Society was a Matriarchy; leadership and decision making was the responsibility of women. Algonkians
Society was a Patriarchy; Father played vital leadership role.
Power relations between Amerindians and the colonial administratorsFrench allied with Hurons. Fought against the Iroquois over control of the fur trade territory, lost. French take over until about 1703. English allied with Iroquois. Fought against the French (and Hurons) for control over the fur trade. Almost wiped out the Hurons.
Wars until Great Peace of Montreal (peace treaty between New France and 40 First Nations of N. America). It was signed on August 4, 1701, by Louis Hector de Callière, governor of NF, and 1300 representatives of 40 aboriginal nations
Royal GovernmentThe system was divided as such:
The King and the Minister of Marine would remain in France as the Sovereign Council ran New France directly. Governor=highest rank, commander of army, dealt with external. Intendant=most influential, chief administrator, controlled budget,taxes, justice, seigniorial, roads, industries. Bishop=appointed by Pope,administered over Parish Priests, hospitals, schools, charities. Not on Council but still powerful= Captain of Militia dealt with issues on seigneuries
Power relations between the colony and the mother countryThe influence of decisions made by the mother country on the power in the colony.
Absolute monarchy: The king names administrators of the colony and can still reverse any decisions they make.
Life in New FranceSettlers had happy lives but it was work. Work to be done everyday (crops, clothes, tools, winter). NF was not developing settlers became self dependent. Life differed from France, where had very rich and massive numbers of starving people. In NF people were autonomous by 1760 became a distinct set of people called Canadien. It is no surprise that these people would remain after the British Conquest. Why? Distance from France: the king exercised less control.
Life in New France #2The people were divided as such:
Middle Class/Bourgeoisie (Seignuers)
Peasants/Habitant (censitaries ) Why were they so different from France? (pt.2)
Contact with the aboriginals; development of an independent spirit and a sense of freedom. No police often did what they wanted. Many worked with or lived with native…voyageurs and courier de bois choose their way of life
Power relations between the Church and the StateChurch is implicated in political decisions because of its role in Le Conseil sovereign. The Clergy was everywhere:Priests in charge of parishes (cure), Priests working as missionaries and Nuns working in hospitals.
The King assumes power based on the principal of Divine Right of kings. Under the old system the companies who held a monopoly were almost destroying New France. The king ended the monopoly and placed New France under the Minister of Marine who at the time was Jean-Baptiste Colbert.
British RuleAlthough the French had won a small battle at Sainte Foy in the spring major conflict ended in N.F. with the fall of Quebec, the French troops waited out the winter in Montreal, and then in September a document was signed giving the terms under which the French would surrender. The document was called the ARTICLES OF CAPITUALTION(1760). (See following for contents)
British Rule pt.2it stated:
1. The French Militia could return home, no one would lose their property
2. The French Regular military would lay down their arms and leave.
3. The people could practice the R.C. religion, but the Bishop would have to leave.
4. The people who stayed would become British Subjects. No mass deportation occurred(only the Elite left) the fate of the colony was still undecided and so the colony waited under British Military Rule of James Murray, until the war in Europe would end.
Treaty of Paris1763 Treaty of Paris 7rys war ends. All the Territory known as New France is given to the King of England except two small Islands (St.Pierre, Miquelon). Now that the King was sure the colony was under his control he needed to do something about this mass number of new subjects who were French speaking. A constitution was put in place to control these French British subjects and try and change them to be more British (assimilate them).
13 Colonies independenceUp until 1763 the Americans needed British protection from the French. They wanted Western Expansion into the Ohio Valley.
However, Britain was unhappy with the 13 colonies. (did not give enough in war) Some Americans had also been trading with the French, therefore Britain wanted to place strict control on trade and inc. taxes. American War of Independence happens. Americans win or British just get tired and leave…all depends on who you ask.
LoyalistsThey moved north to the only British colony left in North America (QUEBEC)and We call these people LOYALISTS We are about to see a large influx of English people come to live in a colony dominated by French people > Conflict will arise!
36,000 loyalists came to Canada
6,000 loyalists came to Quebec
The English population of Quebec had a sudden increase
They settled according to the Township system.
They gave their settlements English names.
They started writing petitions to London for change.
Royal ProclamationWhat did it do:
1. It gives the King’s new colony a name, The Province of Quebec
2. It decreases the borders to just around the St Lawrence river valley.
3. Put in place a civilian Government to run the new
Colony: (King appointed Governor who appointed members of Executive Council to advise)
4. English Criminal and Civil laws were applied.
5. Unused land would be divided by the Township System
6. No new Bishop would be allowed
7. No Roman Catholics could hold public office (Test Act)
Royal Proclamation 2The Royal Proc had a goal to control and assimilate the French in Quebec, It did this by bringing them all together as to watch over them, and took many of their rights away so as to force them to become more English. No new French speaking people were coming in but many Eng. were. Most of the British who came would be rich merchants who would fill the place of the French Elite would had left.
The first Governor of this new colony James Murray knew his job of assimilation would be no easy task.
James MurrayJames Murray found the Royal Proclamation unworkable, only 1% of the population of Quebec was Eng/Protestant. To make the rest of the French Roman Catholics content, he bent the rules. He allowed a new Bishop, he allowed French laws in the lower courts, he did not call an elected assembly because it would favor the English Merchants. The English Merchants were strongly apposed to the Governor’s policies and demanded a new Governor from the King.
Guy CarletonThe English Merchants were strongly apposed to the Governor’s policies and demanded a new Governor from the King. They got Guy Carleton…who would kept the same tolerant polices of Murray. Carleton had a special reason to be tolerant towards the French in Quebec….He wanted to have their loyalty as the Americans were beginning to demand their Independence.
Quebec ActGuarantees French Canadian loyalty
Enlarges the area of Quebec
Denied an elected assembly
Appointed council (min.17 members)
French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigniorial system are back
Test Act Oath > Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal, and could hold office)
ALL THESE FACTORS MADE THE AMERICANS VERY UPSET!
The Constitutional ActThe Province of Quebec was split in two pieces called Upper Canada (it was up river) and Lower Canada (it was down river)
Lower Canada was almost entirely French (160 000ppl)
Upper Canada was entirely English (20,000ppl)
The Ottawa River would be the boundary between them.
In Lower Canada the French kept their religion, civil laws, and people could work in the admin.
In Upper Canada the Protestants, would use the township system, English
Faults in Representative GovernmentLeg. Assembly had the power to make laws, but whenever they tried to do so they were shut down because the Gov. and his Council had veto power.
The two sides had different interests:
The wealthy governors & council members thought about investing money in big business+tax property
The leg. ass. wanted to tax goods not property, didn’t want to invest in large projects that wouldn’t benefit them.made worse in Lower Canada, the leg. assembly was French and there were issues over language
The rebellionsLeader of Patriotes LJ Papineau wrote 92 Resolutions (a list of assemblies demands) This document was sent to the British Government to be looked at.
Lord J Russell responded with the 10 Res. (solutions which didn’t solve any of the Patriotes main demands, gave more power to councils) This response was taken as an insult and rebellions broke out in both Upper and Lower Canada. Lower Canada’s Rebellion was lead by Louis Joseph Papineau and after several battles the rebellion was put down
Lord Durhamrecomende that Britain should increase english immigration in order to assimilate the French.
The two Canada’s should be united (eng. now have majority)
Responsible Government should be granted to eliminate veto power.
These ideas were first rejected by the British Parliament…until:
1840 Act of Union (the 4th constitution)
Act of Union (the 4th constitution)Creates the Prov. of Canada consisting of Canada East and West (former upper and lower Canada).
Canada east and west each had 42 members to its assembly
Governor still had control and veto power
Canada east and west would equally pay for Canada’s debts (Cdn West owed 10X). Conflict occurred very quickly. Responsible Government was adopted slowly
Power of churchAfter 1837 the bishops became more and more powerful, the cures became the most important person in the parish.Church was still in charge of registering births,marriages&deaths. Controlling education (Laval University 1852) Orphanages, Shelters, Charities, Religious festivals R.C. Church attendance was very high Protestants were divided (Anglicans, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists etc)Ministers still influential but not as powerful as R.C. Protestant Universities: McGill(1821), Bishops(1843)
Conferences Pt.1The Charlottetown Conference:
Sept. 1864 Leaders of Canada East/West meet with the leaders of three Maritime Provinces (NB,NS,PEI), they left the meetings agreeing to consider a merger. The Quebec Conference:
Oct. 1864 Same members of last time (+ Nfld.) They agreed on 72 resolutions that would make the merger possible…
A federal system
24 seats to each colony (total 72 seats)
Assembly elected by “rep by pop”
Build a railway between colonies
Conferences Pt. 2The conferences went well but the people weren’t so accepting of what their politicians were moving towards.
Nfld, and PEI withdrew
Dorion’s Parti Rouge opposed the federation
the assembly of the Canada’s passed confederation (narrowly) The London Conference
Eng. 1867 Leaders of the 4 colonies meet to make arrangement to release from the British Empire to become a new “self governing” colony.
Conference Pt.3THE DOMINION OF CANADA! With its capital of Ottawa was created under the British North America Act. Passed on March 29, came into existence in Canada on July 1st 1867.Containing 4 Prov. (ONT, QC, NB, NS)
The other Prov’s would join between 1870 and 1949.
Being a Federal Gov’t the Federal Gov’t had certain responsibilities as did the Prov’s.
The ChurchContinued to control education, hospitals, orphanages, welfare services. It was also influential in government, unions and the caisses populaires.The Church continued to promote large families, rural life, and Christian values. It was believed that the rural communities were the best places to promote traditional values such as family life, gratifying work and religious beliefs. Agriculture was and should continue to be at the heart of Quebec's economy in order to avoid urbanization
Power relations between union movements and the stateFirst strikes and partial legalization of unions (1872), implantation of American unions (1880). Royal Commission on the relations between capital and labour (from 1886 to 1889). Union demands regarding health and safety and laws (C.S.S.T.), for the protection of children (laws on public education, on the minimum working age of children), union struggle to ensure a minimum salary to workers, women, elders (unemployment law, welfare, minimum wage in 1945, old-age pensions and pay equity.).
Power relations between the media and the stateIn the 19th century, control of newspapers by political parties (propaganda).
In the early 20th century, dissemination of political views by newspapers (eg, Le Devoir); the 20th century, dissemination of mass information through radio and television: influences on public opinion, politicians used media for their image and to promote their parties.
The media is for many the 4th power.
Power relations between movements for social justice and the stateEarly 20th century, associated with communism, union movements and feminism.
1930: the depression brings about the creation of many charity groups and aid organizations.
Pressure they exert on the government contributes to adoption of laws and different measures intended to protect the average citizen (Commission des normes du travail, Régie du Logement, etc.).
Maurice DuplessisThe government led by Maurice Duplessis continued to believe that the state should not intervene in either the social or economic sectors. Consequently, its role was basically a supporting one which consisted of offering subsidies to the Church and favourable conditions for investment purposes.
Maurice Duplesis 2Two major groups challenged the traditional and conservative nature of Quebec society and its government. They were:
Union leaders:They accuse Duplessis of opposing social progress and of serving American interests rather than the interests of Quebec workers. Throughout this period there were numerous strikes Intellectuals such as Pierre Elliott Trudeau and René Lévesque opposed the Duplessis government and attacked the conservative nature of Quebec society in newspapers etc
Maurice Duplesis 3Maurice Duplessis, founded the Union National party and was premier of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and from 1944 to 1959. During these periods, Duplessis defended provincial autonomy and had numerous battles with Ottawa over federal initiatives in provincial jurisdictions. Other nat. policies consisted of:
adopting the fleurdelisé as Quebec's flag in 1948
introducing a provincial income tax plan in 1954
Quiet RevolutionThe Quiet Revolution, also known as La Révolution Tranquille, began in Quebec in 1960 with the electoral defeat of the Union Nationale by Jean Lesage and his Liberal Party. It can be best described as a rapid and far-reaching process of social, economic, and political reform in Quebec from the early to the late 1960s.
Power relations between linguistic groups and the state: & Power relations between nationalist movements and the state 1Since 1867: Dominance of English in business and politics and protection of the English minority in Quebec in the constitution.
Quebecers are upset that they aren’t getting paid equal amounts as the Anglophones, and don’t have the same job opportunities as English.
It’s clear that people living in Quebec would feel proud of all these recent achievements, nationalists sentiments developed and a movement towards Quebec independence gains momentum.
Power relations between linguistic groups and the state: & Power relations between nationalist movements and the state 1Quebec nationalists form various political groups advocating sovereignty or independence for Quebec. In addition, terrorist organizations, such as the F.L.Q.(Front de Libération du Québec) a semi secret cell, begin to plant bombs targetting military establishments in the Montreal area and mailboxes in Westmount. The main goal of this organzation was to attain independence for Quebec from Canada through the use of violence.
Power relations between feminist movements and the stateFoundation of the National Council of Women (1893); actions of the suffragettes.
1961: electing the first woman to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (Marie Claire Kirland Casgrain).
1964: 16, which ended the legal incapacity of married women.
1965: Foundation of the Federation des femmes du Quebec (revised Civil Code, establishment of maternity leave, decriminalization of abortion, equality (in theory) of men and women); 1996: law on pay equity is adopted.
October Crisis1970 The “October Crisis” occurred. FLQ kidnapped James Cross and Pierre Laporte. The Prime Minister Trudeau used the war measures act to call out the army, and hundreds of FLQ members are arrested. Laportes body is found in the trunk of his car, Cross is released.
Power relations between environmentalist groups and the stateSince 1970, pressure from environmental groups (measures and laws to protect the environment) and their impact on the population via the media influences public policy. 1970: Creation of the Ministry of Environment Quebec.
2002: ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Canada.
Environmental movements present in Quebec: Greenpeace, the Green Party, l’Action Boréale, etc.
Representative GovernmentIn the Canada:Governor appointed by parliament, commanded forces, in charge of admin, called assemblies into session. Held veto
(the Canada’s each had)
Lieutenant Governor Acted as deputy governor
Executive Council appointed by Governor
Legislative Council appointed, approve or reject laws
Legislative Assembly people elected every 4yrs, power to approve or disapprove taxes, right to create laws.
Ordinary people had a say of government for the first time (land owning men over 21)
The Rebellions 2The Patriotes are supported by the clergy but they don’t have enough support outside Montreal and fail. They were poorly org. and equip.
12 Patriotes were hanged outside Montreal’s prison as a symbol
58 were exiled to Australia Lord Durham was sent to the Canada’s to give his opinion on what to do.
Responsible governmentConflict occurred quickly.Responsible Government was adopted slowly:1842: The Prime minister would select members of the executive council from the assembly. 1848: Governor Lord Elgin would be the first to not use his veto powers, and allow the Prime minister(majority holder) to have executive powers.In a responsible gov. people would elect the Leg. Assembly, Prime minister would Form Cabinet The Governor and the Legislative council were still appointed
Power relations between financial circles and the stateReciprocal influence.
Involvement of businessmen in politics facilitates access to grants, laws and regulations in favour of companies and banks
The practice of funding of political parties by businessmen causes scandals and a denunciation of patronage.
From 1960, the state takes control of certain sectors of the economy, subsidizes Quebec companies and recognizes the rights of employees
Concepts: POWER, interest, influence, state, society, rights.
Native IssuesIn the summer of 1990 Mohawk warriors established road blocks on the borders to their reserves in Oka just outside Montreal, when a golf course wanted to expand its 9 holes onto native land. The natives militarily organized themselves and the Canadian Forces were called in to handle the situation.
The Oka crisis lasted 78 days, when the stand-off finally came to an end with out armed conflict, however the issues remained.
The Charlottetown Accord was created to deal with these issues.
Power relations between linguistic groups and the state: & Power relations between nationalist movements and the state 11967 General de Gaulle of France comes to Montreal to celebrate 100 birthday of Canada (Expo 67 world fair), from City hall he calls out “Vive le Quebec libre” his words send Les Quebecois into an uproar
1966 Rene Levesque quit the Liberal party to form the Mouvement Souverainte association (MSA)..along with the RIN and the RN…they form the Parti Quebecois (PQ) form in 1968 (lead by R.Levesque)