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WALP Module 5-7 Timeline

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    Modules 5-7

  • Charlottetown Conference

    Charlottetown Conference
    Leaders from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Canada East and West met in Charlottetown to discuss the idea of of a merger. They left the meeting with an agreement to a merger.
  • Quebec Conference

    Quebec Conference
    72 Resolutions are written up, basically the conditions of the merger. Newfoundland is also present this time. The conditions agreed were:
    - A federal system
    - 24 seats to each colony
    - "rep. by pop."
    - railway between colonies
    PEI and Newfoundland refuse these conditions, however the confederation passes.
  • London Conference

    London Conference
    Leaders of the 4 colonies meet to discuss the idea of a confederation with the British Parliament.
  • Creation of the Dominion of Canada

    Creation of the Dominion of Canada
    July 1st, 1867, the British North American Act combined Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to create the Dominion of Canada. The other provinces would join later.
  • Northwest Territories

    Northwest Territories
    The Northwest Territories are purchased from the Hudson Bay Company and become part of Canada.
  • Manitoba

    Manitoba joins the Canadian federation in 1870.
  • First Phase of Industrialisation

    First Phase of Industrialisation
    The first phase of industrialisation is from roughly 1870 to 1900. During this phase, production moves from skilled craftsmen increasingly towards factories, assembly lines and mass production. Many new industries develop, like textiles, food processing, wood, etc. Many people began leaving the countryside and moving into the cities in search for work. This is called urbanization. The working conditions in the cities however were atrocious. Women were also employed but given the worst jobs.
  • British Columbia

    British Columbia
    British Columbia joins Canada under conditions that the railroad is completed.
  • Prince Edward Island

    Prince Edward Island
    In serious debt, PEI joins the federation in a last attempt to save their economy.
  • John A. McDonald's National Policy

    John A. McDonald's National Policy
    John A. McDonald, then Prime Minister, came up with 3 policies to promote national unity in a country divided by low trade, unemployment and economic recession. These policies were:
    - Increase custom duties: this was to promote buying Canadian and supporting canadian industries.
    - Build a railway across Canada to unite the country physically as well as promote trade between provinces.
    - Increase immigration to Western Canada to create a bigger market.
  • Northwest Rebellion

    Northwest Rebellion
    Many provices wanted out of the Dominion because the Prime Minister was seen as power hungry. Uprisings lead by Louis Riel arose in Manitoba. The rebellions were quickly put down and Riel was hung for his crimes.
  • Yukon

    Joins Canada, however its population is too small to be considered a province, so it is considered a territory.
  • Alberta and Saskatchewan

    Alberta and Saskatchewan
    Become part of Canada thanks to recent settlement.
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    World War 1

  • World War I

    World War I
    World War I began when Germany invaded Belgium. Bigger allies such as France and Britain got involved. Since Canada was a British colony at that time, Canada too was forced to join the war. As WW1 was romaticized, many people volunteered to fight. However, this was not enough. Many Anglos volunteered however the French refused, citing their non-allegiance to the British throne.
  • Conscription Crisis

    Conscription Crisis
    As volunteer numbers dwindled, the Canadian government implemented Conscription. This means that any eligible man was forced to go overseas. This enraged the French.
  • Beginning of Women's Movement

    Beginning of Women's Movement
    Since many of the men were overseas fighting, the government had no choice but to let women vote.
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    Canada is finally recognized as its own nation at the League of Nations in 1919 for its involvement in the War.
  • Second Phase of Industrialization

    Second Phase of Industrialization
    Since none of Canada was destroyed during the war, we were in the perfect position to help others rebuild. In this phase, natural resources are exported (mineral, pulp & paper). Working conditions got even worse in this phase. Because of the poor working conditions, trade unions began to appear. This unions worked to help employees receive better conditions from employers.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    Because of the prosperity of the roaring 20's, people were buying stocks on borrowed money, causing lots of debt and eventually the stock to crash. This lead to mass unemployment and a severe depression. The government attempted to boost the economy by implementing several "solutions":
    - public works projects
    - work camps
    - direct aid
    - encouraged farming
  • Statute of Westminster

    Statute of Westminster
    The British Parliament gives the Canadian government control over its external affairs. This is the beginning of its independence from Britain for Canada.
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    World War 2

  • World War II

    World War II
    Unlike WWI, which people were "excited" about, nobody wanted a second world war. However, Canada joined on its own accord to support Great Britain. However, this war had affects in Canada too:
    - war time restrictions (rationing, etc)
    - women's increased participation
    - another conscription crisis
    - post war prosperity
    - natural increase in immigration
  • Maurice Duplessis' Quebec

    Maurice Duplessis' Quebec
    Maurice Duplessis, premier of Quebec from 1936-1939 and 1944-1959 believed in very traditional values. Every family was hard working, with 12 children each, all attending church on Sundays. He had very close ties with the Church and under his leadership they controlled education, healthcare, and many more sectors. Duplessis also believed in a "back to the land" movement. He promoted agriculture and offered incentives for families to move back out to the country from the cities. (electrification)
  • Newfoundland

    Joins Canada for economic reasons.
  • Quiet Revolution

    Quiet Revolution
    The Quiet Revolution was a rapid and far-reaching process of social, political and economic reform in Quebec. The State's role greatly increased during this time. The Church became less and less involved in education and healthcare (MELS, etc). This was a period of modernization for Quebec. However French are still upset there as not treated as equals to the anglophones.
  • Women's Right Movement Advances

    Women's Right Movement Advances
    With the invention of the contraceptive pill, women no longer have to stay home and raise children. More and more, women are seen at universities and in the job market.
  • October Crisis

    October Crisis
    The extremist Quebec soverainist movement, the FLQ, begin commiting acts of terror. They kidnap and murder Pierre Laporte, and kidnap James Cross. Bombs are planted in mailboxes. Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Elliot Trudeau implements the War Measures Act, essentially placing boots on the ground in Quebec.
  • Bill 101

    Bill 101
    Bill 101 made French the only language in Quebec. All lettering on signs must be in French. All immigrant children must attend French schools. However, this was fought back with Bill 86.
  • Referendum on Sovereignty-Association

    Referendum on Sovereignty-Association
    The question of sovereignty-association was asked to the general public. It was basically asking if the population of Quebec want to seperate from Canada yet keep economic ties, such as their currency. Results were roughly 40% yes, 60% no.
  • Complete Independence for Canada

    Complete Independence for Canada
    Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau signs the Constution Act with the Queen of England. This allows Canada to make modifications to its constitution, giving it full independence.
  • Meech Lake Accord

    Meech Lake Accord
    The Meech Lake accord was a meeting between Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the leaders from the 10 provinces to try to persuade Quebec to sign the 1982 modifications to the constituion.
  • Oka Crisis

    Oka Crisis
    The Oka Crisis was a standoff between the Mohawk people and the Canadian government. The Natives were upset about their land being taken from them to be developed. It lasted 78 days, and the Canadian Forces were even called in.
  • Charlottetown Accord

    Charlottetown Accord
    At this meeting, the question of Quebec seperation was asked to the other provinces.
  • Referendum on Quebec Sovereignty

    Referendum on Quebec Sovereignty
    This time the question was if Quebec wanted to seperate completely from Canada. With 50% +1 needed to win, the "yes" party got 49.4% of the vote and the "no" party got 50.6%. It was very close, and the issue is not yet resolved.
  • Nunavut

    A Canadian territory inhabited mostly by Inuits.