History Timeline

  • The Start of the "Hudson's Bay Company"

    The Start of the "Hudson's Bay Company"
    King Charles II of England granted HBC monoply on all trading that was around the Hudson Bay. This territory was named "Rupert's Land". No people colonized, only a few forts were built for trading.
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    Hudson's Bay Company controlled Rupert's Land

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    Seven Years' War

    A global military conflict, caused by mainly trading rights
  • The Fall of General Montcalm

    General James Wolfe of Britain defeated General Montcalm of France (Sevem Years War).
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    British Colonial Rule

  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    This treaty was signed to end the "Seven Years' War". The French, who were defeated were able to keep 2 small islands off of Newfoundland.
  • Royal Proclamation

    The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7th after the 7 Years War. The purpose of the proclamation was to create order between Great Britain's new North American Empire and to keep realtions with the Native North Americans, The Royal Proclamation is still of legal importance. Many French speakers resided in Quebec so they were to follow British culture. The British used assimilation to immerse the French into the British culture, hoping they would adopt.
  • Stamp Act

    Because of the stamp act, riots were started and so were rebellion forces. Finally, it was taken off in 1766.
  • The Quebec Act

    This "Act" allowed the Canadiens to maintain their French culture. Doing so, the British hope to get loyalty from the French, strengtehn the British Empire, and gain profit from rich fur producing areas around Quebec.
  • Loyalist Migration

    After surrendering the lands south of the Great Lakes to America after the British lost the War of Indenpendance (American Revolution), loyalists in this area endured animosity from the Partiots and migrated North.
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    North West Company

    At the time, HBC was huge. People who weren't working for the HBC soon developed the North West Company, who's base was in Montreal. This competition led to further exploration to the west. In 1821, both companies came to an agreement and merged into the Hudson Bay Company.
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    Fur Trading At It's Peak

  • 2 New Colonies

    The Atlantic and Nova Scotians had a lot of loyalists, therefore, the Birtish government created 2 new colonies: New Brunswick Colony and the Cape Breton Island.
  • Constitutional Act 1791

    Problems arose between those English speakers who moved into Quevec and the French who were there. This led to the "Comstitutional Act of 1791" that slpit Upper and Lower Canada to Canada West and Canada East respectively. Both had the right to vote.
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    War of 1812

    War between USA and Great Britain. Major battles were fought in Upper and Lower Canada. There was no clear winner in the war. Sir Issac Brock was the British Army Officer who led his army in defending Upper Canada agianst the United States. The British had Cheif Tecumseh, a Native who was angered by the U.S trying to expand into Native territory. The Native allied with Upper Canada and 600 Indians fought alongside Brock.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Peace Treaty that ended the War of 1812
  • The Great Migration

    A period of high immigration to Canada. Involved 800,000 immigrants.
  • Welland Canal

    A canal built to bypass Niagra Falls.
  • Act of Union

    Recommended uniting the two Canadas and granting responsible governmentto BNA colonies
  • Repeal of the Corn Laws

    Britain stopped importing "cheap wheat" from BNA because they were losing money
  • Responsible Government was acheived

    Responsible Government was acheived
    Due to conflict, responsible government was acheived
  • Rebellion Losses Bill

    Gave the people in Canada East compensation for what they lost during the rebellions in the years 1847 and 1848.
  • Burning of the Parliament Builiding

    Because majority wanted the Rebellion Losses Bill to pass, Lord Elgin was forced to sign it, although later it created a mob and they burned down the parliament building.
  • Political Deadlock and Rep by Pop

    During the 1850s, the government has become ineffective due to political deadlock and rep by pop.
  • Industrial Revolution

    The beginning of the Industrial Revolution (the date should be the mid- 19th century since there was no specific date).
  • Gold found in Fraser River

    Attracts settlers to move into this region. They built farms, ignored native rights, they damaged communities and land, and built sawmills.
  • Fraser River Gold Rush

    Gold was found in Fraser River, BC. This was one of the main reasons why people settled in BC early on before letting Canada expand westwards.
  • Quebec Conference

    The conference following the Charlottetown Conference This was to further discuss Canadian Confederation. This Conference led to the Seventy-Two Resolutions.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    Discussion between Canada East, Canada West, New Burnswick, Nova Scotia, and PEI. This conference was to encourage a more positive outlook on confederation.
  • Seventy-Two Resolutions

    A list of resolutions for the unification of Canada to be successful
  • Alaska

    The U.S.A. purchased Alaska from Russia which later resulted in Canada buying Rupert's Land in 1869.
  • Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia

    Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia join confederation
  • Red River Rebellion

    Red River Rebellion
    The rebellion from the Metis for ruining their traditions, taking thier land, etc.
  • Rupert's Land

    Rupert's Land was bought by Canada.
  • Surveyors in Assinboia

    Surveyors were sent to Assinboia to divide lands and roads. Land division was in the British fashion (grids), and not the equitable seigneural system. The settlers and Metis were not consulted and took away chains that the surveyors left. Soon, the surveyors left.
  • McDougall

    McDougall appointed as governor of Assinboia, but was blocked by 14 armed Metis.
  • Upper Fort Garry

    Metis National Committee seized Fort Garry, which was the headquarters of HBC. On the same day, Riel met with 12 English and 12 French representatives to negotiate.
  • John Schultz

    John Schultz
    Canadian Party led by John Schultz wanted Assinboia to be taken over by Anglophone and Protestants. On this day, Riel, along with 50 other Metis surrounded Schultz, who was improsined along with 50 other guards (THEY ALSO GRABBED PORK).
  • Provisional Government (Metis)

    The Metis had a provisional governemnt set up. The Metis Bill of Rights was drawn up. Conditions were that the Canadian Government had to abide by. The Metis Bill of Rights stated that the NWT has to enter confederation, they should have their own Legislative Assembly to pass local laws, seperate schools for religiona nd money, both French and English to be recognized, any male over 21 can vote, and an amnesty for those who were involved in the Resistance
  • Thomas Scott

    Thomas Scott
    Thomas Scott was captured by the Metis but was a very foul mouthed, racist orangemen. After escaping several times, he was always recaptured. Soon, he was excuted by a firing squad. This led to all the Anglophones thinking Riel was a murderer.
  • NWT

    North West Territories joins confederation
  • B.C.

    British Columbia joins Confederation as the 6th Province
  • A Bribery

    Sir Hugh Alan, a man who wanted the conservatives to win gave $360,000 (7M) to MacDoanld. This is not allowed and was "leaked out" to the public.
  • Dominion Land Act

    Because there was a need of people expanding westward, the Dominion Land Act was put in place. This involved a $10 registration fee. They must work on their land (up to 65 acres of land given) for at least 3 years to keep it, otherwise, the land is lost along with the $10.
  • Clifford Sifton

    This man was a Canadian politician (Minister of the Interior) and was best known for his false advertisement in Europe. He invited beautiful men and women to give out advertisements, indirectly showing the settlers in Europe and giving them the thought "Canada has beautiful men and women". Obviously, this was not completely true.
  • P.E.I

    Prince Edward Island joins confedearation as the 7th province.
  • NorthWest Mounted Police

    NorthWest Mounted Police
    John A MacDoanld started the NWMP to control whisky trade in the western prairies, to maintain order, and to stop the invasion of the U.S.
  • Sam Steele

    Sam Steele
    An honest man that was sent to the praries to negotiate treaties with the Natives. He was very nice to the Natives.
  • Liberals

    Soon later, the liberals were in power since the word that MacDonald took $360,000 dollars from Alan was released. William Lyon Mackenzie took his place. He started the secret ballot and the documentation of everything.
  • Indian Act

    This act was for people who were Natives to have their own "status", which was called the Indian Status. Only full blooded Indians could get this status, so no Metis got this status. They would be supported by the government but had to right to vote or to drink alcohol. Timber can be taken from their land and if they wanted to vote, they had to give up their indian status.
  • National Policy

    MacDonald introduces what's called a National Policy. It called for high tarrifs on imported products. After introducing this policy, MacDonald wins the elections again, but the problem is the Liberals didn't care about the CPR and they had to get it done within the 10 years. Raw materials would be cheaper because of the National Policy.
  • The second provisional government

    The Metis seizes a protestant chruch to set up a second provisional government, once again, led by Louis Riel (who came back to support the Metis from the US).
  • Battle of Duck Lake

    After Louis riel realized that war was afoot, he appointed Gabriel Dumont as his military commander. During this war, he fought with the Cree and Metis fighters and fored the police and the army to retreat. Guerilla tactics were used.
  • Massacre at Frog Lake

    A breakaway band of Plains Cree attacked Frog Lake in the attempt to attack Thomas Quinn, an Indian agent who has mistreated the Cree. He was shot after refusing to go with the captors.
  • Battle of Fish Creek

    Dumont took about 150 First Nation and Metis fighters to attack government soldiers at Fish Creek. The government soldiers were attacked by surprise. After killing a significant number a causalties, reinforcements arrived and both sides withdrew from the area.
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    Battle of Batoche

    Riel was unhappy with Dumont's progress so ordered him to stop guerrila compaigns and ordered him to defend Batoche. This was an error; it allowed the army to concentrate their forces on one spot. 900 soldiers attacked the 300 Metis, Cree, and Dakota defenders but were eventually defeated. Louis Riel was captured and arrested while Dumont fled to America.
  • Yukon

    Yukon joins confederation
  • Alberta and Saskatchewan

    Alberta and Saskatchewan join confederation.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador

    Newfoundland and Labrador
    Newfoundland and Labrador joins conderation
  • Nunavut

    Nunavut joins confederation. Canada is completed (or is it?).