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Canadian History Timeline 8

  • The creation of the Hudson Bay Company

    1670 King Charles II of England granted HBC monopoly on all trading that was around the Hudson Bay called Rupert's Land. The HBC controlled Rupert’s land from 1670-1869. In 1783-1821 fur trade was booming, and HBC was the biggest fur trading company. Those not in the HBC formed their own company, the NWC to compete from Montreal. This competition caused further western expansion and developement
  • Beginning of Seven Years War

    Britain and France both want to claim the land along the Atlantic coast. Many of the battles were fought in North America
  • Treaty of Paris was signed

    The fall of New France, The treaty was signed in Paris, capitulating all French land to Britain in British North America except St. Pierre and Miquelon. From here til 1774 Britain expanded all around the Great Lakes, settling there.Indian Reserves were left below Lake Michigan and Thirteen Colonies on the Atlantic sides of the great lakes, and the Treaty of Paris gives Spain Louisiana and most of the US. On the other side Alaska is owned by Russia but the rest was declared Territory Unclaimed
  • The Royal Proclamation

    Written to limit the French and Acadians in New France and Acadia. This was an attempt to assimilate the French into British culture. It left land for the Aboriginals, which angered the Thirteen Colonies because it prevented them from expanding westward. The British believed that immersing them into British culture will change them. Same applied for Aboriginals.
  • Quebec Act of 1774

    This gave freedom to the French, instead of the attempt of assimilation. This also was one of the Intolerable Acts, which caused the Thirteen Colonies to split up later on. The Indian Reserves left were taken over, to give the French and British more land. This in hope to gain loyalty, strengthen British empire and gain rich fur produce from areas around Québec. Canadians now can maintain their culture.
  • The Start of the American Independence War and the Start of the Loyalist Migration

    The Royal Proclamation 1763, Stamp Act of 1765, Townshend Acts of 1767/Tea Act, Quebec Act 1774, were the Intolerable Acts for the Thirteen Colonies. This led to the American Independence War. The Patriots would abuse the British Loyalists, resulting in a great migration north from America to Canada.
  • The End of the American Independence War and Treaty of Paris 1783

    Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island, St. John Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick colonies are created. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 transfers all land south of the Great Lakes to America. The new colonies were formed from the abundance of people arriving from the south, and Joseph Brant brought the loyal Natives to the Six Natives Reserves. However, English speakers went into Quebec which caused some trouble.
  • Constitutional Act of 1791

    This act was passed to split Upper and Lower Canada into Canada East and West. This was mainly to make sure the Loyalists from the Migration won't get into conflict with the French
  • The Industrial Revolution of the 1800s

    This changed living completely. Machine over muscle now, factories over farming and trade was so much easier. Canals are built like La Chine (1823), and railway are built like the Grand Trunk Railway. (1853) Defense, trade, and transportation were so much more easier now.
  • The Red River Settlement and the Metis

    Lord Selkirk brought his first batch of settlers to the area after purchasing the land from his shares in the HBC. They barely survived, even with the help of the metis and natives. The second batch arrived in spring 1812, which also survived by relying on the Metis. They endured many hardships, but managed to scrape a living as they got used to the place.
  • The War of 1812

    This war occured because of America being overambitious. They thought that conquering Canada would be a simple march through the land, with everyone waiting to be freed by them. Alsol because Britain and France were fighting, and France and American trade was stopped by Britain. Major battles were fought throughout 1812-1814, including the burning of York and Washington. Sir Issac Brock and Tecumseh fought together, though died in the war consecutively protecting Canada West. 600 Indians joined.
  • War of 1812 Reasons

    War is very expensive, and British treasury is empty. The Seven Years War took up alot. During 7 years war tax agreement, the colonies become the "cash cow". Britain saw it was their right to take fur, money and resources, which caused animosity between colonies and mother Britain. America thought our population would want to join because of the discontentment, therefore conquering us was "only a matter of marching".
  • War of 1812 effects

    War that nobody won. Canada would have lost without the natives. The effects on Canada are American Immigration discouraged and immigration from Great Britain encouraged leading to the Great Migration 1815. Also, a sense of pride and unity was developed between Lower and Upper Canada. The First Nations people were assimilated and we have American Respect. After the war fur trade continued.
  • Conflict begins in the Red River

    Selkirk tried kicking the NWC out of the land, which caused the Metis and the NWC to be discontent. The metis will be disturbed from buffalo hunting and also the NWC are afraid of food shortage because of the buffalo. Another problem was that the Metis were squatter, they had no legal titles to the land even though they were there for generations.
  • The Pemmican Proclamation and the Seven Oaks Incident

    The Pemmican Proclmation kept food from leaving Assiniboia to assist the settlers, which meant no trade with the fur traders. This angered many people and took away a source of income. The metis begin to burn crops of the settlers, effectively kicking out many settlers. They attacked Fort Douglas, which the Seven Oaks occured that killed 21 white people and 1 metis. 06/19/1816 However, Selkirk brought the Meurons Swiss/German soldiers here and restored order and settlers. HBC and NWC merged.
  • The Great Migration 1815-1850

    Many people came from Great Britain to Canada to settle, mainly the Irish because of the Irish Potato blight. Also, the racism in the US led to the Underground railway, bringing over black slaves to Canada. Cholera and small pox were introduced, and most of the merchants in Montreal faced bankruptcy. The sanitary levels were so low that disease was strife and rats were everywhere.
  • Rebellions of 1837-1838

    This rebellion began because of the discontentment with the government, the Chateau Clique and the Family Compact. They were angry about the system and the conditions of life in Canada are horrible. Oligarchy. William Lyon Mackenzie and Louis-Joseph Papineau led the rebellions, with Joseph Howe leading the moderates in Nova Scotian. 92 Resolutions drafted before the war by Papineau.
  • Act of Union, 1840

    This act politically unites the two Canadas. It was based on the Durham Report, with equal representation from both sides. This effectively unified the colony and saved money for Britain. This enabled Canada East and West to work together to build railways, expand industries and increase growth in farming.
  • Repeal of the Corn Laws and the Reciprocity Treaty

    Preferential Tariffs and Mercantilism were deposited, and free trade was developed. After the Repeal, the Canadians couldn't compete with the Britain market. This led to many farms abandoned and moving to the US. People were considering joining the US. 1848, Lord Elgin was beginning to be desperate, and in 1854 the Reciprocity Treaty with the US was signed, allowing free trade between Canada and the US with low tariffs.
  • Responsible Government achieved

    Nova Scotia achieved responsible government 1848 along with New Brunswick, thanks to the efforts of Joseph Howe. Canada was granted a year later in 1849.
  • Rebellions Losses Bill

    The Rebellions Losses Bill was signed first in Canada West, where everyone was anglophone. However, it took a few more months in Canada East. After it was signed off, the Tories burned down the parliament in Montreal on April 25, 1850. This compensated for the losses in the Rebellions of 1837-1838. Lord Elgin was Governor General, and also this meant that the capital varied between Toronto and Quebec City for many years.
  • Political Deadlock, 1850s

    George Brown+Antoin-Aime Dorion led the Clear Grits and the Parti Rouge, while Macdonald+Cartier led the Conservatives and Parti Bleu. They had equal amount of seats, and switched power many times but got nothing out of it. There was no sufficient government to run the country. Rep by pop was brought up again.
  • Fraser River Gold Rush

    Many new settlers arrived into BC, which became a colony along with Victoria island. The Natives were pushed out again, and then after the rush after a drop in economy they join Canada mainly because of the intercolonial railway promised. 1871 it became the 6th province
  • The Great Coalition

    George Brown falls in love and then allies with John A. Macdonald and George Etienne Cartier to go to confederation. When the Maritime Colonies proposed an Maritime unification, Canada joined. This led to the Charlottetown Conference
  • Charlottetown Conference

    The meeting to advertise Confederation to the Maritime colonies, and also give an overview. The details were not discussed here, with many parties and social time. This was the first step to Confederation, a very important meeting.
  • Quebec Conference

    All the details were done here about Confederation. At this conference only four provinces agreed; Canada East and West, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The 72 Resolutions were written, mainly by John A Macdonald. This is the most important part of Confederation. The 72 Resolutions were later brought to London at the London Conference, shown to the British government.
  • Confederation introduced

    Reciprocity Treaty is repealed, and the colonies want to join together to trade. Also, they don't want US to expand westward and also they fear US attack. Red River Americans want to join US too, and that would be bad for Britain. Britain wants them to be independent because it saves them money for defense, government and railways.
  • London Conference

    The 72 resolutions were brought to London and presented to Queen Victoria. This led to the BNA act, which released Canada into an independent country. Britain also helped pressure PEI and Newfoundland to join Confederation later.
  • Asssasination of Thomas D'arcy Mcgee

    D'arcy Mcgee was shot by his fellow Irish men because he was against the Fenians who wanted independence for Ireland.
  • Red River Resistance

    Rupert's Land is bought by Canada, which meant the Red River will be Canadian. Settlers moved in, pushing the metis and natives, and a road was built connecting Ontario to the Red River. Also, US bought Alaska so the Sea to Sea dream might shatter. Metis culture, religion and buffalo hunting land are disappearing. Trade is also dying off.
  • Concerns of the Metis

    Surveyors were sent to plot land, but the metis take away the chains. They were squatters, holding no title so they were afraid of losing their land. Also, they feared Protestant influence, wildlife disturbed and land taken. They formed the Metis National Comittee, led by John Bruce and Louis Riel. Wiliam McDougall, Lieut.Gov. of NWT, arrives to Red River but blocked by armed metis. Fort Garry captured and Thomas Scott is excuted after shooting off his mouth and going for escape. Uproar occured.
  • Fort Garry

    Fort Garry, the HBC HQ, was captured by the MNC, who sets up a temporary provincial government. They have ammo, food and everything, with the natural defenses of Canada. They grab pork and capture fifty guards. Thomas Scott is excuted after shooting off his mouth/racism and escape attempt. The Canadian Party led by John Schultz is defeated. An uproar occured in Canada West, calling Riel a murderer. However, Canada East supported him, called him a hero. Metis Bill of Rights written up.
  • Concerns of the Metis

    Surveyors measure lots, but the chains are taken away. The metis and natives are squatters, holding no title to the land. They fear that they'll lose their land, traditions, culture, and the wildlife. John Bruce and Louis Riel create the Metis National Council, and give their voices. William McDougall was sent over, but barred by 14 armed Metis.
  • Metis Bill of Rights

    The Metis want their own rights, and they wrote the Metis Bill of Rights. They want their own legislative assembly to pass local laws, separate schools from religion which shares money, and both French and English to be recognized for documents, courts, judge, etc. Also, every male 21 or older can vote. Lastly, they want amnesty for those involved in the Resistance
    like Riel.
  • Natives War

    Buffalos dying out in Red River, and the metis move west into Cree/Blackfoot territory. War occurs, along with small pox. Treaties were written about government and native uses of land.
  • Treaty with the Aboriginals about land use

    First nations had to agree to give up land on certain conditions. There are reserves, and resources are shared. Education will be given, and traditions and culture are permitted. These are some points.
    -right to hunt and fish like ancient customs
    -provide annual payment to compensate for lost land
    -supply farming implements like seeds, livestock, instruction in new farming techniques
    -build schools on reserves
    -shelter improvements
  • New Metis Bill of Rights

    McDougall went home and gave up on the situation. Macdonald then send Donald Smith, the Gov.Gen. of NWT to negotiate. Smith explains Canada’s plan, and the Metis write up a new bill of rights. They sent three people to Ottawa about the bill and discussed about catholic and protestant schools
  • Riel in exile; Welcome to Manitoba

    Macdonald sent troops in to take control, but Riel left to the US. HIs uncle was beaten. Many people moved to the current Saskatchewan area. This assisted westwards movement too. Manitoba was now recognized as a province, the postal stamp. 7/15/1870. Bill of Rights excepted except the amnesty for the leaders, including Riel.
  • Differences between settlers and natives view

    America bought Alaska, and Canada is developing. The settlers come in, and their views are different. Land is mine, not everyones. Farming instead of Hunting, Consumers instead of returning the favour. The settler destroyed the natives' lifestyle.
  • Dominion Lands Act

    10$ registration fee and three years of work/living on 65 acres of land will make the land occupied by settlers. This prevented US annexation and built communities around the CPR fast.
  • Clifford Sifton

    Responsible for attracting settlers. Targeting Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Greek for building and working. Germans, Polish, Norwegians and Russians for farming. False advertisements on the streets of Europe, to attract settlers with good looking people. All religions were respected, but people above 40 years old or disabled cannot come to Canada.
  • Condtions of Settling in Canada

    Conditions very harsh, and people were extreme cold and unprepared. There were no trees to build log cabins so sods were built instead. Wood and livestock were unavailable and very expensive, and people had to go to towns/cities to buy them. Land that was given might not be able to grow or able to support certain agriculture or livestock, and they are very far from cities/towns. They were forced to stay 3 years to keep the land. Many people died because of this.
  • PEI joins Confederation

    The colonies in Confed prospered, and PEI went bankrupt from railway buildling. Macdonald offered to pay all debt and provide ferry service for the island. PEI joined as the 7th Province of Canada. Note 1997 Confederation Bridge opened, connecting the island to us.
  • Cypress Hill Massacre

    There are no authority in the West, American pillages were often. There was a brawl that occured from liquor because of wolf and liquor traders. This led to brawls and gun fights. The NorthWest Mounted Police were created to restore and keep order in the west and observe the CPR construction.
  • CPR developement

    In the beginning, no benefits were seen so no company wanted to do this. After promises of land and money from Macdonald, they would try to outbid each other. However, Sir Hugh Allan gave Macdonald $360,000 or $7 million now for his campaign if he can build the railway. This was the Pacific Scandal, which led to the delay of the CPR
  • Indian Act 1876

    Special status for Indians, no metis. No rights to vote or to drink alcohol, and they are supported as wards of state. Timber can be taken with no payment and need to give up status for rights. Even though this happened, settlers still aren't kind to them. This affected the Natives greatly.
  • Alexander Mackenzie to Macdonald again

    Started the Secret Ballot and filing/recording spendings on campaigns. in 1878 Macdonald wins with the National Policy, which protects local merchants. It also lowers prices of raw materials, and starts the railway again. The Atlantic Provinces didn't like it, it only benefits Ontario and Quebec. Also, imported items are too expensive and railway is expensive too.
  • Sam Steele

    Present in many major events. Took place in western march to take some Canada west settlers for settling and negotiates treaties with natives. Kept order in Manitoba during the building of CPR and to command officers during Klondike gold rush. Fences were put around the rocky mountain to stop Americans from coming and stealing from settlers, and also from taking all the gold. Instead, people came in from Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. American pillagement was still common nonetheless.
  • Jerry Potts

    Guide and translater for NWMP, his father was clerk for American fur Company, and mother is Métis. He led NMWP to Fort Whoop-up and busted a lot of outlaws. Very violent man.
    Many see him as a man with supernatural powers. He wears cat skin under his shirt for luck, and he was never hit in battle at all.
  • Canadian Pacific Company wins chance

    Montreal company along with BMO builds this. Donald Smith, J. J. Hill, and George Stephen are some big players. Also, William Van Horne was general manager, later president of the company(1888). He lured navvies, purchased materials and made decisions. In four years, it was completed. Donald Smith completed the last spike on 11/07/1885 in Craigellachie, BC. CPR Relief Bill of 22.5 million dollars.
  • The NorthWest Rebellion

    Metis try to petition for rights again, but ignored. They rebel, with Crowfoot and Big Bear backing them. They were getting kicked out of SK, and they got Riel to lead them again. 03/19/1885 they captured a protestant church/Batoche. Also think that Sam Steele was double crossing them. War occured.
  • Battle of Duck Lake, Frog Lake, Fish Creek and Cut Knife

    Using Guerilla tactics they cornered and taken the Canadian by surprise several times. However, Riel made a tactical mistake by pulling troops back to Batoche. This cornered themselves, and they got destroyed. Riel was captured, but Gabriel Dumont escaped to the US. 900 against 300.
  • The fate of Riel

    Riel either dies or goes to jail for life. Queen Victoria thinks he should be jailed incase of uproar in Canada East. However, Macdonald demonstrates this as a warning of uprisings, and kills him instead with great public spectacle. The uproar did occur, and the legislative building were burned. More troops were sent in, and Crowfoot+Big Bear were killed.
  • Working conditions of the CPR

    The Chinese Navvies had the hardest work. their salary was a dollar a day, but often they don't get it. They have horrible alcohol and stew, and having a shelter overhead is good. They would pour out half a cup after a sip to respect the dead who worked on this project. The ladn was extremely hard to get through