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Official Power and Countervailing Power

  • Nov 22, 1500

    Official Power for the First Occupants

    Official Power for the First Occupants
    For the Iroquois, the society was a Matriarchy. This means that the leadership and decision making was the responsibility of women. For the Algonquians, the society was a Patriarchy, meaning that the father played the vital leadership role.
  • Period: Nov 22, 1500 to

    Official Power and Countervailing Power

  • French Strategic Alliances

    French Strategic Alliances
    At the beginning of the French Regime, strategic military alliances were formed in order to protect their economic interests in the fur trade. The French allied with the Hurons, who were the primary group to trade with the French. The French and the Hurons fought against the Iroquois over control of the fur trade territory, and lost. The French fought against the Iroquois take over until about 1703.
  • English Strategic Alliances

    English Strategic Alliances
    At the beginning of the French Regime, strategic military alliances were formed for in order for the English to protect their economic interests in the fur trade.The English allied with the Iroquois, and they fought against the French (and Hurons) for control over the fur trade.
    Competition increased as the British replaced the Dutch in Albany.
  • Coureurs des Bois

    Coureurs des Bois
    The native allies of the French have been destroyed by the Iroquois. The French were forced to go out and collect furs deeper into the forest.
    The coureurs des bois are formed. They are French settlers who travel deep into the forest, live with the natives much of the year, and trade with the Amerindians
  • Power relations between the Church and the State

    Power relations between the Church and the State
    The Church is in political decisions because of its role in the Sovereign Council. The Clergy was everywhere: in hospitals, education, charities, and more. King Louis XIV assumes power based on the principle of Divine right of Kings. He ended the monopoly of the companies that were almost destroying New France. The King placed New France under the Minister of Marine who was Jean-Baptiste Colbert. The King and Jean-Baptiste Colbert implemented the Royal Government in 1663.
  • The Royal Government (Part 1)

    The Royal Government (Part 1)
    The Royal Government was implemented in 1663. The The King and the Minister of Marine would remain in France as the Sovereign Council ran New France directly. The governor, the intendant, the bishop, and the captain of militia all had roles in this council. The governor was at the highest rank in the Council. He had veto power, was the commander of the army, and dealt with external affairs.
  • The Royal Government (Part 2)

    The Royal Government (Part 2)
    The intendant was the most influential, and essentially controlled the finances and land organization of the colony. The Bishop was appointed by the Pope, and he was in charge of the religious aspect of the colony. The Captain of Militia, though he was not on the Council, still had power. He dealt with issues on seigneuries.
  • Power relations between the colony and the mother country

    Power relations between the colony and the mother country
    The mother country complete influence of the power of the colony. There was an absolute monarchy: The king named administrators of the colony and could reverse any decisions they made.
  • Life in New France

    Life in New France
    Settlers in New France had happy lives, but much work was required. Everyday work was to be done, such as caring for crops, making clothes, fixing tools, and preparing for winter. Since New France was not really developing, the settlers became more self-dependent.
    In New France, the people were very autonomous. By 1760, they grew to become a distinct set of people called Canadien (13 colonies are becoming Americans). These Canadiens would remain here after the British Conquest.
  • The Social System in New France

    The Social System in New France
    Life in New France was different from life in France. In France, there were the very rich people and the massive numbers of poor/starving people. These two groups would not interact. In New France, however, the rich and the poor would interact, as they all needed each other. The social statuses were determined by the social triangle. At the top, there were the Nobility/Elite (Governor), the Middle Class/Bourgeoisie (Seigneurs) in the middle, and the Peasants/Habitant (censitaires) at the bottom.
  • The Great Peace of Montreal

    The Great Peace of Montreal
    The Great Peace of Montreal is a peace treaty between New France and 40 First Nations of North America. It was signed on August 4, 1701. The French, allied to the Hurons and the Algonquians, proved 16 years of peaceful relations and trade before war started again. Various peoples were present for the diplomatic event: part of the Iroquois confederacy, the Huron peoples, and the Algonquian peoples. The Great Peace of Montreal is sometimes called the “Grand Settlement of 1701”.
  • Articles of Capitulation

    Articles of Capitulation
    In the spring, the major conflict ended in New France with the fall of Quebec. In September, a document was signed giving the terms under which the French would surrender. It stated that: the French Militia could return home and no one would lose their property; the French Regular military would lay down their arms and leave; the people could practice the R.C. religion, but the Bishop would have to leave; the people who stayed would become British Subjects.
  • The Treaty of Paris 1763

    The Treaty of Paris 1763
    In 1763, the Treaty of Paris marked the end of the 7-Year War between the British and the French. All the territory known as New France was given to the King of England except two small islands: St. Pierre and Miquelon.
  • The Royal Proclamation (Part 1)

    The Royal Proclamation (Part 1)
    A constitution was put in place in 1763 to assimilate the mass number of new French subjects and change them to be more British. This constitution gave the colony a new name: The Province of Quebec. It decreased the borders to just around the St-Lawrence river valley; Put in a civilian Government to run the new colony; English Criminal and Civil laws were applied; Unused land would be divided by the Township System; No new bishop would be allowed; No Roman Catholics could hold public office.
  • The Royal Proclamation (Part 2)

    The Royal Proclamation (Part 2)
    The Royal Proclamation, put in place in 1763, had a goal to assimilate the French in Quebec. This goal was achieved by bringing the French all together as to watch over them, and taking many of their rights away so as to force them to become more English. No new French-speaking people were coming in but many English were. Most of the British who came would be rich merchants who would fill the place the French Elite had left.
  • Difficulties of the First Governors: James Murray

    Difficulties of the First Governors: James Murray
    James Murray, the first Governor of Quebec, knew the Royal Proclamation was unworkable as 99% of the population of Quebec was French/Catholic. To make the French content, he bent the rules. He allowed a new Bishop, allowed French Laws in the lower courts and did not call an elected assembly because it would favour the English Merchants. The English Merchants were strongly opposed to Murray’s policies and demanded a new Governor from the King. They got Guy Carleton.
  • The People are Unhappy (Part 1)

    The People are Unhappy (Part 1)
    Many people were unhappy at the beginning of the British rule. The 13 colonies were unhappy because they had fought to gain control of the Ohio Valley, however, it was denied to them. The British merchants who had come to Quebec were unhappy because they wanted to have power through an elected assembly similar to those in the 13 colonies, and they expected the colony to favour English interests.
  • The People are Unhappy (Part 2)

    The People are Unhappy (Part 2)
    The Canadians were fearful of the Proclamation because of the changes it brought. They too didn’t like the new boundary, were scared of a possible elected assembly, and were uneasy about the lack of guarantees to their religion.
  • Difficulties of the First Governors: Guy Carleton

    Difficulties of the First Governors: Guy Carleton
    Guy Carleton was the Governor of the Province of Quebec after James Murray. Carleton kept the same tolerant policies of Murray, but for a different reason: He wanted to make sure the French-Canadians were loyal and would not join the Americans, who were beginning to demand their independence. To assure the French-Canadians’ loyalty, the Quebec Act of 1774 was created.
  • The Quebec Act of 1774

    The Quebec Act of 1774
    The purpose of the Quebec Act, put in place in 1774, was to guarantee French-Canadian loyalty. It enlarged the area of Quebec, denied an elect assembly, appointed council, instated French civil laws (tithe and seigneurial system are back). The Test Act Oath was instated. It was a Test of Allegiance. One could hold office if they swore to the king that they were loyal.
  • What is happening in the US

    What is happening in the US
    The installation of the Quebec Act made the Americans very upset, as the British gave the French the land back. It wasn’t fair for the Americans, who wanted the land. The Americans wanted Western Expansion into the Ohio Valley. Britain was unhappy with the 13 colonies as they did not give enough in war. Some Americans had also been trading with the French, therefore Britain wanted to place strict control on trade and income taxes.
  • The American War of Independence

    The American War of Independence
    The Americans won the American War of Independence (or the British get tired and leave) and were independent. The British Loyalists left America, and went to the only British colony left in North America: Quebec. The increase of the English population in Quebec, a territory dominated by French people will lead to conflict.
  • Effects of Loyalists

    Effects of Loyalists
    After the American War of Independence, 36 000 British loyalists Came to Canada, most settling in the Maritimes. 6 000 loyalists came to Quebec, most settling West of Montreal. The English population of Quebec went from 1% to 10%. The loyalists settled according to the Township system. They were used to English civil laws, having elected assemblies, and they started writing petitions to London for change. After years of complaining, they finally got their wish.
  • The Constitutional Act of 1791

    The Constitutional Act of 1791
    The Constitutional Act of 1791 split the Province of Quebec into two pieces called Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Upper Canada was entirely English, used the township system, and applied the English Civil Laws. Lower canada was almost entirely French. The French kept their religion and civil laws, and people could work in administration. The Ottawa River would be the boundary between them. This new constitution brought a change in the Government.
  • Representative Government (Part 1)

    Representative Government (Part 1)
    The Representative Government, brought in with the Constitutional Act of 1791, was a new type of government, giving the effect of democracy. However, the democracy was false. The King (in Great Britain) was in control, and there was a British Parliament, whose members are the King’s representatives. In the Canada, the Governor, who was appointed by the Parliament, commanded forces, was in charge of administration, called assemblies into session, and held veto power.
  • Representative Government (Part 2

    Representative Government (Part 2
    Each Canada had a Lieutenant Governor, who acted as a deputy governor; an Executive Council, which was appointed by the Governor and advised the Governor; a Legislative Council, which appointed, approved, or rejected laws from the assembly; a Legislative assembly, made up of people who were elected every 4 years, had the power to approve or disapprove taxes and the right to create laws. Lastly, the ordinary people (land-owning men over 21) who had a say of government for the first time.
  • Representative Government (Part 3)

    Representative Government (Part 3)
    The Representative Government was the first time people were able to vote and be represented in Canada. The Representative government was a big step forward. In Upper Canada, the system ran somewhat smooth. In Lower Canada, the Legislative Assembly was French and those above them were English with different interests. Each side used their powers to the maximum and caused a deadlock.
  • Faults in Representative Government

    Faults in Representative Government
    The Representative Government had multiple flaws. The Legislative assembly had the power to make laws, but, whenever they tried to do so, they were shut down by the Governor and his Council who held veto power. The wealthy governors and council members wanted to invest money in big businesses and tax property, while the legislative assembly wanted to tax goods; not property. The conflicts were made worse in Lower Canada with issues over language as the Legislative Assembly was French.
  • The 92 Resolutions

    The 92 Resolutions
    In 1834, Louis Joseph Papineau, the leader of the Patriotes, wrote 92 Resolutions (a list of the assemblies’ demands). Their main demand was for a Responsible Government, and the government made up by the people would be responsible for its decisions. The document was sent to the British Government to be looked at. Lord John Russell responded with 10 resolutions, but these solutions didn’t solve any of the Patriotes’ main demands (in fact, it actually gave more power to councils).
  • Populations in Lower and Upper Canada

    Populations in Lower and Upper Canada
    Most settled in Upper Canada because they spoke English, but some settled in Lower Canada because they were Catholic. They greatly increased the population of the Canadas, and made Upper Canada larger than Lower Canada. In 1791, the population of Lower Canada was 150 000, and the population of Upper Canada was 10 000. In 1861, the population of Lower Canada was 1 152 000, and the population of Upper Canada was 1 396 000.
  • Rebellions

    The 10 Resolutions from Lord John Russell were taken as an insult and rebellions broke out in Upper Canada and Lower Canada. In Upper Canada, the rebellion was lead by William Lyon Mackenzie. It was quickly put down. In Lower Canada, the rebellion was lead by Louis Joseph Papineau. They fought several battles, but lost in St-Eustache. The Patriotes failed as they were not supported enough outside of Montreal. 12 Patriotes were hanged outside Montreal’s prison, and 58 were exiled to Australia.
  • Lord Durham's Recommendations

    Lord Durham's Recommendations
    After the rebellions, Lord Durham was sent to Canada to give his opinion on what to do. His recommendations were: Britain should increase English immigration in order to assimilate the French; The two Canadas should be united (the English now have majority); The Responsible Government should be granted to eliminate veto power. These ideas were first rejected by the British Parliament until the 1840 Act of Union.
  • The Act of Union

    The Act of Union
    The Act of Union, in 1840, created the Province of Canada consisting of Canada East and West; Made Canada East and West each have 42 members to its assembly; Left the Governor with control and veto power; Made Canada East and West pay equally for Canada’s depts. This system was flawed, and would be changed in a very short time, as conflict occurred very quickly. A responsible government was adopted slowly.
  • The Responsible Government

    The Responsible Government
    In the Responsible Government, the people would elect the Legislative Assembly. The Prime Minister would form the Cabinet who would propose laws that had to be approved through the assembly. The Governor and Legislative Council were still appointed but did not intervene even though pressured to do so.
  • Influence of the Church

    Influence of the Church
    After 1837, the bishops became more and more powerful, and the cures became the most important person in the parish. The Church was still in charge of controlling education, registering births, marriages, deaths, orphanages, shelters, charities, and religious festivals. The Roman Catholic Church attendance was very high, and the Protestants were divided. Ministers were still influential but not as powerful as the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Politics in the 1860's

    Politics in the 1860's
    In the 1860’s, the political system had become responsible but no one could agree on who should be in charge. So, no party could win a majority government. The party leaders agreed a merger was necessary, meetings were needed to discuss such things. Three significant meetings took place: The Charlottetown Conference, the Quebec Conference, and the London Conference.
  • The Charlottetown Conference

    The Charlottetown Conference
    The Charlottetown Conference took place in September of 1864. The leaders of Canada East and Canada West met with the leaders of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince-Edward-Island to discuss a merger. They left the meeting agreeing to consider a merger.
  • The Quebec Conference

    The Quebec Conference
    The Quebec Conference took place in October of 1864. The leaders of Canada East, Canada West, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, P.E.I., and Newfoundland met to discuss a merger. They agreed on 72 resolutions that would make the merger possible: A federal system; 24 seats to each colony; an Assembly elected by representation by population; A railway between colonies. Prince-Edward-Island and Newfoundland withdrew. Nonetheless, the assembly of the Canadas passed confederation.
  • The London Conference

    The London Conference
    The London Conference took place in England in 1867. The leaders of the 4 colonies met to make an arrangement to release from the British Empire and to become a “self-governing” colony called The Dominion of Canada. Its capital of Ottawa was created under the British North America Act, which was passed on March 29, and came into existence in Canada on July 1st, 1867. It contained 4 provinces: Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The other provinces would join between 1870 and 1949.
  • Responsibilities of the Governments

    Responsibilities of the Governments
    The Federal and Provincial governments each had responsibilities. The federal government was in charge of defence, banking and money, postal service, and criminal law. The provincial government was in charge of education, municipal institutions, hospitals, property and civil rights. Immigration and agriculture were shared responsibilities between the federal and provincial governments. The federal government could also disallow any provincial law if it felt it was not in Canada's interest.
  • The Roman Catholic Church

    The Roman Catholic Church
    The Roman Catholic Church continued to control education, hospitals, orphanages, and welfare services. It was also influential in government, unions, and the caisses populaires. The Church continued to promote large families, rural life, and Christian values.
  • The Idealization of Rural Life

    The Idealization of Rural Life
    Rural life was viewed in a very positive way. It was believed that the rural communities were the best places to promote traditional values such as family life, gratifying work and religious beliefs. Agriculture was and should continue to be at the heart of Quebec’s economy in order to avoid urbanization and associated problems such as unemployment.
  • Power Relations Between Linguistic Groups and the State

    Power Relations Between Linguistic Groups and the State
    Since 1867, the English had been dominating business and politics. The English minority in Quebec were protected by the constitution. Quebecers were upset that they weren’t getting paid equal amounts as the Anglophones, and didn’t have the same job opportunities as English. Nationalists sentiments developed and a movement towards Quebec independence gains momentum. Quebec nationalists form various political groups advocating sovereignty or independence for Quebec.
  • Role of the State

    Role of the State
    The government led by Maurice Duplessis believed that the state should not intervene in either the social or economic sectors. Consequently, its role was basically a supporting one which consisted of offering subsidies to the Church and favourable conditions for investment purposes. Two major groups challenged the traditional and conservative nature of Quebec society and its government. They were: Union leaders, and Intellectuals and Journalists.
  • Union Leaders

    Union Leaders
    Union Leaders accused Duplessis of opposing social progress and of serving American interests rather than the interests of Quebec workers. Throughout Duplessis’ service as the Prime Minister, there were numerous strikes in Quebec. During the Asbestos strike of 1949, even church officials such as Bishop Charbonneau supported the strikers.
  • Intellectuals and Journalists

    Intellectuals and Journalists
    Not only did Union Leaders oppose Duplessis, intellectuals and journalists did, too. Intellectuals such as Pierre Elliott Trudeau and René Lévesque opposed the Duplessis government and attacked the conservative nature of Quebec society in newspapers, magazine articles and television programs.
  • Maurice Duplessis

    Maurice Duplessis
    Maurice Duplessis founded the Union National party. He was premier of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and from 1944 to 1959. During these periods, Duplessis defended provincial autonomy and had numerous battles with Ottawa over federal initiatives in provincial jurisdictions.
  • Power Relations between the Media and the State

    Power Relations between the Media and the State
    In the 19th century, newspapers were controlled by political parties. In the early 20th century, political views by newspapers were disseminated. In the 20th century, mass information through radio and television (politicians used media for their image and to promote their parties) was disseminated. The media is, for many, the 4th power.
  • Conscription Crises

    Conscription Crises
    In World War I and World War II, we ran out of soldiers, and conscription was thrown at the country. In both wars, Quebec was upset as it felt that it wasn’t the French’s war to fight. There were French soldiers in both the wars, but there was a lot of stink about the government forcing the French into war.
  • Power Relations between Financial Circles and the State

    Power Relations between Financial Circles and the State
    In the 20th century, financial circles were intertwined with politics. The involvement of businessmen in politics facilitated access to grants, laws, and regulations in favour of companies and banks. The practice of funding of political parties by businessmen caused scandals and a denunciation of patronage. From 1960, the state took control of certain sectors of the economy, subsidized Quebec companies and recognized the rights of employees.
  • F.L.Q

    Terrorist organizations, such as the FLQ, began to plant bombs targeting military establishments in the Montreal area and mailboxes in Westmount. Their main goal was to attain independence for Quebec from Canada through the use of violence. In 1970, the “October Crisis” occurred. The FLQ kidnapped James Cross and Pierre Laporte. The Prime Minister Trudeau used the war measures act to call out the army, and hundreds of FLQ members were arrested. Laporte was killed, and Cross was released.
  • The Quiet Revolution (Part 1)

    The Quiet Revolution (Part 1)
    The Quiet Revolution, also known as La Révolution Tranquille, began in Quebec in 1960 with the electoral defeat of the Union Nationale by Jean Lesage and his Liberal Party. It can be best described as a rapid and far-reaching process of social, economic, and political reform in Quebec from the early to the late 1960s. Quebec was changing: Jobs moved away from rural or hard labour, you have more intellectuals, and Union membership doubled.
  • The Quiet Revolution (Part 2)

    The Quiet Revolution (Part 2)
    The main features of the Quiet Revolution were to make the Quebec government the major force behind Quebec's social and economic development, to modernize Quebec's educational system and to allow it to catch up to the other provinces in Canada, and to weaken the influence of the Church and to end Quebec's political isolation.
  • Quebec Nationalism Continued

    Quebec Nationalism Continued
    The October Crisis had been put down but not all the moves towards French independence were violent. In 1961, the Office de la langue française was created to promote the French language. The Official language act, Bill 22, made French the official language of Quebec.
  • Power Relations between Union Movements and the State

    Power Relations between Union Movements and the State
    The first strikes were in 1872, and unions were partially legalized. In 1880, American unions were implanted. Unions made demands regarding health and safety and laws, and for the protection of children. Unions struggle to ensure a minimum salary to workers, women, and elders. In 1937, the Padlock Law was put in place, allowing the use of police against strikers. In 1964, the Labour Code recognizes the right to strike to all workers.
  • Power Relations between Feminist Movements and the State

    Power Relations between Feminist Movements and the State
    In 1893, the National Council of Women was founded. In 1960, the first woman was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec. In 1965, the Foundation of the Federation des femmes du Quebec revised Civil Code, establishment of maternity leave, decriminalization of abortion, and equality. The law on pay equity was adopted in 1996.
  • Bill 101

    Bill 101
    The French language was the priority in Bill 101. New rules were put in place: Only French signs were allowed in public spaces, and only children with English speaking parents educated in Quebec could go to English schools. The English fought back with Bill 178 and Bill 86.
  • Separating or Staying in Canada

    Separating or Staying in Canada
    The battle to leave or remain in Canada continues and today. The parties involved are either Federalists, who want Quebec to stay, or separatists, who want Quebec to be independent. They wanted to separate because of their cultural differences and oppressive struggle since English overtaking. Leader of the PQ René Levesque felt so strongly about the issue that he held a referendum in 1980. About 60% voted against the issue of separation.
  • Trying to Satisfy the Provinces (Part 1)

    Trying to Satisfy the Provinces (Part 1)
    To unify the country, Pierre Elliott Trudeau met with the provincial leaders to discuss a method of patriating the constitution, and ensuring full independence from Great Britain. All the provinces agreed except Quebec. The Constitution Act and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms went ahead anyways in 1982.
  • Trying to Satisfy the Provinces (Part 2)

    Trying to Satisfy the Provinces (Part 2)
    Later, in 1984, under Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, the federal government tried to organize a package that would satisfy Quebec and the other provinces. From 1987 to 1990, the Meech Lake Accord was written with various reforms but it was denied Newfoundland and Manitoba. Later, the Charlottetown Agreement sought to do the same. It was voted against by the people.
  • The Oka Crisis

    The Oka Crisis
    In the summer of 1990, Mohawk warriors established road blocks on the borders to their reserves in Oka just outside Montreal because a golf course wanted to expand its 9 holes onto native land. The natives militarily organized themselves and the Canadian Forces were called in to handle the situation. The Oka crisis lasted 78 days, when the stand-off finally came to an end without armed conflict, however the issues remained. The Charlottetown Accord was created to deal with these issues.
  • The Referendum of 1995

    The Referendum of 1995
    Another referendum about whether to separate was held in 1995, led by Jacques Parizeau, with even closer results: 50.6% against, and 49.4% for. The issue is still not resolved and another referendum could be held in the future. Presently, 50% plus 1 vote is needed to separate.