Canada

Timeline of History IV - Jeremy Sananes 4C

By jeremys
  • Jan 1, 1001

    Natives arrive in North America

    Natives arrive in North America
    After the Ice Age, many ice sheets receded and there existed a land bridge connecting Asia to Alaska. TheNative peoples traveled across this bridge, the Beiring Land Straight, and arrived in North America. There were two Native groups; the Iroquois (semi-permanent/sedentary) and the Algonquiens (nomadic).
  • Jan 1, 1487

    Great Explorations - late 15th century onward

    Great Explorations - late 15th century onward
    At the end of the 15th century, the Ottoman Turks controlled the land routes to the Orient. They attacked any travelers attempting to reach the Far East. New water routes to the Orient therefore needed to be found and so began the Great Explorations led by Spain, Portugal, England and France. Most notably were Columbus, from Spain, who set foot on North America in 1492 and Magellan, who was the first to circle the world and prove that it was in fact a sphere.
  • Apr 20, 1534

    Jacques Cartier's first voyage - 1534

    Jacques Cartier's first voyage - 1534
    Jacques Cartier sets sail from Île Saint-Malo in France in order to find a new route to Asia, discover precious materials and claim any new land for the King of France. On this voyage, he sails in the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. He maps out the territory and discovers all of the region's natural resources (fur, timber and fish).
  • Period: Oct 1, 1534 to

    French Regime

  • May 19, 1535

    Jacques Cartier's second voyage - 1535-1536

    Jacques Cartier's second voyage - 1535-1536
    Jacques Cartier leaves France in order to return to the New World. Upon his arrival at Stadacona, the Iroquoien capital, Cartier encounters Chief Donacona. The Natives assisted Cartier and his men in surviving the harsh northern winter. Once the winter had finished, Cartier returned to France having taken Chief Donnacona as captive and as proof of life in the New World.
  • May 23, 1541

    Jacques Cartier's third voyage - 1541-1542

    Jacques Cartier's third voyage - 1541-1542
    Jacques Cartier departs from Saint-Malo in order to return to the New World. The goals of this voyage were now to discover the New World as well as its riches and to establish a permanent settlement along the St. Lawrence River. All hopes of finding a new passage to the Orient had been forgotten. Cartier attempts a permanent settlement however this quickly fails due to bad positioning and lack of Native assistance. Very few Europeans survived the winter and those who did returned to France.
  • The Fur Trade becomes exceedingly popular (around 1600)

    The Fur Trade becomes exceedingly popular (around 1600)
    After many years, France returns to the New World with the hopes of permanent settlement. There, the European travelers realized that they could trade day-to-day goods (i.e. mirrors) in exchange for precious furs from the Natives. These furs were sent back to France where they were made into felt hats, very popular amongst Europeans at the time. These exchanges between the Europeans and the Natives would eventually become the lead economic activity in the colony of New France.
  • Habitation at Port Royal - Samuel de Champlain

    Habitation at Port Royal - Samuel de Champlain
    In 1605, France once again gained interest in their territory in the New World. French explorer Samuel de Champlain ventured to North America and attempted to establish a permanent settlement in modern-day Nova Scotia. This settlement was named Port Royal. Port Roal eventually failed due to its bad position.
  • Samuel de Champlain establishes permanent settlement in Québec

    Samuel de Champlain establishes permanent settlement in Québec
    Returning to the New World in 1608, Samuel de Champlain sails into Stadacona, an Iroquois village. At this area, Champlain establishes a trading post that he names "Québec" (Kebec). This word signifies "where the river narrows". This area is perfect for fur trading as it is an excellent meeting point (where the river narrows). This permanent settlement at Quebec would eventually be the base of France's enormous colony, New France.
  • 100 Associates Company takes control of the colony

    100 Associates Company takes control of the colony
    In 1627 (I remember the date from last year's course), Cardinal de Richelieu establishes the fur trading company called 100 Associates Company. France allows this company the monopoly over the fur trade in exchange for their efforts to populate and develop New France.
  • Trois-Rivières is established

    Trois-Rivières is established
    Sieur de Laviolette, under the recommendation of Samuel de Champlain, establishes the trading post of Trois-Rivières in 1634. This trading post was also situated along the St. Lawrence River.
  • Establishment of Ville-Marie

    Establishment of Ville-Marie
    Paul Chomedey Sieur de Maisonneuve traveled deep into the Iroquois territory of Hochelaga. In this region, he establishment a permanent settlement with the goal of converting Natives. This settlement was called Ville-Marie and would eventuallybecome modern-day Montreal.
  • King Louis the 14th takes the throne of France

    King Louis the 14th takes the throne of France
    Now that he is of age, King Louis the 14th becomes the ruler of France. At this point, he comes to the realization that England has colonies that are developing very well and are being populated however, his colony of New France is solely reserved to the fur trade.
  • Royal Government is established in New France

    Royal Government is established in New France
    After the realization that his colony was not developing, King Louis the 14th abolished the 100 Associates Company's monopoly of the fur trade in New France. They had failed to develop the colony and King Louis the 14th, influenced by his Minister of Marine Jean-Baptiste Colbert, decided to implement Royal Government in the colony.
  • Royal Government of 1663

    Royal Government of 1663
    The King remained on top and possessed absolute power. Under him was the Minister of Marine. In New France, the Sovereign Council, consisting of the Governor, Intendant and Bishop, ruled the colony. The Governor was responsible for the external affairs of the colony (wars). The Intendant was responsible for all internal affairs and possessed the most power. Finally, the Bishop was responsible for religion. Under the Sovereign Council was the Captain of Militia and the people.
  • The creation of the seigneurial system

    The creation of the seigneurial system
    In addition to a new political structure, France now possessed a new method of territorial division. In 1663, the seigneurial system was established with the hopes of attracting people to New France. The territory was now divided and given to seigneurs. These important people had to divide the territory into rectangular strips. In exchange for rent (cens) as well as free days of labour and a portion of the produce given to the seigneur, people could live on these lands.
  • Jean Talon's population incentives

    Jean Talon's population incentives
    Jean Talon, Intendant of New France between 1665 and 1672, strived to bring people to the colony (immigration). Many French soldiers were given free land for them to remain in the colony. The Filles du Roi came to New France. These were young, French orphan girls who were brought to the colony and were married within several days (and would eventually create families). Talon established payments and fines to families so that they would have children. This raised the colony's population.
  • Problems in North America

    Problems in North America
    New France, France's North American colony, was immense and scarcely populated. In addition to this, New France was centered on the fur trade and mercantilism which made it very weak. This made the territory very difficult to defend.To the south, Britain's Thirteen Colonies were small in size yet immensely populated. Their economy was prosperous and they were very strong. These colonies coveted New France's territory and conflicts would arise.
  • The Seven Years' War (Fourth Intercolonial War) - 1756-1763

    The Seven Years' War (Fourth Intercolonial War) - 1756-1763
    After three Intercolonial Wars, New France was immense and very difficult to defend. War was declared between France and England. Many land attacks were planned with the hopes of taking over French forts, however, these were not fruitful. The Colonies therefore planned attacks from the water. They sailed into the St. Lawrence River and eventually took down the Fortress Louisbourg, a seemingly impossible task. The fort at Quebec, their main target, was now very accessible.
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    The English naval force sailed into the St. Lawrence River and down to Quebec after having taken down Fortress Louisbourg. On the night of the 12th of September, the soldiers climbed up L'Anse au Foulon. The English soldiers began their attack on Quebec. Both English General Wolfe as well as French Commander Montcalm die in the battle which sees the English defeat the French. The English therefore take over Quebec.
  • The Articles of Capitulation

    The Articles of Capitulation
    After Montreal's capitulation in 1760, the Articles of Capitulation are signed, marking France's surrender in North America. These articles explain that French militia could remain in the colony however the army would have to leave. The Roman Catholic religion would be recognized, however, the Bishop was too powerful and would have to return to France as well. The remaining citizens became British subjects. The average habitants remained in the colony however, the nobility returned to France.
  • British Military Rule - 1760-1763

    British Military Rule - 1760-1763
    After the Articles of Capitulation, the territory of New France would have to be governed and ruled by the British Military until the war came to an end in Europe. Jeffrey Amherst, leader of the British Military, became governor of the colony until 1763.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    In 1763, the war in Europe had finally come to an end. England had overpowered France. The Treaty of Paris was signed, marking the official defeat of the French. France lost all its territory in North America with the exception of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, two small islands conserved for fishing purposes.
  • Period: to

    British Regime

  • Royal Proclamation

    Several months after taking over New France, Britain issues its first consitution for the colony, the Royal Proclamation. The Royal Proclamation's goals are very clear; to assimilate the French Canadian population. New France's territory was now reduced to the St. Lawrence River Valley and would now be known as the Province of Quebec. The implementation of English laws, an English civilian government as well as the Test Act were all initiatives of Britain to assimilate the French Canadians.
  • James Murray's tolerance towards French Canadians

    James Murray's tolerance towards French Canadians
    The first governor of the Province of Quebec was James Murray. Having realized that assimilating the French Canadians was simply impossible as they were too numerous, he bent the rules of the Royal Proclamation. James Murray allowed a new bishop in the colony, did not call an elected assembly and permitted the use of the French language in lower courts. Many English merchants in the colony were very frustrated with this and complained to Britain. Murray was brought back to France in 1766.
  • The arrival of Guy Carleton

    The arrival of Guy Carleton
    In 1766, Guy Carleton was appointed Governor of the Province of Quebec. James Murray, the previous governor, had been brought back to France due to his tolerance towards the French. Guy Carleton however conserves James Murray's bending of the rules as he also notices that the French are too numerous to assimilate. However, Carleton also wants to be tolerant towards the French as he wants to conserve their loyalty to Britain as the Colonies to the south are beginning to revolt.
  • The Quebec Act

    The Quebec Act
    In order to conserve the French Canadian loyalty, Britain implemented a new consitution in order to give back to the French Candians. The Quebec Act enlarged Quebec in size, allowed Frecnh civil laws and replaced the Test Act with the Test Oath (French Canadians could now participate in the colony's administration).
  • American Revolutionary War - 1775-1783

    American Revolutionary War - 1775-1783
    The population of the thirteen colonies to the south was becoming infuriated. Britain imposed large taxes on their products and had failed to give them the Ohio Valley which they so coveted. In 1775, the Colonies declared war against their mother country. The population of the colonies, now referred to as Americans, asked the Canadians to participate in the war. However, the Canadians declined as they were now loyal to Britain. In 1776, the Americans declared independence.
  • The arrival of the loyalists

    The arrival of the loyalists
    The loyalists were citizens of the Thirteen Colonies who remained loyal to Britain. Once the Revolutionary War commenced, these loyalists could no longer remain in the Thirteen Colonies and could not afford to return to Britain. They therefore traveled to the Province of Quebec, Britain's sole remaining colony in North America. This loyalist immigration created a huge increase in the English-speaking population in Quebec and provided a base to modern-day English-speaking regions (i.e. Ontario).
  • British final defeat

    British final defeat
    The British were defeated in Yorktown in 1781. This battle would be decisive and the Americans were declared the winners of the war against Britain.
  • The Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles
    In France (Versailles), the Treaty of Versailles was signed, formally marking Britain's defeat against the Americans and recognizing American independence. The Treaty of Versailles affected the Province of Quebec. The Ohio Valley was given to the Americans and therefore, the Quebec merchants would need to travel to the northwest in order to find furs. In addition to this, many loyalists, previously living in the Thirteen Colonies, immigrated to the Province of Quebec.
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    In 1791, Britain assigned a new constitution to the Province of Quebec. This was in order to ensure the rights of the French Candians while responding to loyalist demands of a Legislative Assembly. The Constitutional Act divided the province into Upper Canada (modern-day Ontario, 20 000 loyalists) and Lower Canada (modern-day Quebec, 160 000 people (mostly French Canadians)). The Constitutional Act also institued Representative Government in the colony which was a huge step towards democracy.
  • Representative Government

    Representative Government
    With the Constitutional Act of 1791, Representative Government was instituted in the two Canadas. The Governor was the commander in Canada. In each Canada, there was a Lieutenant Governor/Representative of the Governor as well as an Executive and Legislative Council. Below them was the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly was comprised of members elected by the people. This was not toal democracy however as the members of the Councils were elected and the Governor possessed veto power.
  • Changes of the 1800s

    Changes of the 1800s
    At the beginning of the 1800s, there were many changes in Canada. Railways in the Canadas were now being built in order to facilitate transportation, the timber trade replaced the fur trade as the primary economic activity of the colony and there was equally an agricultural crisis. Due to the Irish Potato Famine, many Irish immigrants arrived in the colony and increased the English-speaking population. There was a growing discontent in Lower Canada.
  • The War of 1812

    The War of 1812
    Since its independence, the United States of America had been trading with France. In the meantime, Napoleon, Emperor of France, was attempting to take control of all of Europe, frustrating the English. Britain began seizing American ships headed to France and making their crew serve the British military. This greatly frustrated the Americans who decided to retaliate by attacking Canada. A short war ensued and ended in a stalemate with no clear winner and no change in territory.
  • Rebellions of 1837-1838

    Rebellions of 1837-1838
    In 1834, the leader of the Parti Patriote in Lower Canada, Louis-Joseph Papineau sent the 92 Resolutions to Britain in which they demanded Responsible Government amongst others. The 10 Resolutions were sent in response by Lord John Russell which insulted the French population. There were several battes between the regular French Canadians and the trained Birtish army. Not enough support was given to the rebels by the clergy and the rebellions failed. 12 Patriotes were hanged and 58 were exiled.
  • Lord Durham's report

    Lord Durham's report
    In 1838, Lord Durham was sent to Canada in order to investigate on why rebellions arose and how to control the population. Durham concluded that the problem in the colony was the French Canadian presence. In 1839, he proposed that the French are assimilated through immigration, that the two Canadas be united and that Britain should institute Responsible Government in Canada.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    In 1840, Britain implements a fourth consitution in its North American colony. The Act of Union unites the two Canadas and creates the Province of Canada (Canada East and West). However, the Governor in the colony still possessed veto power and there was still the absence of Responsible Government.
  • Institution of Responsible Government

    Institution of Responsible Government
    In 1848, Lord Elgin, governor of the Province of Canada, allows Responsible Government in the colony. The members of the Executive Council are now selected from the Legislative Assembly by the Prime Minister and the governor's veto power has now been abolished.
  • Situation of the Province of Canada

    Situation of the Province of Canada
    Britain ends its preferential treatment of Canada and establishes free market, meaning that Canada will now have to find new economic partners. In 1854, they sign the Reciprocity Treaty with the United States which ends in 1864. Canada looks towards uniting with other British colonies to strengthen the economy, to establish a military force and to reinforce its political structure.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    Charlottetown Conference
    The leaders of Canada East and West as well as New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island unite in order to discuss a possible union.
  • Quebec Conference

    Quebec Conference
    The 72 Resolutionsare agreed upon by the leaders of the Britsih colonies. There will be an elected assembly in this united country, with Rep. by Pop. and a railway will be built.
  • London Conference

    London Conference
    The leaders of Canada East and West, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia convene in London in order to discuss the union of the British colonies in North America.
  • British North American Act

    British North American Act
    On July 1st, 1867, the Dominion of Canada was created. It was a federal central government and the country consisted of four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
  • Period: to

    The First Phase of Industrialization

  • First Phase of Industrialization (after Confederation until 1900)

    First Phase of Industrialization (after Confederation until 1900)
    After Confederation, with many advancements in society, there was the phenomenon of Industrialization. Factories were being created and more people were beginning to populate the cities. This phenomenon is known as Urbanization. These factories being created were however very dirty and dnagerous places to work. The living conditions during the First Phase of Industrialization were therefore terrible. This led to creation of workers' unions which would fight for workers's rights.
  • Growth of Canada (post-Confederation) - 1870-1999

    Growth of Canada (post-Confederation) - 1870-1999
    1870 - North West territories are bought;
    1870 - Manitoba joins
    1871 - British Columbia joins
    1873 - Prince Edward Island joins
    1898 - Yukon Territory is created
    1905 - Alberta and Saskatchewan are created
    1949 - Newfoundland joins
    1999 - Nunavut is created as a territory
  • John A. Macdonald's National Policy

    John A. Macdonald's National Policy
    There was an economic recession in the late 19th century in the Dominion of Canada. In order to boost the Canadian economy, Prime Minister Macdonald promoted his National Policy. This included: increasing custom duties in the country to favour the economy; building railways to unite the country; and encouraging immigration to favour the Canadian market.
  • Advancements in the late 19th century leading to Industrialization

    Advancements in the late 19th century leading to Industrialization
    In the late 19th century, many changes in various aspects in society lead to the First Phase of Industrialization. Due to improved transportation methods, farmers can now circulate goods. Now, farmers become specialized and begin to produce only one type of crop. Farming one crop very well and receiving other produce that has been done very well elsewhere is much better than attempting to farm everything. New railways open up which is a huge advancement as goods and people can now circulate.
  • The Northwest Rebellions (Red River Rebellion)

    The Northwest Rebellions (Red River Rebellion)
    This was the first military crisis in the new Dominion of Canada. The métis were of mixed race (European and Native blood) and were outcast. They lived in their own communities and the federal government kept insisting that they move so that the government could use their territory. Finally, Louis Riel, the leader of the Métis refuses and has a man representing the government killed. The Canadian army was sent and Louis Riel was captured and hanged.
  • Working & living conditions during the First Phase of Industrialization

    Working & living conditions during the First Phase of Industrialization
    During the First Phase of Industrialization, the factories were unheated and poorly ventilated. The workers, children included, were easily replaced and their work days consisted of long hours with little pay. This low pay led to horrendous living conditions. Families lived in cramped areas with very little food and poor sanitation. There was malnourishment, disease and death. The rich however lived very well.
  • The creation of workers' unions

    The creation of workers' unions
    These terrible living and working conditions led to the creation of workers unions. Workers united to stand against their opressive employers. They would tell them to improve working conditions and increase pay or they would strike. The battle then became who would give in first: the workers who needed the pay to survive or the employers who needed the workers to maintain business.
  • Montreal during the First Phase of Industrialization

    Montreal during the First Phase of Industrialization
    During the First Phase of Industrialization, Montreal industries specialized in food processing (dairy products); textiles (clothing); and wood (trees made into wooden planks). Factories in Montreal were also subject to horrible working conditions. These factories were dangerous places to work. Living conditions were equally terrible. There was low pay which led to living in cramped areas with poor food and sanitation. Disease was very high. Men and even young children worked long hours.
  • Situation in Canada in the early 20th century

    Situation in Canada in the early 20th century
    Women were still seen as very minor. They were abused by their husbands and lived very hard lives. In addition to this, the Catholic Church was ever so present in the lives of the population. During this period, different ideaologies were beginning to surface. There was imperialism as well as nationalism. Nationalists, mostly the French Canadian, beleved that Canada came first and that we should not worry about Great Britain whereas Imperialists put Great Britain first and wanted to assist them.
  • Situations during which political ideaologies were expressed

    Situations during which political ideaologies were expressed
    1898-99 - Boer War
    This situation was a war in South Africa because Britain wanted control of a piece of land in South Africa. Imperialists were for Canadian assistance in the war whereas nationalists were strongly opposed to this.
    1905 - Naval Bill
    Prime Minister Wilfred Laurier wished to support Britain so that they could build naval ships. Imperialists were for Canadian assistance and nationalists were against.
  • Period: to

    The Second Phase of Industrialization

    After the First World War, economic prosperity lead to the Second Phase of Industrialization. This phase was characterized by the exploitation of natural resources (i.e. timber - pulp&paper). Many new factories were being created and more towns such as Westmount were beginning to open up. Women still had very poor lives and the living conditions of the workers were still very terrible. The economic prosperity after World War I characterized this period (1920s) as the "Roaring Twenties".
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    World War I

    The First World War began due to the fact that there had not been a war in a long time. Armies had grown, technologies and weapons became advanced and there were many alliances amongst countries. In 1914, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and France and Great Britain declared war against Germany. Due to the many alliances, many of the largest countries of the world eventually went to war. The war was devastating and many soldiers perished.
  • Canada during World War I

    Canada during World War I
    In Canada, there was the phenomenon of "Total War". This was characterized by a strong war mentality all across the country; the "home effort" was massive. Woman now replaced the men in factories and many even became nurses for the military. Factories building cars were now building tanks for example. By 1917, towards the end of the war, there were less volunteers and therefore conscription (mandatory military service) was implemented. This angered the French nationalists.
  • After-effects of World War I

    After-effects of World War I
    After the end of the War, soldiers returned home and many families formed quickly. This increased the Canadian population. Women, thanks to their heavy implications in the war, were now recognized and obtained the right to the federal vote in 1918. Canada was involved in the peace talks at Versailles in 1919 and was recognized independently. This lead to the passing of the Statute of Westminster by Great Britain in 1931. Canada now had control over external affairs on the international level.
  • Stock Market Crash

    Stock Market Crash
    The downside with business during the 1920s was that it was only doing very well when people were purchasing many products. In the late 1920s, the population is going to stop needing products. Businesses begin to stall due to a lack of consumption and investors start to panic. These investors are going to pull out their investments and the stock prices plummet. It is the Stock Market Crash of 1929. On "Black Thursday", many people commit suicide due to the fact that they have been ruined.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    Caused by the Stock Market Crash, a terrible period of massive poverty began across the world known as The Great Depression. There was a cycle leading to poverty during this period: many people were fired due to lack of consumption; because more and more people couldn't afford products, there was a greater lack of consumption once again; and more people had to be fired once more. The economy was truly hit hard.
  • Government interventions to boost economy during The Great Depression

    Government interventions to boost economy during The Great Depression
    The government had to invervene during this time in order to assist the population. These solutions included: Direct aid, encouraged farming and the creation of work camps which all ultimately failed. However, the creation of public work projects so that many people were employed actually succeeded in boosting the economy. In addition to this, Canadian Prime Minister, Richard Bedford Bennet, inspired by United States president Roosevelt launched his "New Deal" to rebuild Canada.
  • Statute of Westminster

    Statute of Westminster
    The Statue of Westminster gave the Canadian federal government power over the country's external affairs.
  • New political ideaologies leading to World War II

    New political ideaologies leading to World War II
    After The Great Depression, many people realized that perhaps Capitalism was not the most ideal method. Many groups developed their own ideaologies. Communism indicated that the state controlled everything thus creating a more equal environment. Socialism was essentially an intermediate ideaology and implied that only key industries should be state owned. Fascism implied that one sole person ruled the state as a dictator. Adolf Hitler, a dictator, would eventually abuse his power as ruler.
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    World War II

    World War II was different than World War I in the sense that, now, people understood the brutality of war. This war came about due to the German dictator Adolf Hitler's mass genocide of people that he saw as unfit to live. This was a very serious ethical issue and many countries entered the war.
  • Canada during World War II

    Canada during World War II
    Now that Canada has the Statute of Westminster and power over their external afffairs, it enters the war independently. The effects of World War II on Canada were very similar to those of World War I. There were various war time restrictions and rationings; war-oriented production in factories; and women's increased participation. However, this War, there was a plebiscite to allow Prime Minister Mackenzie to institute conscription. This vote passed and conscription was implemented.
  • Period: to

    Second term in office of Maurice Duplessis

    After the War, the population wanted very few changes and a more stable lifestyle. In Quebec, the traditionalist Maurice Duplessis was elected as Premier. Duplessis supported the Roman Catholic Church as well as it's traditional control of education and hospitals; rural life because it was a more traditional lifestyle that caused little problems. Duplessis also favoured the non-interventionalism of the government in the economy and supported American investors for their large investments.
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    Second term in office of Maurice Duplessis (continuation)

    Maurice Duplessis was against unions, fiercely trying to put them down; and intellectuals such as journalists who questioned him and his traditionalist policies. Maurice Duplessis was a member of the Union National Party.
  • Canada post World War II

    Canada post World War II
    After World War II, very similar effects to World War I were produced in Canada. Firstly, there was a huge post-war prosperity. Many people and soldiers returning from war led to increased consumption. The economy therefore boomed. In addition to this, there was a heavy increase in population. As soldiers returned many families were being made. Also, there was a large wave of immigration coming from Europe after the war.
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    Baby boom

    After World War II, soldiers returned from war and many families were being made. The population grew enormously. This was in part due to the baby boom phenomenon which was a period characterized by a very high birth rate. Between 1946 and 1960, 135, 000 children were born each year in Quebec on average.
  • Major developments in Quebec under Maurice Duplessis

    Major developments in Quebec under Maurice Duplessis
    Under Duplessis, Quebec saw many changes. There was rural electrification. Because he supported the rural life, Duplessis brought electricity to the farms and by 1956, 90% of farms had electricity. The fleurdelisé was adopted as Quebec's flag. In 1954, Duplessis introduced provincial income tax. Quebec needs more sources of money because Duplessis does not accept federal compensations as he believes that the government will tell him how to use this money. Duplessis wants full control of Quebec.
  • Americanization of life

    Americanization of life
    After the end of World War II, the United States are going to become very prosperous and Canada will attempt to follow their lead. Quebec is going to become a lot more americanized with new consumer goods such as radios, televisions and cars.
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    Quiet Revolution (1960 - undefined end)

    After the period of Maurice Duplessis, Quebec saw a new Premier with opposite views; Jean Lesage of the Liberal Party. Quebec had been deprived of change for many years and therefore, during the 1960s many changes took place. This period of change was known as the Quiet Revolution. Firstly, the Quebec government began taking control of many different industries such as hydroelectricity which became a nationalized industry (Hydro-Quebec). The role of the state was heavily increased.
  • Quiet Revolution (continuation)

    Quiet Revolution (continuation)
    The Church no longer controlled education and healthcare and therefore the educational system was modernized. More people began attending university. The population was now mostly comprised of intellectuals rather than rural labour workers. Unions began to expand. Montreal became a much larger city as the Trans-Canada was expanded, the Montreal Metro was created and the city hosted Expo '67 (world exposition).
  • Growth of Quebec nationalism during the Quiet Revolution

    Growth of Quebec nationalism during the Quiet Revolution
    During the Quiet Revolution, many French were very upset due to the fact that Quebec should be recognized, in their minds, as solely French. The Front de libération du Québec was created in 1963 and was a terrorist organization demanding Quebec independence. In 1967, during Expo 67, French president de Gaulle proclaimed "Vive le Québec libre!". The Parti Québécois was formed in 1968 with former Liberal René Lévesque as the leader. This party sought Quebec independence.
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    October Crisis

    In October of 1970, British Trade Commissioner James Cross as well as Minister of Labour of Quebec Pierre Laporte were kidnapped by the FLQ (Front de libération du Québec). Pierre Laporte was eventually murdered by strangulation and his body was found in the trunk of a car. James Cross was eventually liberated. This crisis was very large in Canada as the Canadian military was sent to Quebec in order to regulate the situation. The crisis was finally resolved in December of 1970.
  • Constitution Act

    Constitution Act
    After the patriation of the Constitution, Canada made its very own ammendments to the Constitution in 1982 and implemented the Constituion Act. This new constitution included the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.