Apr 29, 1500
Natives-Iroquois and Algonkians
Period: Apr 29, 1500 to
Official power and countervailing powers
Apr 29, 1520
Iroquois-Society was a Matriarchy.
-Leadership and decision making was the responsibility of women.
-Women where the heads of the clan.
Apr 29, 1540
Algonkians-Society was a Patriarchy.
-Father played vital leadership role.
Relations Between Ameriandien and colonial administration-Alliance with Hurons and Algonquoins
-Natives helped in them with trade
-Engilsh fought with iroquoi against the french and hurons for control of the fur trade
-Huron where almost wiped out
Church and State-Clergy was everywhere (Priests in charge of parishes (cure) Priests working as missionaries, nun working in hospitals.
-Church is implicated in political decisions (Sovereign Council).
Starting of the Royal Government-King had all the power (Divine right of kings).
-Old system the companies who held a monopoly were almost destroying New France.
-King ended that and put New France under the minister of marine (Jean-Baptiste Colbert) Him and Louis 14 then implemented a new government.
The Royal Government.-Louis 14 and Jean-Baptiste Colbert Implemented it.
-The Sovereign Council now ran new France.
-Governor commander of army, defence, dealt with external affairs, had veto power (English colonies, Natives).
-Intendant chief administrator, controlled budget, collecting taxes, justice, seigniorial system, built roads, set up industries.
-Bishop appointed by the Pope,administered over Parish Priests, hospitals, schools, charities.
-King still had veto power on all decisions.
Life in New France-Hard working (worked all day) but almost always had food to eat.
-Settlers where self dependent.
The Great Peace of Montreal-Was a treaty between New France and 40 first nation of North America.
-Louis-Hector de Callière, governor of New France, and 1300 representatives of 40 aboriginal nations signed the treaty.
-16 years of peaceful relations and trade before war started again.
Articles of Capitualtion-The French Militia went home, no one would lose their property
The French Profefianal military would give up there weaponds and leave
-The Biship left
-Everyone there would be British Subjects.
British Military Rule-James Murray.
-War was over in New France but not in Europe (7 years war).
-Waited until war ended in Europe to put in a constitution.
-Treaty of paris ending the 7 year war gave all of New France to The -British except the islands of miquelon and st. Pierre.
Royal Proclamation-to assimulate the french
-The province of quebec was the new name
-decreases the borders to just around the St-Lawrence river valley.
-The King appointed a Governor who then appointed members of an Executive Council to advise him.
- English Criminal and Civil laws were applied.
- Unused land would be divided by the Township System
-No new Bishop would be allowed
-No Roman Catholics could hold public office (Test Act)
Governors difficulties-James Murray was the first governor (he knew it would be hard to assimilate the french because they where the majority.
-To make the french happy he:- brought a new bishop,-applied the french civil laws,- allowed french laws in court,-did not call an elected assembly.
-Brought in Guy Carleton and he felt the same way about assimilating the french.
Quebec Act-Implemented to make the french and english happy in Quebec.
-Enlarges the area of Quebec.
-Appointed council (min.17 members).
-French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigniorial system are back.
-This made the americans very made.
Population in Quebec-After in American revolution the loyalist came to quebec
-increase of population of english in quebec 1% to 10%
-they sent petitions to london because they didnt like all the french rules
-they got there wish with the The Constitutional Act
The Constitutional Act-The Province of Quebec was split in two Upper Canada and Lower Canada.
-Lower Canada was French (160 000 people).
-Upper Canada was English (20,000 people).
-The Ottawa River would be the boundary between them.
-The each had there own civil laws.
Representative Government-King at the top then British Parliament followed by the governor who had veto power.
-Each Canada had Lieutenant Governor,Executive Council,Legislative Council,Legislative Assembly, population.
Rebellion-Constitutional goverment had lots of flas one being that the population had no real power
-two parties formed (British Party Controlled the councils, spent money on public works) and the (Parti Canadian (Parti Patriote): Controlled the assembly, power over taxes)
Rebelion continuation-The two groups were so different no negotiations could occur.
The assembly wanted the councils to be elected. More and more immigrants were arriving making land/jobs scarce.
-The leader of the Patriotes was Louis Joseph Papineau he wrote 92 Resolutions (a list of the assemblies demands) their main demand was for Responsible Government.
-Lord John Russell responded with the 10 Resolutions(didn't respond to any of there demands).
Rebellion continued-Rebellion broke out in both Canada’s.
-Upper Canada’s Rebellion was lead by William Lyon Mackenzie and quickly ended.
-Lower Canada’s Rebellion was lead by Louis Joseph Papineau and after many battles the rebellion was put down.
-In the end 12 Patriotes and 58 were exiled to Australia.
Act of Union-Was created because of Lord Durham’s Recommendations-Creates the Prov. of Canada, Canada East and West.
-Canada east and west each had 42 members to its assembly.
-Canada east and west would equally pay for Canada’s debts (Canada West owed 10 times more than East).
-Still responsible gov with governor had veto power but many elected not to use it.
The Charlottetown Conference-Political system was responsible.
-No party had majority so no laws could applied.
-The party leaders agreed a merger was necessary.
-Leaders of Canada East and West meet with the leaders of three Maritime Provinces (NB,NS,PEI).
-They left considering a merger.
The Quebec Conference-Same members as the last conference with the addition of Nfld They agreed on 72 resolutions that would make the merger possible.
-The major who was build a railway through the colony.
-Nfld and PEI didn't join.
-The assembly of the Canada’s passed confederation.
The London conference-The 4 colonies went to London to get out of the British Empire to become a new self governing colony.
-Called the dominican of Canada.
-Capital was Ottawa.
-(ONT, QC, NB, NS) was the provinces.
Contemporary Period-1867 -Present
The Roman Catholic Church-Controled education,hospitals and welfare plus orphanage
-It was also influential in government, unions and the caisses populaires
-promoted large families, rural life, and Christian values.
Maurice Duplessis-believe that the state should not intervene in either the social or economic sectors he favored the church
-promoted traditional values for example he pushed for more people to move to rural areas
-he didnt like unions
-he was a natiolist
-adopting the fleurdelisé as Quebec's flag
Quiet revolution-Make the government the major force behind Quebec's social and economic development.
-Modernize Quebec's educational system and to allow it to catch up to the other provinces in Canada.
-To weaken the influence of the Church.
-Period of modernization
Seperatiste-Some nationalist if not most in Quebec wanted to separate from Canada.
-Rene Levesque created the Parti Quebecois whose main objected was to separate from Canada.
Oka Crisis-Oka Crisis
-Mohawk made road blocks on their reserve in Oka because the government wanted to build a golf cource on sacred ground.
- lasted 78 days
-The Charlottetown Accord was created to deal with these issues.