The history of french english relations in canada

The History of French English Relations in Canada

  • World War One Conscription Crisis

    World War One Conscription Crisis
    Conscription The Conscription Crisis compulsory military service. The french were not in support of sending more troops to the European front becasue they had already contributed enough in the European theatre and opposed sending more troops to the front lines. This strained relations between French and English speaking Canadians.
  • Creation of the Union Nationale Party

    Creation of the Union Nationale Party
    Creation of the Union Nationale Party **see Duplessis/ Era of Great Darkness**
  • Period: to

    The Duplesiss Era/The Great Darkness 1936-1939 & 1944-1959

    The Duplessis Era
    Duplessis= Premier of Quebec and leader of the Union Nationale Party believed Quebec should be recognized as a Distinct Society. Bribery and corruption were also its trademarks. Duplessis was known for supporting the Catholic Church and Catholic education. Resulting in many teachers, philosophers and the slogians NOT businessmen, entrepreneurs etc... As a result, Quebec's economy becomes stagnant.
  • World War Two Conscription Crisis

    World War Two Conscription Crisis
    World War 2 Conscription Crisis By 1942 reserves were startlingly low and Hilter has controlled all of Europe, raising the need for conscripts.
    By the time they wwere trained the war was mostly over. French and English relations strained but not broken
  • Quiet Revolution Begins

    Quiet Revolution Begins
    The Quiet Revolution Jean Lesage replaces Duplessis after his death and starts modernizing educations, politics and culture.
    It was deemed "Quiet" because there was no bloodshed. Lesage actually won the election under the motto "maitre chez nous" which means masters of our owon house.
  • 1960s Separatist Movement

    1960s Separatist Movement
    !960s Serparatist Movement Quebec separatist movement gains momentum
    **see FLQ Trout de Liberation du Quebec**
  • The 1960s Separatist Movement

    The 1960s Separatist Movement
    The 1960s Separatist Movement FLO (Front de liberation du Quebec) forms. This is a radical terrorist group seeking th e"freedom of Quebec".
  • Maitre Chez Nous (Jean Lesage, Liberal Party Campaign slogan)

    Maitre Chez Nous (Jean Lesage, Liberal Party Campaign slogan)
    ** See the 1960 Quiet Revolution"
  • Front de liberation du Quebec LQ party is formed

    Front de liberation du Quebec LQ party is formed
    FLQ
    An extreme separtist organization.
  • Front de liberation du Quebec LQ party is formed

    Front de liberation du Quebec LQ party is formed
    Front de liberation du Quebec LQ party is formed
    The movement was founded in March 1963 by two Québécois, Raymond Villeneuve and Gabriel Hudon, and a Belgian, Georges Schoeters, who was an admirer of the Algerian revolutionaries and of Che Guevara in Cuba
  • Bi& Bi Commission (Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism) investigation by Lester B. Pearson

    Bi& Bi Commission (Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism) investigation by Lester B. Pearson
    Bi and Bi commission
    Lester B. Pearson PM during Quiet Revolution & established the “Royal Commission on Bilingualism & Biculturalism” to investigate solutions.
    Commission recommended that Canada should be officially bilingual.
  • Canada’s New Flag 1965

    Canada’s New Flag 1965
    Canada's New Flag 1965
    The maple leaf flies for the first time.
    Under the Pearson Government.
    It was decided to have a flag without a British symbol on it. It also acted as a means to unify the country. options pm p. 215 in counterpoints
  • Canada’s Immigration Policy becomes “Colour Blind”

    Canada’s Immigration Policy becomes “Colour Blind”
    Canada’s Immigration Policy becomes “Colour Blind”Priot to this the immigration policy was restrictive, giving preference to English speaking (Britain or US) applicants. Now the policy was based on the points system, where applicants were scored. Jobs in need were given higher points than jobs in less demand etc.
  • Trudeau Becomes Prime Minister

    Trudeau Becomes Prime Minister
    Trudeau Becomes Prime Minister Trudeau is elected as prime misiter with the liberal party
  • Official Languages Act passed

    Official Languages Act passed
    Official Languages Act passed This made Canada a bilingual nation. This was a product of the research aand factfinding mission of the Bi and Bi Commission aka the Royal Commission on Biliugalism and Biculturalism who discouvered that French Canadians alienation fromt eh rest of Canada was growing and problematic. The commission recommended bilingualism in an attempt to unify the country.
  • The War Measures Act 1970

    The War Measures Act 1970
    War Measures Act 1970After growing separatist sentiments, the FLQ stepped up thier acts of aggression by kidnapping the British diplomat, James Cross. The FLQ wished the release of their FLQ prisoners before releasing Cross. FLQ later kidnaps Pierre La Porte. Trudeau enacks WMA but LaPorts strangled body is found in the truck of a car.
    WMA gave the government emergency powers to govern by decree under circumstances of “war, invasion or insurrection, real or apprehended.
  • FLQ Crisis -aka October Crisis

    FLQ Crisis -aka October Crisis
    The October Crisis After growing separatist sentiments, the FLQ stepped up thier acts of aggression by kidnapping the British diplomat, James Cross. The FLQ wished the release of their FLQ prisoners before releasing Cross. FLQ later kidnaps Pierre La Porte. Trudeau enacks WMA but LaPorts strangled body is found in the truck of a car.
  • Trudeau enacts Policy of Multiculturalism

    Trudeau enacts Policy of Multiculturalism
    Policy of Multiculturalism (Trudeau is a federalist- he believes in unifying Canada, not in a French sepaarist)
    Multiculturalism encouraged people to express their cultures and in doing so, would de-emphasize the French as the only cultural group in Canada.
  • Bill 22 introduced by Robert Bourassa

    Bill 22 introduced by Robert Bourassa
    Bill 22
    Liberal Premier of Quebec, Robert Bourassa introduced Bill 22. This made French the official language of Quebec.

    Rationale: Fr. birth rates declining, but immigration increasing. Bourassa feared Fr. language may disappear.
    Students had to pass an English proficiency test before registering in English schools. This is difficult to pass considering that French was the main language.
  • Immigration policy moves to ‘sponsorship program’

    Immigration policy moves to ‘sponsorship program’
    Immigration Policy -Sponsorship Program Families and businesses could "vouch for" or sponsor a new immigrant, meaning they would take responsibility for rhis new person's set up in Canada.
  • Bill 101 introduced by Parti Quebecois, Rene Levesque

    Bill 101 introduced by Parti Quebecois, Rene Levesque
    Bill 101 Bill 101 is similar to BIll 22 but also requires all signnage to chanfe to French in Quebec, all government offices, schools everywhere etc.
  • Parti Quebecois wins provincial election on Quebec

    Parti Quebecois wins provincial election on Quebec
  • Bill 101 passed

     Bill 101 passed
    Bill 101PQ passes Bill 101 aka the “Charter of the French Language”. This replaced Bill 22. This made Fr. the only official language of the province, (i.e. Que gov’t employees, commercial signs, & schooling).
    Some dissent. One side felt Fr. culture was endangered. And many Quebeckers felt Bill 101 was a symbol of oppression &/or too extreme.
  • Referendum on Sovereignty Association

    Referendum on Sovereignty Association
    (include the results of the <ahref='http://www.canadahistory.com/sections/eras/trudeau/1980_referendum.htm' >Referendum on Soverignty Association </a>
    Levesque’s gov’t calls referendum asking Quebeckers to vote ‘yes’ to negotiating a new agreement with Canada based on sovereignty-association. He proposed that Quebec become politically independent, yet maintain a close economic relationship w/ Canada.Rallied Quebeckers to become ‘maitres chez nous’ or masters of their own house
  • Patriation of the Constitution

     Patriation of the Constitution
    Patriation of the Constitution
    Trudeau wanted authority and to include a charter of rights
    Premiers agreed to accept Chart if "Nowithstanding clauses" were added
    changes to constitution could be made if 7/10 provinces agreed to the change (rep. 50% of population). Also meant that Que could be excluded as long as Ontario included.
  • Constitution Act

    Constitution Act
    Constitution Act 1982Nov 4, 1981 over late night coffees in the kitchen of the National Conference Centre, federal Justice Minister J. Chretien & the justice ministers from Sk & Ont hammer out the “Kitchen Compromise” then...9 out of the 10 provincial Premiers were awakened from their rooms at the Chateau Laurier Hotel & asked them to approve the deal. Premiers agreed to accept Chart if ‘notwithstanding clause’ were added. –This allowed fed govt or provinces to opt out of some of the clauses in the charter.
  • Brian Mulroney becomes Prime Minister

    Brian Mulroney becomes Prime Minister
    Brian Mulroney becomes PM
    As prime minister and leader of the Progressive Conservative party. Mulroney’s tenure was also marked by his efforts to persuade Québec government to sign the Constitution; despite extensive consultation and negotiation, both the Meech Lake Accord and Charlottetown Accord were unsuccessful.
  • Reform Party Created

    Reform Party Created
    Reform Part of Canada Mulroney promised gain Quebec’s consent to the constitution ‘with honour & enthusiasm”.
    Robert Bourassa (Liberal-Federalist) in office in Quebec at this time (replaces Levesque).
    But Canada had other problems:

    -Growing Western Alienation due to Oil Crisis of 1970s
    -Ab & Nfld wanted senate reforms
    -Ottawa awarded a multi billion dollar contract to Que rather than Winnipeg etc..
  • Bloc Quebecois Formed

    Bloc Quebecois Formed
    Bloc Quecbcois Formed
    Mulroney promised gain Quebec’s consent to the constitution ‘with honour & enthusiasm”.
    But Canada had other problems:

    -Growing Western Alienation due to Oil Crisis of 1970s
    -Ab & Nfld wanted senate reforms
    -Ottawa awarded a multi billion dollar contract to Que rather than Winnipeg etc..
  • Period: to

    Meech Lake Accord

    Meech Lake Accord Various proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the 10 provincial premiers.
  • Deptartment of Multiculturalism formed

    Deptartment of Multiculturalism formed
    Department of Multiculturalism formed
    The federal government, under Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau, declared in 1971 that Canada would adopt multicultural policy. Canada would recognize and respect its society included diversity in languages, customs, religions, and so on.[2] In 1982 multiculturalism was recognized by section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
  • Charlottetown Accord

    Charlottetown Accord
    Charlottetown Accord rejected in referendum
    similar to the meech lake accord
    called the Canada Round because it had a Canada Clause
    Que feels Char. Accord didn’t give them enough power b/c Senate seats had been given up to the West. They also feared Aboriginal self-gov’t b/c it would affect a large portion of northern Quebec.
  • Parti Quebecois returned to power

    Parti Quebecois returned to power
    Parti Quebecois returned to powerQ
    ue. is angered by constitution debates & re-elect Parti Quebecois leader in provincial election (Premier Jacques Parizeau)
  • 2nd Referendum on Sovereignty Association

    2nd Referendum on Sovereignty Association
  • Clarity Bill and the Supreme Court decision

    Clarity Bill and the Supreme Court decision
    Clarity Bill and the Supreme Court decision Courts rule that Que d/n have right to separate & would have to negotiate separation with fed gov’t & 9 provinces before doing so. Chretien follows up with the ‘clarity act/bill’ which stated that any future referenda, Quebec must ask a clear question & win a clear majority –making it impossible for Que to gain independence from Canada through a referendum.