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Economy and Development of Quebec

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Aboriginal Trade Network

    Aboriginal Trade Network
    The different nomadic and sedentary societies would use the barter system, goods for others goods, to get different resources their group wouldn't be able to get. They'd travel long distances using snowshoes and canoes, but trade would take time. One of the most precious goods traded were obsidian tools, due to their durability. Trade also effected diplomatic ties between tribes, and it was essential to maintaining good relationships with the others. Trade was always based off subsistence.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Economy and Development

  • Jan 1, 1510

    Division of Labour Amongst Algonquins

    Division of Labour Amongst Algonquins
    In Algonquin tribes, men were responsible for hunting and fishing of large game, the woodcutting and construction of wigwams and canoes, trade and war with other tribes. The women on the other hand, would gather food, fish and hunt smaller game,maintain the homestead, cook, sow, and raise the children through care and education.
  • Jan 1, 1510

    Division of Labour Amongst Iroquians

    Division of Labour Amongst Iroquians
    In Iroquois tribes, men would be responsible for the clearing of lands that they'd later build their long houses on, seasonal hunting, crafting of their tools and weapons, and trade and war with other tribes. The women on the other hand would farm, gather local food, fish and hunt small game, maintain the longhouses, cook, sow, and raise the children through care and education.
  • Jan 1, 1510

    Division of Labour Amongst Inuits

    Division of Labour Amongst Inuits
    While extremely similar to Algonquin tribes, there are slight variations between them and the Inuits. Men were still responsible for hunting and fishing of large game which was necessary to their survival, the construction of igloos, but not trade and war with other tribes, as the groups were too isolated. The women on the other hand, would gather food, fish and hunt smaller game, maintain the homestead, cook, sow, and raise the children through care and education.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    European Fishing

    European Fishing
    As a result of massive periods forbidding the consumption of meat being prescribed by the church, fish became a popular alternative to Western Europeans, primarily Roman Catholics. In the New World, Cod was extremely plentiful, so many would arrive during the summers to fish. So that the fish would stay preserved, the Europeans would have to salt or dry the cod on land, which led to interactions with the natives. These Europeans would trade their objects made in Europe (mirrors, beads) for furs.
  • Jan 1, 1580

    The Rise of the Fur Trade

    The Rise of the Fur Trade
    Overtime, Europeans (especially the French) became obsessed with furs, mostly beavers, due to their extremely high selling prices back home. There, they'd be transformed into stylish hats. This resulted in a shift from fishing to hunting and trading for furs with Aboriginals as the century came to a close. It would also lead to France developing their first permanent colonies in the New World.
  • Charter Company System

    Charter Company System
    As the 17th century began, monopolies are given out by French administration, in hopes that the companies would settle. They didn't, and it occurred due to its poor profits, and the risks of having many men at trading posts. It was fazed out by 1627
  • Period: to

    French Regime

    The period in which France occupied what would be Quebec, Ontario and multiple Central and Southeast States. It began with the foundation of Quebec, and officially ended with the signature of the Royal Proclamation.
  • Company of 100 Associates

    Company of 100 Associates
    Angered by the results of the Charter companies, the King of France establishes the Company of 100 Associates, which mandated the population of the territory. 100 shareholders received profits that the companies fur related profits generated
  • Alliances and Rivalries

    Alliances and Rivalries
    The fur trade was built on interaction between the Natives and French. In exchange for the furs, the French would provide technologies and protection. The French primarily engaged with the Algonquians (Montagnard and Huron), as they were the first they met. Comically, the English engaged with Iroquois, in opposition to the French's alliance. Overtime, the Hurons are decimated by disease and war with the Iroquois
  • King Louis XIV and French Control

    King Louis XIV and French Control
    Following taking power, King Louis the fourteenth decides that the Company of 100 Associates is too incompetent at populating New France, so he decides the French State should take over administration. He installs Jean Talon as Intendent, who implements policies to raise the population size as well as diversifying the economy away from just furs. France wanted to create a market in New France where it could sell its finished products and exploit the colony's natural resource (Mercantilism).
  • Commerce and Exploration

    Commerce and Exploration
    Many exploratory expeditions were launched around the Great Lakes Region, Ohio, and along the Mississippi. They built Trading Posts, Warehouses, and Forts along in their territory, but there was no permanent settlements built, allowing the region to be loosely owned with no clear boundaries. Jean Talon was in favour of the expansions, as it increased fur trade profits.
  • Period: to

    Peace Treaty between French and Iroquois

    Over this time period, French are able to explore the Great Lakes Region without fear of attack.
  • The Hudson's Bay Company

    The Hudson's Bay Company
    New French explorers; Horsepower and Radisson explore the northern section of Ontario and Quebec, forming close ties with the Algonquians there and discovering a large supply of wildlife that can provide furs. After returning to the cities, the state decided not to fund a proper expedition. The English were more than willing however, and a Maritime expedition was funded in 1668. The territory became contested, as the English claimed the land though it was rightfully France, who wasn't using it.
  • Mercantilism

    An economic theory and practice based on a nation's accumulation of gold and silver through colonizing territories that had natural resources to export. Those exports would be transformed in the Mother Country; in this case France. Production in the colony (New France) was limited, so that demand from France would remain high.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    As a result of Mercantilism, New France was responsible for the exportation of primary resources; such as furs, lumber, and fish. This formed a web of trade amongst France and its colonies. Caribbean islands shipped out sugar, rum, coffee, and molasses (only N.F), while the mother country used these natural resources to manufacture goods. The goods would be sold to the colonies
  • Shipbuilding and Ironworks

    Shipbuilding and Ironworks
    A Royal Navy shipyard is established in Quebec City, which built warships for France. It lead to the development of other sectors, like rope manufacturersnand barrel builders. At the same time, Ironworks opens in Trois-Rivières, due to the high iron content in the area. That encouraged pot and plumbing services to open in the area. This led to a rise in craftspeople in the cities, like wigmakers and coopers, who'd then travel to rural areas to sell their products.
  • Period: to

    British Occupation

    The period in which England occupied what would be Quebec, Ontario and several Maritime Provinces. It began with the signature of the Royal Proclamation, and officially ended with the forming of the Canadian Confederation.
  • The Fall of the Fur Trade

    The Fall of the Fur Trade
    Following conquest, in which all French merchants were replaced by English, the demand for furs fell. This was primarily caused by England's lack of interest in the style. All of the other sectors related to the exploitation of natural resources of remained
  • The Rise of Agriculture through Protectionism

    The Rise of Agriculture through Protectionism
    A sharp rise in agricultural production occurred towards the beginning of the 19th century, due to preferential tariffs that encouraged the growing and exporting of wheat. These tariffs were called the corn laws, and we're an example of Protectioniste policies. These were put in place to stimulate the local market. This would continue until 1847, with the installation of Free Trade.
  • The Rise of the Timber Trade

    The Rise of the Timber Trade
    England's demand for wood rose quickly at the beginning of the 19th century. The rise was caused by Napoleon's naval blockade and continental embargo on England, as he attempted to become to ruler of all of Europe. Due to the British not being able to access Mainland Europe, they turned to their colony, British North America, which had an ample supply. Along with the creating of the B.M.O, which allowed credit and investment, new jobs (lumberjacks, loggers) sprung up in new areas, like Saguenay.
  • Britain's Free Trade

    Britain's Free Trade
    Towards the middle of the 19th century, Britain ends its protectionist policies, and installs Free Trade Policies, which partially or completely removed customs and duties between trading countries. In conjunction with these adoptions, in 1849, Navigation Laws were also abolished, allowing any country's ships, specifically merchants, to dock at British Ports. This forces many of England's colonies, including British North America, to diversify their economy. A need for new markets arises.
  • Reciprocity Treaty between British North America and the United States

    Reciprocity Treaty between British North America and the United States
    In response to the need of new markets, British North America signed a reciprocity treaty with the US. The treaty wiped customs and duties between the two, which was primarily used for the exchange of raw materials and primary manufactured products, like flour and sawed wood. It lasted only 10 years, as America didn't appreciate dealing with British Merchants.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary Times

    The period in which Canada is an independent nation formed of multiple provinces and territories. It began with the forming of the Canadian Confederation and continues to this day.
  • First Phase of Industrialization

    First Phase of Industrialization
    As the 19th century grew to a close, a major shift occurs from skilled craftsmen manufacturing goods to factory production of goods. This was a result of the craftsmen's slow and costly methods being overwhelmed by the emergence of factories, whose cheap and fast methods became more sought after, even with its dangers and repetitiveness. This causes the creation of capitalism (trade and industry being controlled by private owners for profit), using British Capital. It also causes a Rural Exodus.
  • Workers of The First Phase of Industrialization

    Workers of The First Phase of Industrialization
    The workers in factories stemmed from 2 locations: a rural exodus and the immigrants. The industrialization also went to farms, reducing the amount of man power needed on them. That left many children of farmers without a job, who left their country lives for the city. Meanwhile, many immigrants came from Europe, especially Irish (w/ Potato Famine), who'd work for very little. All of these working-class workers lived in horrible buildings, made of wood, with no water, electricity or toilets.
  • The National Policy of John A. Macdonald

    The National Policy of John A. Macdonald
    John A. Macdonald, the first and current Prime Minister at the time, implemented his National Policy in 1876. It installed several benefits to settle the West which was to enlarge the Canadian market.The construction of a railroad from East to West made transport easier. The Policy also increased custom and duties, in order to protect and promote Canadian industries by rising the price of American goods.
  • Industries of the First Phase of the Industrailization

    Industries of the First Phase of the Industrailization
    The rise of new technologies allowed for new industries to sprout out, which included Food Processing (Flour Mills, brewing, meat packaging, etc.), which would eventually shift to dairy, Leather (tanning, boots, etc.), Textiles (spinning and weaving), Tobacco (cigars, cigarettes, etc.) and Wood (sawmills, pulp and paper, etc.), in new areas. All of these industries led to the development of unions, who fought for the rights of workers. However, many of them are striked down.
  • Economic Jurisdictions

    Economic Jurisdictions
    Following the British North America Act, aspects of the economy were divided between the Federal and Provincial Governments. The Federal is responsible for money, banking, and regulation of trade, while the Provincial is in charge of economic development, licence granting, sale of public land, and direct taxation. They are both in charge of natural resource management, agriculture, and immigration.
  • Second Phase of Industrialization

    Second Phase of Industrialization
    Between 1900 and 1929, hydroelectricity, oil and cars explode on the seen. Also during this time, Canadians lower costs to compete with the US and England. 3 conditions exaggerated this phase: wheat for the growth of the population, foreign investments to improve others profits, and the rise in production during the First World War thanks to not fighting on their own territory. This all leads to the beginning of mass consumption.
  • Exploitation of Natural Resources

    Exploitation of Natural Resources
    During the second phase of industrialization, many new resources open up. Firstly, hydroelectricity becomes a new technology easily applicable in Quebec due to its many waterways. Many factories build alongside rivers to take advantage. Pulp and paper grow with the need for writing. Mining rises with Quebec's natural sources, especially with foreign investment. Electricity also flourishes, with streetcars and lights for the rich. Finally, the Dairy sector rises, and is still present today.
  • Worker Demands

    Worker Demands
    As factories grow, so do the demands of its workers. In 1885 the Manufactures Act is passed, which forced employees to limit work weeks to 72.5 hours for men, and 60 hours for women. It also prevented boys under 12 from being hired, and girls under 14. In 1921, specific unions develop, including the CTCC, which demanded safer conditions and higher wages. They're now the CSN, FTQ, and CSQ. The Catholic Church also supported the establishments of unions.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    Preceded by the Roaring Twenties; characterized by overspending and the rise of entertainment, the Great Depression was caused by an overproduction and accumulation of products. This accumulation caused a fall in prices, which lowered the companies' stocks' value. This led to lack of profits, resulting in layoffs, which weakened an already weak consumer purchasing, perpetuating the cycle. By 1933, 50% of Canadian exports disappeared, and 25% of Canadians weren't working,
  • State Intervention

    State Intervention
    Following the failure to prevent the massive crash that was the Great Depression, the government began experimenting with ways to fix the economy. They attempted to implement protectionists, but that only lowered the demand for foreign products. Eventually solutions arise, in the form of public work projects, direct aid, and the encouragement of farming. These don't recover the market, but does allow people to survive. The real fix arrives with World War II, with the shift to a war economy.
  • The Impact of The Second World War

    The Impact of The Second World War
    The war production sharply rises in conjunction with the National Resources Mobilization Act, which allowed the government to take any available resource in the country. The raised taxes, sale of victory bonds, and expansion of industrial sectors lead to a period of prosperity following the war, called the Baby Boom. Consumerism rises in the form of Mass Consumption, and the Tertiary sector grows substantially. This also leads to a lot of public investment in the 1960s.
  • Sectors of Industry and The Rise of The Tertiary Sector

    Sectors of Industry and The Rise of The Tertiary Sector
    Industries are divided between 3 sectors: Primary, which involves the extraction of resources, Secondary, which involves the processing/refinement of resources, and Tertiary, which is the retail of a product or services. Following the Baby Boom, the previously smaller Tertiary sector explodes, and Primary and Secondary industries fall behind.
  • Economy Since 1970

    Economy Since 1970
    Government's regulation intervene in the economy to prevent fluctuations leads to major political, social, cultural and economic changes as Canada becomes a welfare state. This period is called The Quiet Revolution. These changes are nearly all positive. In 1979, the creation of OPEC curbs oil production and raises prices significantly, and during the 1980s, in response to debt caused by social programs, public corporations are sold, like Petro Canada. Now, Canada involves itself in Free Trade.