Period: Dec 18, 1500 to
Official Power and Countervailing Power
Period: Dec 18, 1500 to
Dec 19, 1500
Political System of First OccupantsAmerindians didn't have much of a poltical system.
Iroquois had a matriarcal system, where the woman had a stronger political influence.
Algonquiens had a patriarchal system, where the men had a stronger political influence.
Samuel de Champlain settles in North AmericaFirst permanent settlement in Quebec after Jacques Cartier discovered it 70 years earlier.
Beginning of the French Regime in North America.
Implementation of the Royal GovernmentChange made by king Louis the 14th.
The political system that replaced the mercantilism system because that system wasn't adding any people to the colony, which would let them be wiped out easily by enemies.
Has a governor, intendant, bishop, and sovereign council in the colony, who report to the minister of marine, who reports to the king.
Great Peace of MontrealA treaty signed between New France and the Amerindian tribes of North America.
Provided 16 years of Peace between Ameridindian tribes.
End of fights over fur tradeFights that had been taking place to control the fur trade territory.
Two sides: English and Iroquois, French and Huron.
The Hurons were almost wiped out because of these wars.
Beginning of the 7 years warA war between France and England to decide who controls North American territories along with some European territory.
Ends finally with the British winning and taking control of the French Colony except for two small islands.
Articles of CapitulationDocuments listing the rules for the Military Regime that took over in North America after the capitulation of the French.
Needed because the British had completely taken the territory in North America but not in Europe, so the colony had to wait to see who would be the leader.
French Militia could return home.
French Professional soldiers had to leave the colony without their weapons.
People could be Catholic, but the Bishop had to leave.
People who stayed were british subjects.
Treaty of ParisTreaty that ended the 7 years war.
Declared victory for Britain and gave them rights to all of France's land in North America except two small fishing islands.
Beginning of the British Regime.
The Royal ProclamationFirst Constitution put in place by the British Regime.
Goal: To assimilate the French into British ways.
Limited the French-Canadians to very little land and took away most of their priviledges.
Changes to the Royal ProclamationMade by James Murray, the first Governer, to try and fix the document.
James Murray found the Royal Proclamation unworkable due to the much higher French population in the colony, so he had to lessen the restrictions on the French to avoid a revolution.
James Murray's changes made the 13 colonies angry, so the he was replaced by Governor Guy Carleton, who still kept the same changes as James Murray.
The Quebec ActAfter the 13 colonies were angered, Britain wanted French-Canadians on their side, so they created these laws.
The Act gave French-Canadians even more priviledges.
This was teh final straw for the 13 colonies, so they began asking for their independance.
The Declaration of IndependanceThe 13 colonies ask for their independance, which would eventually lead to the creation of the U.S.
Caused by the priviledges given to French Canadians in the Quebec Act.
The Treaty of VersaillesThe treaty that ended the war of The American Revolution after the Declaration of independance.
Conclusion: The 13 colonies would get their independance and become the U.S.
Immigration of LoyalistsHappened after the 13 colonies recieved their independance.
There were people who lived in the 13 colonies that were still on the side of the British during the revolution, so once they received their independance, these Loyalists were kicked out.
Most of the Loyalists immigrated North to Quebec and Canada, which caused a huge increase of the English speaking demographic in Quebec.
The Constitutional ActSplit Canada (the area that is now Quebec and Ontarion) into Lower and Upper Canada.
Lower Canada (Quebec) would have mostly the French rules and land system in place, while Upper-Canada (Ontario) would have their English counterparts.
Addition of the Representative Government, where people get to vote for the first time, but their vote means next to nothing.
The 92 resolutionsWritten by Louis-Joseph Papineau, the leader of the Parti Patriote.
Contained many things that the people of the colony asked for so that the political system would be more fair.
Britain sent back 10 resolutions, which said no to all of their requests, causing the rebellions of 1837-1838.
The Rebellions of 1837-38Caused by the complete rejection of the 92 resolutions sent to the throne in Britain.
The Parti Patriote and the British Party were the main rebels who went against Britain.
The rebels won one battle but were ultimately dismantled by the British Army, but would eventually get their requests.
Lord Durham's AssessmentLord Durham was sent by the throne to figure out how to fix the problems in the colony.
He came up with 3 main conclusions:
Increase Immigration to assimilate the French.
Unite the two Canada's to give the English the Majority.
Give the colony responsible Government.
The Union ActBased off Lord Durham's recommendations with the goal to stop another revolt from rebels.
Reunited Lower and Upper Canada, which are now called East and West Canada.
Ignored Lord Durham's recommendation of Responsible Government.
Adoption of Responsable GovernementOccured gradually after the Union Act.
What this means: The prime minister would have to select his executive council from the assembly, which gives the votes the people have for the assembly real meaning.
Conferences about uniting CanadaCharlettown and Quebec Conferences to discuss what the Dominion of Canada would be like.
Previously, no party in governement could get a majority, so multiple parties combined and tried to make this country.
Started with Qc, On, Nfld, PEI, NS and NB, but PEI and Nfld dropeed out.
The British North American ActAfter the London Conference of the same year, the merger between the provinces to form Canada passed and are addressed in this document.
The other provinces and territories that are now in Canada joined the federation between 1870 and 1949.
Beginning of the Contemporary Period.
Creation and uprising of UnionsBegan around the time of industrialisation.
At first, unions had little power and no one took them seriously, but eventually they got what they wanted.
Forced certain regulations on employers, like minimum wages, safety laws, child labour laws, pay equity and pensions.
Beginning of the Quiet RevolutionHappened after Maurice Duplessis effort to get the governement not to intervene.
Basically, the government took more control, becoming the major force behing social and economic developpement, taking control of education and keeping political power out of the Church's hands.
Overall, Quebec became far more modern.
Creation Of Office de la Langue FrancaiseCreated to protect the French language and overall promote Quebec Nationalism, along with french politicians.
The work they did led to certain important bills, like Bill 101, which makes the French Language the priority.
The Seperation ReferendumsOrganisde by PQ leader Rene Levesque, asking the province whether or not they want to seperate from Canada.
The vote was 60% of people were against seperating.
Another referendum was attempted in 1995, with a misleading question that yielded a much closer vote but still, the vote was no.
Constitution Act and Charter of Rights and FreedomsProposed by Prime Minister Pierre-Elliot Trudeau to try and unify all the provinces and get more independance from GB.
Only Quebec has never signed this document.
The Meech Lake AccordAn attempt to try and reform some laws and give Quebec some different rights than other provinces to protect the French Language.
Was tried between 1987 and 1990, tried to get all of the provinces to agree to the law.
The Accord was denied by 2 provinces.
The Oka CrisisCaused by a golf course trying to expand its holes into Amerindian territory.
Amerindians organised militarily and protested this, and had to be controlled by the Canadian Army.
The Charlettown AgreementAn agreement to try to accomplish the same goals of the Meech Lake Accord, except this time they ask the people about this law.
The reforms brought by this document would be different than the other document, but it was voted against.