Jan 1, 1000
Natives in North AmericaNatives came 30 000 years ago.
(DATE ON TIMELINE NOT PRECISE)
The two main groups were the Iroquois, who lived in the low lands (along the rivers) and the Algonkians, who lived in the Canadian Sheild. They arrived by the Bering Land Strait Bridge.
Jan 1, 1500
Explorations to North America by EuropeansThe Europeans set off voyages with the goals of finding new routes to Asia since their original path was blocked by Ottoman Turks, bringing back riches, and claiming/finding lands. Jacques Cartier was insearch from this new route. He thought that he could pass the Atlantic Ocean to arrive to the Pacific, but North America was blocking his path. He made 3 voyages. His first two, he exlored the Gulf of St. Lawrencce and his third voyage, he attempted to set up a colonie, although it did not work.
Jan 1, 1534
French Regime (1534-1763)From 1534 to 1763
An area in North America, New France was colonized by France during the beginning of Jacques Cartier's explorations of Saint Lawrence River in 1534 and ending with the capitulation of New France to Britain in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris.
The First Trading PostSamuel de Champlain in 1608 and 1609 sets up the first trading post near Quebec City in New-France. Quebec was a destination very easy to locate since it is where the river narrows. The French Europeans traded with the Natives inexchange of furs for small metal tools. The fur trade began and was in high demande. And the 100 Associates took monopoly. Mercantilism was established and this financial organisation ran the colony for about 60 years.
Royal GovernmentKing Louise XIV wanted to colonise New France. He dispatches 2000 well trainted soldiers and removes the 100 Associates. He establishes Royal Government; where the King has absolute power- Minister of Marine- Souvereign Council (with a Governor, a Bishop, and an Intendant)- the Captain of Militia- the people. He is trying to make it a more settlement colony.
Seigniorial SystemThe seigniorial System was put to attempt the encouragement of bringing settlers. It attracted people through the farming system. When people came, there was a land prepared for them to settle on. A seigneur was incharge of splitting the land, building a mill and the church. Those who rented the land were censsitaires.
Jean Talon PoliciesTo increase the population of the colony and have more settlers arrive, Talon implies: when soldiers are done their service, they will recieve a free land; the filles du Roy (orphans) come and quickly marry; there is a fine for the unmarried; young married couples receive payments for the amount of chidren they have. These policies worked and in 1760, the population grew to 70 000. Although, the population of 13-Coloines was still much larger.
Expansion of TerritoryThe French are expanding their territory immensly due to the high demand of fur and in 1667, they are at their highest peek of expansion, surrounding the 13-Colonies.
Seven Years War (Capitulation of Quebec)From 1756 to 1763
France and England were in war and so New-France and the 13-Colonies were also in war since they are supporting their mother countries. 13-Colonies was trying to take over New-France. They sailed into Quebec (Battle of Plaines Abraham) with 200 ships in 1759 and took it over. In 1760, Monteal capitulates. During 1760-1763, whille the war is still in process in Europe, Quebec is controlled by the British Military Rule, ran by James Murray.
Treaty of ParisEnd of Seven Years War; Britain wins.
New-France is given to England. France now only has St. Pierre and Miquelon (for fishing base). And so now England has a 14th colony, Quebec.
Murray's AdjustmentsIt was very difficult to control Royal Proclamation since 99% of the population was french and all the laws were in english. Murray was tolerant and made some changes: allowed new Bishop, implied french civil laws, no elected assembly.
The English Merchants were very upset and demanded for a new Governor.
Guy Carleton came, taking Murray's position but kept his adjustments.
British Regime (1763-1982)Fom 1763 to 1982
After the Seven Years War, New France is given up to Britain by the Treaty of Paris. Britain receives a 14th colonie and now runs Quebec. When 1980 came, after Canada made the confederation and united, Canada (Trudeau) wanted to have full control over its country and so in 1982, Patriation of the Constitution was signed. This allowed Canada to have power to amend its constitution without England's permission. To this day, the Queen of England still represents the country.
Royal ProclamationRight as the war ends and Quebec is given to Britain, the English place a constitution, trying to assimilate the French.
-Provice of Quebec
-Area of Quebec was reduced to around St. Lawrence
Quebec ActThis constitution was created to gan the loyalty of th French.
-Enlarges Quebec area
-No elected assembly
-French civil laws applied
Declaration of IndependanceThe Americain revolution.
The Americans were getting very upset with Britian and started to revolte. They wanted to become independant.
The Americans argued, no taxation without representation. 13-Colonies were very unhappy; they did not receive Ohio- land they wanted and they were forced to pay taxes after the 7 years war.
Treaty of VersaillesThis peace treaty officialises the independence of the Americans, creating United States of America in 1783. Amercia's land enlargened and they gained Ohio.Those who stayed loyal to the King of England, the Loyalists were forced to leave America and enter a British colony. They all mainly went to Quebec which increased the english population.
Consitutional ActTo perserve the rights gained by the French while making the English and loyaylists that came happy, Canada split into two; Upper Canada- all English, and Lower Canada- almost entierly French. In both Canadas, there was a representatve government. This means that the people (landowning men over 21) vote for the legislative assembly. This assembly now were able to create projects favorable to the population. But, the Governor had veto power and shut down all their ideas.
War of 1812The Governor of France, Nepoleon is trying to take over all of Europe. This is really irritating England and so they stop the trades from America to France. Doing so, England needs ships and they look to Canada for timber (to build the ships). Timber trade becomes Canadas new main economy. Americanes
become very upset and attack Quebec although as the war ends, there is no winner.
RebellionsDue to veto power, the legislative assembly has no real say in the government and the political system is not listening to their demands. With the fustration of the population, a rebellion begins. Patriotes lead by Papineau in Lower Canada write 92 resolutions in 1834 and in 1837, they receive 10 resolutions written by Russell. It does not favour any of their demands and they begin to fight. Although, they quickly lose due to the fact that they were poorly organized and equiped.
Early 20th Century Influence of ChruchAfter 1837, the Bishop had a lot of power. The Catholic Churhc was incharge of registering briths, marriages, deaths, they controlled education, orphanages, shelters, charities and Chruch attendance was very high.
Durham's RecommendationDurham was sent to Canada to consult the causes that started the rebellion. He blames the French and states they must be
eliminated. Durham makes 3 recommendations:
-Assimilate the French
-Unite Upper and Lower Canada (English having majority)
-Give Responsible Government
The first 2 out of the 3 were excepted by the British but they rejected the third recommendation.
Act of UnionThe fourth constitution was made.
-United the Upper (Canada East) and Lower Canada (Canada West) creating Province of Quebec.
-Each part of Canada had 42 members in its assembly.
-Governor still had control and veto power.
-Both Canadas had to equally pay for Canada's debt.
Adoption of Responsible GovernmentIn 1848, Elgin adops Resposible Government. This means that the Executive Council is choosen by Legislative Assembly and the Governor and Legislative Council no longer have veto power.
End of Preferential Treatment, Begining of Free TradeBritain must end it's preferential treatment with Canada since they have a low credit and large dept. Canada is put under free trade (no custums or duties anywhere). Quickly, Canada needs a new trade alliance. They sign Reciprocity Treaty with the America in 1854 (proved advan for canadian producers since the State's were such a large market) and this trade alliance lasted 10 years.
Begining of the idea of ConfederationAfter the Reciprocity Treaty ended, Canada was stuck again. There were political, military and economic problems in Canada and so they wanted the unite with other provinces to create a stronger background (have a proper military, strong economy and working political system).
Confederation (Creation of Canada)-1st Conference: Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and PEI discuss idea of confederation in Charlottetown
-2ed Conference: in 1864, the previous provinces including NewfoundLand agree on 72 Resolutions in Quebec
NewfoundLand and PEI reject confederation since railray doesn't reach them.
-3rd Conference: in 1867, creation of Canada (N-B, N-S, Ontario, Quebec); Capital of Canada, Ottawa was created under British North America Act
Other provinces joined between 1870 and 1949
First Phase Industrialization in QuebecFirst phase industiralization in Quebec in 1867 to the 1900's. Factories began to develop, Skilled craaftmen using costly and time consuming methods were replaced with factories: first assembly line with a lot of workers
Montreal focused on food processinkg, textile and wood.
Working and Living Conditions during First Phase IndustrializationFacoties began to grow and develope immensly. The population in cities was increasing. There were very difficult working conditions in factories: dangerous, long hours, unheated, poorly ventilated, bad pay, people easily replaced, young children working. Workers united to form Unions and strikes. The living conditions of these empoyers were unwell: they lived in very small areas with most of the time large families, there was pollution everywhere and diseases were rampant.
British North America ActThis constitution contained the four provinces in the creation of Canada on the 1st of July: New-Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec as well as it created the capital of Canada: Ottawa
Growth of Canada (Post Confederation)Different provinces joined the confederation of Canada through out the years 1870 and 1949
Northwest Territories 1870
British Columbia 1871
Prince Edward Island 1873
Yukon Territory 1898
Population Changes during First Phase IndustrializationFrom 1871 to 1901, with the National Policy favouring immigration and birth, there was an increase in population and rose 30 to 50% in Quebec and Canada. Although, as time went by people began to leave Quebec. They emmigrated to urban centers where unskilled labourers were needed because: the farms in Quebec were over crowded, the Sates had a much larger market and better development and there were better jobs. People moved to US, Ontario, Western Canada and so the population of Quebec decreased
The National PolicyFederal government needed to unify all the different provinces since they were having a recession. John A. Macdonald formed a plan to promote national unity in 1878.
-Increase custom duties
NorthWest RebellionsThe Metis of Manitoba were not excepted, they considered themselves to be independant of Canadian laws. Lead by Louis Riel, he demanded for Metis to be respected (they lived on reserves but the federal government would always demand for them to move. Metis were tired of moving.) And a rebellion began, who ended by the hanging of Riel.
Boer WarIn 1898, the Boer war took place. In South Africa, Britain wanted to take over their land for the prize of the land and their diamonds. With this, they needed Canada's military support. Those who freely offered to help are imperialists while those who went against the idea of helping are nationalists.
Early 1900's Improvements in AgricultureThere were improvements in agriculture. Farmers moved away from subsidence farming and began to have farms specialize in one crop very well. People living out west cultivated cereal and wheat whie in Quebec, they produced dairy.
Early 20th Century Role of WomenIn the early 1900's, the woman had a very different role in ife from the men. They had hard lifes: married young with many children, forced to listen to husbands, long working days both at factories and homes, had worst jobs, very few rights, minimal education. If they did not enjoy or want this life, they had one other option, to become a nun.
Naval BillIn 1905, Britain wanted naval ships built and so Canada had to give their money, funds and material for this project to be compete. The nationalists were protesting this, not wanting to give their money for the benefit of Britain. The imperiaists offered their help with this roject as well as the Primeminister, Wolfred Lauriel, who was for it.
World War 11914 to 1918, World War 1 was in process. All countries went to war due to alliances that were created. World War 1 was a battle of Tritian (fight to the end). In Canada, home war effort was massive/total war (all men went to war and factories built military supplies. In Canada, no war was going on but everyone was giving their support.
During the war in Canada: conscription 1917 was forced, women obtained the right to vote for Federal elections 1918, Canada gets involved in peace talks 1919.
The Great DepressionThe cause of the Great Depression was from the stock market crash 1929: people were buying shares in companies on borrowed money, whent debts were called in the stocks were plummeted. Familes lost their jobs and began to starve. The government's solutions: direct aid, public work projects to boost economy, work camps, encouraged farming and the best soltuion -New Deal.
Second Phase IndustrializationThere was a post war economic and population boost. Second Phase Industrialization began (1900 to 1930): natural resources were exploited, new factoires, new railways built, new regions opened, working conditions were still very poor, women still had very difficult lives (poor jobs, inferior schooling).
New Political IdeologiesWith the Great Depression, it made people realize that Capitalism (free competition, government does not run buisnesses, demand/supplies should set the princes of goods and services, private sectors) may not be the ideal way of basing Canada's politics and economy. And so with New Deal, the government took charge and helped the country.
Statute of WestminsterIn 1931, Canada's federal government is given the power over its personal external affaires. This is presented by the statute of Westminster.
New Deal PolicyFirst implied by F.D.R (US President), New Deal policy is when the governmen itervenes to launch new large projects. Canadian Prime Minister Bennett released his New Deal (built reailways, roads -large public work projects). New Deal was their best solution because it gave people jobs and money even though the Government was going into debt.
World War 2From 1939 to 1945, World War 2 took place. Canada was under war mode/home war effort (men went to war and women were put in factories) . In this war, Canada decided to go to war on its own (Statue of Westminister). There was a conscription crisis: Prime Minister had a Publecite (public vote) were it was decided that conscription would be put if necessary, but conscription was not implemented. In 1939, women gain the right to vote for provincal elections. Post war prosperity was visible after war
Maurice Duplessis as Primer of QuebecMaurice Duplessis was the Primer of Quebec from 1944 to 1959 with his party, Union National. He defended provincal autonomy. After the war, poeple didn't want change and want same traditional values. Duplessis was for little government, chruch power, rural life and Quebec's independance (but not separation). He was against government intervention, government control, unions, Canadian envolvment, or intelectuals/journalists (those who would questiom him).
Duplessis's adjustments (1950's Traditional Peroid)-Dupessis adopted the fleurdelise as Quebec's flag in 1948.
-He introduces provincial income ta in 1954 (does not want Federal government involved in Quebec).
-Government took a program for rural electrification and by 1956, 19% of farms had electricity.
-Pad Lock in 1937 was implied (permitted to close company and employers would all be laid off, helped prevent strikes).
-Population growth: increased immigration from Europe, high brith rate (baby boom).
-Americanization of life (radio, TV).
Quiet Revolution (Peroid of Modernization)Liberal Party took new control after Union National and they had very different ideas. There main features involved:
-To make Quebec government the major force behind Quebec's social and economic development: increasing role of State.
-Hydro Quebec: now government owned
-Trans Canada, Montreal Metro
-Church no longer controls education. Minister of education takes control.
-Health Care no longer controlled by Chruch; Medicare.
Creation of F.L.QThe F.L.Q is a terrorist organization who want Quebec French people to not be treated as second class. Their main goal was to attain independance for Quebec.
-They bomb small mail boxes and Montreal stock exchange.
1960 Changes-Women gain more euality (women are now allowed to work in Government).
-There is a Canadian expansion
-Canada gets a new flag, pushed by Lester Pearson in 1964.
-Goverment takes control of activites that belonged to the Church.
-Flair of sovereignty (supreme power or authority) continues to grow.
Creation fo Parti QuebecoisIn 1966, Rene Levesque quit the liberal party to form the Mouvement Souverainte assosiation (MSA) with RIN and RN to form Parti Quebecois in 1968.
October CrisisThe October Crisis in 1970, was Canada's worst crisis since the Second World War. There were radical events the FLQ raised for the ideas on separatism; fed by nationalist discontent and rising unemployment. It quickly became the most serious terrorist act in Canada when the FLQ kidnapped James Cross and Pierre Laporte. Afterwards, Trudeau calls for the army and hundrends of FLQ members are arrested.
Patriation of the ConstitutionIn 1980, Trudeau wanted Canada to have power to amend the consitution without the permission of Britain. And in 1982, the constitution act did exactly that. The Queen of England brought the constitution to Canada and it was signed over to Trudeau in 1980.