Dec 16, 1500
NativesThe Iroquois lived in a society that was Matriarchy where the leadership and decision was made the responsibility of women. Algonquians was a Patriarchy society where the father played the vital leadership role.
Power relations between Amerindians and colonial administratorsAlliances were formed in order to protect their economic interests in the fur trade. The French and Hurons were alligned and fought against the Iroquois over control of the fur trade territory and lost. The English and Iroquois were alligned and fought against the French.
Power relations between the Church and the StateThe Church was involved in political decisions because of its role in the Souvereign Coucil. The King then assumes power based on the principal of Divine Rights of Kings. The monopoly of fur was then replaced by the MInister of Marine. The Royal Government was then implemented in 1663.
Royal GovernmentThe King and the Minister of Marine remained in France while the Souvereign Council ran New France. There was a Governor who was the commander of army, defense and dealt with external affairs. The intendant was the chief of administrator, controlled budget, collected taxes, justice, seigneurial system, built roads and set up industries. The bishop was appointed by the Pope and administered over parish, hospitals, schools and charities. The Captain of Militia dealt with issues on seigneuries.
Power relations between the Colony and the Mother CountryThere was an absolute monarchy in New France where the King named administrators of the colony and was able to reverse any decisions they made. Habitants in New France had a lot of work and became very self-dependent because New France wasn't developping. In 1760, the autonomous settlers of New France became a distinct set of people called Canadien. They became independant because of the distance from France and the contact with the aboriginals.
Great Peace of MontrealThis was a peace treaty between New France and the 40 First Nations of North America. This treaty was signed by Louis-Hector de Calliere and 1300 representatives of 40 aboriginal nations on August 4, 1701.
Articles of CapitulationWhen the war between French and English was over the King of England told the head of the army, James Murray, to be in charge until the war in Europe was over. His rules were called the articles of capitualtion.
1. The French Militia could return home, no one would lose their property
2. The French Regular military would lay down their arms and leave
3. The people could practice in the R.C. religion, but the Bishop would have to leave
4. The people who stayed would become British subjects
Treaty of ParisAfter the 7 years war ended, France and Britain signed the Treaty of Paris which gave all of the territory of New France to Britain except for St-Pierre and Miquelon.
Royal Proclamation1.Gives the King's new colony a name, The Province of Quebec
2.Decreases the borders to just around the St-Lawrence river valley.
3.Put in place a civillian Government to run the new colony: (King chooses Governor; Governor chooses Executive Council)
4.English Criminal and English Civil laws were applied.
5.Unused land would be divided by the Township System.
6.No new Bishop would be allowed.
7.No Roman Catholics could hold public office (Test Act)
James Murray's ChangesMurray found that the Royal Proclamation wouldn't work because only 1% of the population was English and Protestant. James Murray bent the rules to make the French who were Roman Catholic content. The changes he made were allowing a new Bishop, changing the laws to French civil, English criminal.
Guy CarletonThe English were upset that James Murray didn't favour them so they asked London for a new governor so they sent in Guy Carleton. Despite their wishes/expectations, Carleton kept the same laws and changes that Murray had put into action. He had a sepcial reason to be tolerant towards the French, he wanted to have their loyalty as the Americans were beginning to demand their independence.
Quebec ActWhole thing is designed to keep the Canadians from joining the Americans in revolting by:
1. Enlarges the area of Quebec
2. Denied an elected assembly
3. Appointed council (min. 17 members) (appointed by the governor/king)
4. French civil laws were in stated; tithe and seigneurial system are back
5. Test Act Oath --> Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to King you're loyal to him and could hold office)
American IndependenceIn the 13 colonies, Britain wanted to place strict control over the taxes and trade. The Americans wanted Western Expansion into the Ohio Valley and up until 1763 the Americans needed Britain to protect them from the French. Now that they didn't need to Britain anymore they kept getting more and more upset and then finally after the Quebec Act, they decided to delcare their independance.
LoyalistsThey moved north to the only British colony left in North America, Quebec. 36000 loyalists came to Canada and 6000 loyalists came to Quebec.
- The English population of Quebec had a sudden increase (10%)
- They settled according to the Township system.
- They gave their settlements English names.
- The Loyalists were used to English civil laws.
- They were used to having elected assemblies.
They started writing petitions to London for change and after years of complaining they got their wish.
Constitutional ActProvince of Quebec was split up into two parts;
- Upper Canada, that was entirely English (20 000 ppl), would be all protestants and would use the township system with English civil laws.
- Lower Canada, that was mostly French (160 000 ppl), would keep the Frencg religion (Catholism), people could work in administration.
Representative GovernmentGovernor: appointed by the parliament, commanded forces, in charge of administration, has veto power, calls assemblies into session.
Lieutenant Governor: acted as deputy governor
Executive Council: appointed by the Governor, advised by Governor.
Legislative Council: appointed, approved or rejected laws from the assembly.
Legislative Assembly: people elected every 4 years, could approve or disapprove taxes, and could create laws.
Ordinary people, for the first time, had a say in the government.
Faults in the Representative GovernmentLegislative Assembly had the power to make laws, but whenever they tried to do so they were shut down because the Governor and his Council had veto power.
The two sides had different interests:
- The wealthy governors & council members thought about invetsing money in big business+tax property
- The legislative assembly wanted to tax goods, not property and didn't want to invest in such large projects that wouldn't benefit them.This was worse in Lower Canada because of language issues
Power relations between the media and the stateIn the 19th century, control of newspapers by political parties (propaganda).
In the early 20th century, dissemination of political views by newspapers (eg, Le Devoir); the 20th century, dissemination of mass information through radio and television: influences on public opinion, politicians used media for their image and to promote their parties.
The media is for many the 4th power.
92 ResolutionsThe leader of the Patriotes was Louis Joseph Papineau, and in 1834 he wrote 92 Resolutions (a list of the assemblies demands) their main demand was for Responsible Government (for the members of the councils to be selected from the elected assembly) and the government made up by the people would be responsible for its decisions. He sent these resolutions to London.
Influence and power of the ChurchAfter 1837, the bishops became more and more powerful and the cures became the most important people in the parish. The Church was still in charge of registering births, marriages, and deaths. They controlled education and there were orphanages, shelters, charities, religious festivals. The Roman Catholic Church attendance was very high. Protestants were divided. Ministers were still influential but weren't as powerful as Roman Catholic. There were Protestant Universities like McGill in 1821.
Russell's 10 ResolutionsLord John Russell responded with the 10 Resolutions (solutions which didn't solve any of the Patriotes main demands, in fact it gave more power to councils)
--> This response was taken as an insult and rebellions broke out in both Upper Lower Canada.
The Rebellions of 1837-1838Upper Canada's Rebellion was lead by William Lyon Mackenzie and quickly put down.
Lower Canada's Rebellion was led by Louis Joseph Papineau and after several battles St-Charles, St-Denis, St-Eustache the rebellion was put down.
The Patriotes are supported by the clergy but they don't have enough support outside Montreal and fail. They were poorly organized and equiped.
12 Patriotes were hanged outside Montreal's prison as a symbol
58 were exiled to Australia
Lord Durham's Recommendations-Britain should increase immigration in order to assimilate the French.
-The two Canada's should be united (eng. now have majority)
-Responsible Government should be granted to eliminate veto power.
Act of UnionUpper and Lower Canada unite.
(Clearly this system was flawed (not responsible) it would be changed in a very short time)
--> Conflict occurred very quickly
Responsible GovernmentResponsible Government was adopted slowly:
1842: The Prime minister would select members of the executive council from the assembly.
1848: Governor Lord Elgin would be the first to not use his veto powers, and allow the Prime minister (majority holder) to have executive powers. The structure of Responsible Government: Responsible government is when the governor is responsible and doesn't use his veto power over everything.
Politics in the 1860sThe political system became responsible but no one could agree on who should be in charge, no party could win a majority government. The party leaders agreed a merger was necessary, meetings were needed to discuss such things. (Charlottetown Conference, Quebec Conference, London Conference)
The Charlottetown ConferenceIn September, 1864, the leaders of Canada East and Canada West met with the leaders of three Maritime Provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island) and they left the meetings agreeing to consider a merger. They decided it was a good idea and wanted to try it out.
The Quebec ConferenceIn October, 1864, the same members of last time agreed on 72 resolutions that would make the merger possible. (A federal system, 24 seats to each colony with a total of 72 seats, an assembly elected by "rep by pop", and a railway between colonies). The conferences went well but the people weren't so accepting of what their politicians were moving towards. (Newfoundland and PEI withdrew, Dorion's Parti Rouge opposed the federation, and the assembly of the Canada's passed confederation narrowly)
Sections 91-92The Federal Government had certain responsibilities as did the Provinces. These are listed in Sections 91-92. Section 91 (Federal) responsibilities were defense, banking and monye, postal service, and criminal law. Section 92 (Provincial) responsibilities were municipal institutions, hospitals, and property and civil rights. Immigration and agriculture were shared responsibilities between the federal and provincial governments. The Federal Government could also disallow any provincial law.
The London ConferenceIn 1867, the leaders of the four colonies met to make arrangement to release from the British Empire to become a new "self-governing" colony. This is the Dominion of Canada. With it's capital of Ottawa was created under the British North American Act. Passed on March 29, came into existence in Canada on July 1st, 1867. Containing 4 provinces (Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia). The other provinces would join between 1870 and 1949.
Power relations between union movements and the stateFirst strikes and partial legalization of unions (1872), implantation of American unions (1880). Royal Commission on the relations between capital and labour (from 1886 to 1889). Union demands regarding health and safety and laws (C.S.S.T.), for the protection of children, union struggle to ensure a minimum salary to workers, women, elders. Anti-Labour Laws: Padlock Law (1937), right to strike, use of police against the strikers. Adoption of the Labour Relations Act (1944)....
Indian ActA new law was created for the Americans. Native claimes related to the exploitation of natural ressources.
National PolicyThe Federal Government needed to unify these different provinces. Times were tough (trade was down, unemployment inc, economic recession). John A MacDonald (Conservative Party) formed a plan to promote national unity. The three main points of it were increasing custom duties, build railways, and encourage immigration.
The Northwest Rebellions (Red River Rebellions)John A MacDonald (first Prime Minister of Canada) took many provincial powers and created many political enemies because he wanted a lot of power. Some provinces wanted out of the Dominion. Canada's government wanted to expand to the west by making the Transcanada railway but the Metis were living there so the Metis got really mad and Louis Riel (Metis leader) decided to rebel, (there were 2 rebellions both unsuccessful). Afterwards, John A. Macdonald executed Louis Riel because he was a rebel.
Power relations between femenist movements and the stateFoundation of the National Council of Women (1893); actions of the suffragettes.
1961: electing the first woman to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (Marie-Claire Kirland-Casgrain).
1964: 16, which ended the legal incapacity of married women.
1965: Foundation of the Federation des femmes du Quebec (revised Civil Code, establishment of maternity leave, decriminalization of abortion, equality (in theory) of men and women); 1996: law on pay equity is adopted.
Power relations between movements for social justice and the stateEarly 20th century, associated with communism, union movements and feminism.
1930: the depression brings about the creation of many charity groups and aid organizations.
Pressure they exert on the government contributes to adoption of laws and different measures intended to protect the average citizen (Commission des normes du travail, Régie du Logement, etc.)
Power relations between linguistic groups and the state & Power relations between nationalist movements and the stateWWI and WW II - Conscription
1867: Dominance of English in business and politics
1967 General de Gaulle of France comes to Montreal to celebrate 100 birthday of Canada
1966 Rene Levesque quit the Liberal party to form the Mouvement Souverainte association (MSA)
1970 October Crisis
1961-Office de la langue francaise
1980 Rene Levesque Referendum
1982 Charter of Rights and Freedoms
1987 Meech Lake Accord
1992 Charlottetown agreement
World War One (1914-1918)-Forced to fight because Britain joined the war
-Conscription crisis which forced people to join the war
-Women's rights improved (took men's place in work force & could vote in place of their husband). In 1918, women and men were allowed to vote in federal elections.
-Improvement in the economy (building stuff for war (transforming factories)). Rise in population because men came back from war.
-Britain rewards Canada for participating with Statue of Westminister.
World War Two1939-1945: This was over a high ethical issue (Holocaust). This war brought Canada out of depression. Canada volunteered to join and was not forced by Britain. Women were involved (Women's movement). There was another conscription crisis (French) - they never actually saw battle. Food is rationed. There was post war prosperity and Europe rebuilt it's economy. There was a natural increase in population and immigration and there were baby-boomers.
Role of the ChurchThe Church continued to control the education, hospitals, orphanages, and welfare services. It was also influential in government, unions, and the caisses populaires. The Church continued to promote large families, rural life and Christian values.
Role of the State (government)The government led by Maurice Duplessis continued to believe that the state should not intervene in either the social or economic sectors (only wanted the Church to be in charge). Consequently, its role was basically a supporting one, which considered of offering subsidies to the Church and favourable conditions for investment purposes.
Maurice DuplessisHe believed that the rural communities were the best places to promote traditional values such as family life, gratifying work and religious beliefs. Agriculture was and should continue to be at the heart of Quebec's economy in order to avoid urbanization and associated problems such as unemployment. Two groups went against Duplessis.
Union LeadersThey accuse Duplessis of opposing social progress and of serving American interests rather than the interests of Quebec workers. Throughout this period there were numerous strikes in Quebec. During the Asbestos strike of 1949 even Church officials such as Bishop Charbonneau supported the strikers.
Intellectuals and JournalistsIntellectuals such as Pierre Elliott Trudeau and Rene Levesque opposed the Duplessis government and attacked the conservative nature of Quebec society in newspapers, magazine articles and television programs. Maurice Duplessis founded the Union Nationale party (separatist party) and was premier of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and from 1944 to 1959. During these periods, Duplessis defended provincial autonomy over federal initiatives in provincial jurisdictions.
The Quiet RevolutionThe Quiet Revolution begain in Quebec in 1960 with tthe electoral defeat of the Union National by Jean Lessage and his Liberal Party. It can be best described as a rapid and far-reaching process of social, economic, and political reform in Quebec from early to the late 1960s. There was an increase in government intervention.
-Modernizing Quebec's educational system
-Weaken the influence of the Church
-Hydro-Quebec became government owned, trans-Canada expanded, Montreal Metro
Power relations between financial circles and the state: Reciprocal influence-Involvement of businessmen in politics facilitates access to grants, laws and regulations in favour of companies and banks.
-The practice of funding of political parties by businessmen causes scandals and a denunciation of patronage.
-From 1960, the state takes control of certain sectors of the economy, subsidizes Quebec companies and recognizes the rights of employees.
Power relations between environmentalist groups and the stateSince 1970, pressure from environmental groups (measures and laws to protect the environment) and their impact on the population via the media influences public policy. 1970: Creation of the Ministry of Environment Quebec.
2002: ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Canada.
Environmental movements present in Quebec: Greenpeace, the Green Party, l’Action Boréale, etc.
James Bay and Northern Quebec AgreementJames Bay and Nothern Quebec Agreement (1975) grants more political powers to the Cree and Inuit; the repatriation of the Constitution (1982) formally recognizes certain aboriginal rights without ending their claims. The Peace of the Brave (2002) recognizes their rights on their territory in exchange for financial compensation for the exploitation of natural resources.
Oka CrisisIn the summer of 1990 Mohawk warriors established road blocks on the borders to their reserves in Oka just outside Montreal, when a golf course wanted to expand its 9 holes onto native land. The natives military organized themselves and the Canadian Forces were called in to handle the situation. The Oka crisis lasted 78 days, when the stand off finally came to an end without aimed conflict, hower issues remained. The Charlottetown Accord was created to deal with these issues.