR easier, and therefore stopping American Expansion. This general idea was very clever, especially CLifford Sifton's use of falkse advertising. His idea was to hire beautiful men and women to advertise immigration to Canada on the streets of
  • Dominions Land Act (Continued)

    Europe using brochures and posters. Many europeans fell for this false message. In reality, Canada was not as beautiful as it seemed when the men and women were advertising in Europe. The Dominion land act consisted of many different conditions, and living conditions were often poor and harsh.
  • The North West Mounted Police

    The North West Mounted Police were police who patrolled the prairies on horse foot, or sometimes by foot. They were created by Mcdonald's government, and were needed for various reasons. For example, there was no authority present in the west, and Americans often stole gold from British Columbia. In addition, many settlers often stole from each other due to the very poor living conditions at the time. They were established mainly to maintain peace and order, to look over construction of the CPR
  • The North West Mounted Police (Continued)

    (speciafically in the prairies), and also to prevent any Americans from invading Canadian territory.
  • Prince Edward Island Joins Confederation

    P.E.I was very reluctant on joining Canada because there were really no benefits for their colony if they joined. They could have been even several disadvantages. However, in 1873, they finally joined confederation, for 800 000 dollars in loans from the ogvernments were to be given in compensation of the absentee landlords. In addition, the governmetn promised to pay all the CPR railway debts, for the railway did not affect them anyways. In addition, the economy was failing in P.E.I at the time.
  • Conservatives Have Lost Power

    Paritally due to the Pacific Scandal, and McDonald's lowered reputation, the Conservative Party lose to the Liberal party in the election. King takes over as Primie Minister. King was not that much of a believer of the railway, and the development and process slowed down when he was in power. However, he did create the secret ballot, which is used today in elections, while he was in office. However, he was soon taken down again by the Conservative Party.
  • The Indian Act

    The Indian Act was an act which only applied to full First Nation peoples. (not Metis) The concept was that people who lived on the reserves were now identified as wards of state, which meant they were supported by the government, but had no right to vote or drink alcohol. Many of their rights were taken away, such as they could not vote unless they gave up their First Nation status.
  • McDonald Returns With National Policy

    In attempt to regain his power, McDonald comes up with a National Policy, which attracts many voters. This policy involved protective tariffs, support for trade industries, political unity, the development of the CPR, and expansion of the West. In result, MacDonald won the vote, and was now back in power as the Prime Miniter of the Dominion of Canada.
  • The NorthWest Rebellion (Or Red River Rebellion)

    The NorthWest Rebellion (Or Red River Rebellion)
    Many Metis were upset that they were being discriminated against the Canadian Government. In result, there was an occurring uprising around the North Saskatchewan River in whcih mainly the Aboriginal and Metis people rebelled. Riel had finally returned from his hiding and once again led the Metis in rebelling against the government, this time, alongside Military Commander, Gabrielle Dumont. However, this time, Riel was not successful this time, and this was his last rebellion.
  • Provisional Government At Batoche

    Similar to the attack and seizing of Fort Garry, The Metis set up a temporary or provisional governemtn at the Batoche Church, in which they had recently captured. This was also one of the events that had triggered a war between settlers, and the Aboriginals and metis. They main tribes that were involved in this war were Big Bear and Crowfoot. Gabrielle Dumont was known as the military commander in lead for the Metis.
  • Metis Capture of the Batoche Church

    Reently, the Metis people were attempting to petition to McDonald again for certain rights for the metis people, but they were constantly declined. Meanwhile, the many supporters of the Metis group who had fled to Saskatchewan were now being slowly pushed out. IN result, (Riel has now returned), they capture the protestant church, known as Batoche. This triggers a war, as mentioned before.
  • The C.P.R is Complete! (The Last Spike)

    Donald Smith was given the honour to drive the last spike into place in 1885, signifying the completion of teh Canadian Pacific Railway. McDonald could now claim that he kept his promise of the transcolonial railway for coloinies who joined confederation. Main figures in building of CPR: Van Horne, Donald A. Smith, Andrew Onderdonk, Chinese Navvies, John A. MacDonald
  • Louis Riel`s death

    Louis Riel`s death
    The NorthWest Rebellion was where Louis Riel had finally returned from his hiding. However, he was arrested and then publicly hung after several debates on whether he should be kept alive or not. To this day, many still remember him as a courageous man who always stood up for others and their Metis culture.
  • We Need More Money! (for the CPR)

    Tiem was soon running out, for the Canadian government had promised several colonies that the building of the CPR would only take a certain amount of time. However, several engineers and such demanded a railway relief bill, for there were claims that the funds provided were not yet enough. The demand was declined, and in the end, the CPR managed without the additional money.
  • Yukon Joins Confederation

    Since the population had grown, and the Klondike Gold Rush was still occurring from time to time, many settlers were coming in . It was also a possibel threat that Americans would expand into their land, for they would have easy acess to the gold.
  • Saskatchewan Joins Confederation

    Their population had now grown, and was in need of resources, farming, timber,etc. In addition, the government began to feel strongly about maintaining the same government that the rest of Canada was having, so that they could collect taxes for services such as education, etc.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador Join Confederation

    At first, many of the people of Newfoundland found no benefit in confederation, but Britain no longer was willing to support them. They were then forced to join Canada. IN addition, the governemtn also promoted that they would help pay for the development of the roads, and lands in the colony,
  • Nunavut Joins Confederation

    Nunavut was the last province to join the country of Canada.
  • Confederation Bridge Opens in P.E.I