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History 414

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Algonquin Characteristics

    Algonquin Characteristics
    The Algonquins were a patrilineal society that lived in Quebec. They were primalrily a hunter-gatherer society that stayed nomad to follow the herds they hunted. The Algonquin family had many different types of tribes that prefered to live in small groups for increased mobility. As the Algonquins did not partake in Agriculture they traded frequently with the Iroquois for grains, fruits and vegetables.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    Iroquois Characteristics

    Iroquois Characteristics
    The Iroquois were a matrilineal society that settled primarily in the St. Laurence Valley. They are a semi-sedentary society that focuses primarily on agriculture. There villages are very well constructed with each family living in a longhouse and a palisade that runs around the entire village for fortification against attacks. The Iroquois were also the more violent of the three first nations families with frequent wars between tribes.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Canadian History

  • Jan 1, 1534

    Jaques Cartier's First Voyage

    Jaques Cartier's First Voyage
    Jaques Cartier explored and mapped the Gulf of Saint Laurence and he reported that there was lots of fish, timber and furs.
  • Jan 1, 1535

    Jaques Cartier's Second Voyage

    Jaques Cartier's Second Voyage
    He sailed up the St. Laurence and reached all the way to Stadacona (Quebec). Some Natives showed the French how to survive the winters and to survive Scurvy
  • Jan 1, 1541

    Jaques Cartier's Third Voyage

    Jaques Cartier's Third Voyage
    He attempted to set up a permanent settlement in Nova Scotia however it fails as it is too far away from the Indians to receive furs or aid. Also the Missionaries attempt to convert some Amerindians. However after this France looses interest for 60 years in Canada.
  • The King of France Sends Settlers to Canada

    The King of France Sends Settlers to Canada
    The King of France sends people to settle in Nova Scotia as he is racing for power with the other strong countries. However this Colony fails as it is too far away from the Natives to have succesful fur trading.
  • Foundation Of Montreal

    Foundation Of Montreal
    Maisoneuve founds Montreal.
  • The Royal Government

    The Royal Government
    King Louis 14th wanted to increase the population of New France therefore he created a "Sovereign Council" to govern over New France. The council is composed of a Governor who is in charge of military actions and all outside intervention, the Intendant who was the most influencial person in the colony, he controlled the budget and all the tax collection and there was the Bishop who was appointed by the Pope, the Bishop administrated all the churches doings in the colony.
  • Treaty of Ryswick

    Treaty of Ryswick
    The treaty of Ryswick ends the first intercolonial war.
  • Treaty Of Utrecht

    Treaty Of Utrecht
    This treaty ends the second intercolonial war.
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

    Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
    Ends the 3rd intercolonial war.
  • Period: to

    The Seven Year War

    The English and the French were fighting in Europe for a period of seven years.
  • Fall of Louisbourg

    Fall of Louisbourg
    The British attack and take the fortress of Louisbourg therefore clearing the way into the St. Laurence for their navy.
  • Begining of the Seige of Quebec

    Begining of the Seige of Quebec
    The British fleet of 200 boats begins bombarding Quebec City.
  • Battle on the Plains Of Abraham

    Battle on the Plains Of Abraham
    Wolfe decides to attack the city of Quebec, defended by Montcalm. Wolfe wins the battle and takes Quebec city. The French troops retreat to Montreal however they capitulate shortly after. Now the British control all of North America. Both generals die in the battle.
  • Articles Of Capitulation

    Articles Of Capitulation
    The war in the colonies was over however the English and French were still fighting in Europe. The artiles of Capitulation were written which dictated the French surrender. In the document it said that the French militia must lay down their arms but they could return home, the professional army must leave the country, the people were aloud to practice Roman Catholicism however the Bishop had to leave and everyone that stayed must become a british subject.
  • Autonomy of New France

    Autonomy of New France
    The people of New France become very autonomous and come to be known as Canadiens.
  • Treaty Of Paris

    Treaty Of Paris
    The 7 year war in Europe is over. The British are victorious and all the land of New France is given to them (besides St.Pierre and Miquelon)
  • Royal Proclamation

    Royal Proclamation
    The goal of this treaty was to assimilate the French into English subjects and promote english immigration, therefore this treaty renamed the colony to "The Of Quebec", it decreased the borders of the colony to around the St. Lawrence valley and gave the remainder to the indians, it put into place a civilian government, no new bishop was allowed, no roman catholics could hold a public office, english civil and criminal laws were put into place and lastly the land was divided into townships.
  • James Murray Recalled

    James Murray Recalled
    James Murray is recalled back to England because the english buissness men think that he is being too easy on the French because he realises that the French will revolt if they aren't happy and the buissness men do not like that so they write to the King saying that he isn't doing a good job and the king sends a replacement named Guy Carleton, who essentialy realises that to keep the French on the side of the British and not the americans he needs to make them happy this leads to the Quebec Act.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    This treaty was created to ensure that the French Canadians did not join with the American revolutionaries, this treaty enlarged the area of Quebec signifigantly, put into place the French civil laws, apointed a coucil, denied an elected assembly and installed the Test Act Oath. These laws were very benificial to the French and made them happy with the British however it got the Americans very angry.
  • American Revolution Begins

    American Revolution Begins
    The Decleration of Independance is mailed to the king and the American Revolution begins.
  • British Defeat At Yorktown

    British Defeat At Yorktown
    The Revolutionary forces defeat the British at the battle of Yorktown. This proves to be the final battle of the revolutionary war.
  • Treaty Of Versailles

    Treaty Of Versailles
    A peace treaty was signed between the Revolutionaries and the British. The British accepted that the United States were to be an independant country. Now all territory south of the great lakes belonged to the United States, this caused the fur trade that was primarily located south of the great lakes to have to be moved up to Canda, this also caused all the people still loyal to the british to immigrate out of the USA and into Canada causing an influx of English in Canada.
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    The constitutional act split Canada into Upper and Lower Canada, Upper Canada was mostly english and lower canada was mostly french. In Lower Canada they used french civil laws and practiced french religion however in Upper Canada they practiced Protestantism and used english laws.
  • Representative Government

    Representative Government
    With the Constitutional Act Representative Government was brought to upper and lower Canada which means that now the population had a say in what was going on in the government. This was the first time in Canada that people were alowed to vote and be represented. Even though this was a big step forward there were still some problems woth it such as the fact that the governor and councilors had conflicting interests when compared to the legislative assembly and the governor had the power to veto.
  • Steam Power Invented by James Watt

    Steam Power Invented by James Watt
    James Watt invented steam power which directly lead to the Industrial revolution and urbanisation which drastically changed the world as we know it.
  • Timber Trade Replaces Fur Trade

    Timber Trade Replaces Fur Trade
    Napoleons armies take more and more of Europe causing the cost of timber to jump by 1300% which leads to the timber trade surpassing the fur trade.
  • The War of 1812

    The War of 1812
    The British were upset that the USA had gained their independance and were destroying their trade ships destined for France, this angered the United States therefore they attacked Canada, Canadian Militia and the British army succesfully defended the colony and pushed the Americans back. This made the residents of Canada happy that the british could and would defend them against the Americans.
  • Irish Mass Immigration

    Irish Mass Immigration
    Many Irish were leaving Ireland and comign to Canada because of the "Irish Potato Famine" which occured when a blight destroyed many of the potato plants in Ireland causing a country wide famine. This further increased the population of english speakers in Canada which lead to Upper Canada having a larger population than Lower Canada. The Irish also brough over diseases and were willing to work for much less in bad jobs, therefore they took jobs away from the Canadians.
  • Rebellions in Canada

    Rebellions in Canada
    The rebellion in Upper Canada which was lead by William Mackenzie was quickly crushed however the rebellion in Lower Canada which was headed by Louis Joseph Papineau was also beaten after several battles one of which they won. The Patriotes were supported by many people however they did not have the equipment or organization to go up against the British regulars. In result 12 patriotes are hung as a warning and 58 are sent to Australia. Louis Joseph Papineau flees to the USA.
  • The 92 Resolutions

    The 92 Resolutions
    Louis Joseph-Papineau wrote a list of 92 resolutions which demanded that there be responsible government instated in Canada. Eventually London refused his requests. This coupled with the fact that there was constant disagreement between the councils and assemblies and the famine at the times caused Upper and Lower Canada to break out in rebellion.
  • First Railway In Canada

    First Railway In Canada
    The first railway in CAnada opened in 1836 which greatly facilitated the transport of goods throughout the province. This was seen as a effetive method of transportation even when compared to steamships.
  • Act of the Union

    Act of the Union
    After the rebellions England sends Lord Durham to Canada to see why the colonies rebelled and how to prevent another rebellion. He reported that they must assimilate the French by increasing the immigration, uniting the two Canadas and he also suggested that they put into place Veto power. The Act of the Union creates the province of Canada and splits it into Canada East and West which now share a government. Each Canada has 42 seats in the Assembly.
  • Lord Elgin

    Lord Elgin
    Lord Elgin becomes the first governor to not use the Veto Power and he allows the Prime Minister to have executive powers.
  • Canada Creates It's Own Currency

    Canada Creates It's Own Currency
    Canada creates its own currency which further separates it from Britain.
  • Reciprocity Treaty

    Reciprocity Treaty
    The United States and Canada sign a Reciprocity Treaty that is to last 10 years, this treaty is meant to increase trading between the two countries, it ends customs and duties between the countries.