Img 5851 2lowres

WALP Module 1-4 Timeline

  • Jan 1, 1500


    • Pre-Europeans.
    • Farmers
    • Lived in long houses on semi-permanent settlements (dependent on land fertility)
    • St Laurence valley, fertile land
    • Matriarchy
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    History of Canada

  • Jan 2, 1500


    • Nomadic
    • Hunters
    • Move according to animal migration
    • Lived in temporary houses (wigwam/teepees)
    • Patriarchy
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Jacques Cartier's First Trip

    Jacques Cartier's First Trip
    • Explored and mapped Saint Lawrence
    • reported fish, timber, fur, gold (false report)
  • Jan 1, 1535

    Jacques Cartier's Second Trip

    Jacques Cartier's Second Trip
    • Reached Statacona (Quebec City)
    • Natives showed Europeans how to survive winter and scurvy
  • Jan 1, 1541

    Jacques Cartier Third (and final) Trip

    Jacques Cartier Third (and final) Trip
    • Failed attempt to establish colony
    • Missionaries tried to convert
    • France abanoned "New World" for 60yrs
  • Establishment of Port Royal

    Establishment of Port Royal
    • Samuel de Champlain involved in foundation
    • failed because of position (natives werent willing to go that far)
  • Trading Post Established at Stadacona

    Trading Post Established at Stadacona
    • by Jacques Cartier
    • present day Quebec City
    • where the river narrows
  • Stadacona Develops into a Colony

    Stadacona Develops into a Colony
    Stadacona grew into a colony, called New France.
  • The Fur Trade Develops

    The Fur Trade Develops
    With the high demand of fur for things such as hats, New France begins to expand as hunters are forced to look for beavers to trap.
  • Trois-Rivieres is Founded

    Trois-Rivieres is Founded
    Trois-Riviers is founded by Laviolette.
  • Villa-Maria is Founded

    Villa-Maria is Founded
    Villa-Maria (present day Montreal) is founded in 1642 by Maisonneuve. Also called Hochelaga by the Natives.
  • First Hospital founded in Montreal

    First Hospital founded in Montreal
    Jeanne Mance, one of the original founders of Montreal in 1642, establishes the first hospital, Hotel-Die de Montreal.
  • Royal Government

    Royal Government
    Governer: commander of the army, in charge of defense, dealt with external affairs (with English and Natives).
    Intendent: controlled budget, tax, etc.
    Bishop: appointed by the Pope, administered over hospitals, schools, charities.
  • Fall of New France

    Fall of New France
    Quebec is captured by the British after a short battle. This marks the fall of New France to the British.
  • Articles of Capitulation

    Articles of Capitulation
    As the Seven Year War is still going on in Europe, a treaty is not signed. However, a document was signed giving the terms under which the French would surrender, called the Articles of Capitulation and it stated:
    • The French Militia could return to their homes, and keep their arms.
    • The regular French Military were to drop their arms and return to France.
    • The population could still practice Catholicism, however there was to be no more Bishop.
    • They would become British subjects.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris is signed at the end of the Seven Year War. All territory of New France is ceeded to the King of England, except for the islands Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
  • The Royal Proclamation

    The Royal Proclamation
    In 1763, the Royal Proclamation is signed.
    1. Renamed the Province of Quebec2. It decreases the borders to just around the St-Lawrence river valley.3. Put in place a new government: Governer appointed by King, 5 member of executive council appointed by Governer. 4. English Criminal and Civil laws were applied.
    2. No new Bishop would be allowed
    3. No Catholics could hold public office.
  • James Murray

    James Murray
    James Murray, Governer of the Province of Quebec, realizes the Royal Proclamation is not working as the French canadians represent 99% of the population. Murray bent the rules for the French canadians, fearful of a revolution:
    1. He allowed a new Bishop
    2. He allowed French laws in the lower courts
    3. He did not call an elected assembly because it would favor the English Merchants The wealth Brits are not satisfied with Murray, so the King calls him back to England.
  • Guy Carlton

    Guy Carlton
    A new Governer is appointed, Guy Carlton. Carlton quickly realizes Murray was right, and adopts the same attitude as him. To guarantee the canadian's loyalty, he signs the Quebec Act in 1774. -Enlarges the area of Quebec -Denied an elected assembly-Appointed council (min.17 members)-French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigniorial system are back-Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal, and could hold office) This makes the Americans very upset.....
  • Quebec Act of 1774

    Quebec Act of 1774
    Because of the increasing threat from the Americans, Guy Carleton adopts the Quebec Act in 1774. Essentially, it's main goal to gain the loyalty for the canadians.
    - Enlarges area of Quebec
    - No elected assembly
    - appointed council
    - French civil laws & seigneurial system
    - Test Oath of Allegiance All in all, this made the Americans very angry....
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    The 13 Colonies are upset for a number of reasons:
    - They are being taxed to pay for England's wars
    - They weren't getting land, but the Canadians were (Ohio Valley)
    - Quebec Act was the last straw
    As a result:
    -42,000 British loyalists settled in Canada
    -The anglo population of Canada increases from 1%-10%
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    In 1783, Britain signs the Treaty of Versailles, recognizing the United States of America as an independant country.
    - The territory south of the Great Lakes are given to the United States
  • Constitutional Act of 1791

    Constitutional Act of 1791
    The Constitutional Act separated the Province of Quebec into two: Upper and Lower Canada. By separating the two Canada's, the majority french speaking population in Lower Canada got to keep their religion, civil laws, and the people could work in administration. In Upper Canada, protestantism was allowed, the township system was used and English civil laws were applied. This act also gave the people a Representative Government.
  • Representative Government

    Representative Government
    -Governer (appointed by the parliament, commanded forces, in charge of administration, called assemblies into session. Held veto power which meant he could turn down laws.)
    In each Canada...
    - Lieutenant Governer
    - Executive Council (appointed, advises Governer)
    - Legeslative Council (appointed, approve or reject laws from the assembly)- Legeslative Assembly (people elected every 4yrs, approve or disapprove taxes, create laws.)
    Upper Canada: runs smoothly
    Lower Canada: French/English tension
  • Invention of Steam Power

    Invention of Steam Power
    James Watt invents to first steam engine. This steam power greatly changes the way goods are transported in Canada. It is adapted for ships and even trains.
  • A New Export Emerges

    A New Export Emerges
    Since Britiain was at war with Napoleon and their main sources were inaccesible, Britain turned to Canada for timber to build and maintain their naval fleet.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    Britain began seizing ships arriving from France headed for the United States. Since Britain was at war with Napoleon in France, The USA figured it would be a good time to invade Britain's closest colony, Canada. The war ended in a stalemate, with neither side gaining any land. However, it boosts the canadian economy and for once the Canadian people felt of sense of trust and protection under British reign.
  • 92 Resolutions

    92 Resolutions
    Louis-Joseph Papineau, leader of the Parti Canadien, upset with the way the government was functioning sent a list of resolutions to London. Among these, his party requested a Responsible Goverment. In a Responsible Goverment, members of the council are chosen from the elected members of the assembly. In reply, London send back 10 resolutions, none of which solve the problems of the Canadians. This leads to much discontent and the beginning of a revolution...
  • Completion of the first Canadian railway

    Completion of the first Canadian railway
    The first railway in Canada was opened, linking La Prairie to St Jean (roughly 30km) in under an hour.
  • Rebellions in the Canadas

    Rebellions in the Canadas
    Rebellions erupt in Upper Canada, with William Lyon MacKenzie as their leader however they are quickly ended. The rebellions in Lower Canada are lead by Papineau. They won one battle however after many loses (Saint-Eustache, Saint-Charles, Saint-Denis, etc). However, it is a loss for the Patriotes. As a result, 12 patriotes are hung and 58 are exiled to Australia.
  • Lord Durham

    Lord Durham
    Lord Durham is sent by England to investigate the rebellions and offer solutions. He comes up with 3 suggestions:
    1. Britain should increase immigration to assimilate the French.
    2. The two Canada's should be united in order to make an anglo majority.
    3. A Responsible Goverment should be established to eliminate the veto power.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    The Act of Union of 1840 did 4 things:
    1. Created the Province of Canada by combining the two Canadas, which comprised of Canada East and Canada West.
    2. Canada East and West each had 42 members to its assembly.
    3. The governer still had veto power.
    4. Canada East and West would each pay equal parts for Canada's debt.
  • Treaty of Reciprocity

    Treaty of Reciprocity
    Britain abolishes its preferential trade agreement with Canada so it must look to others to establish a free trade network. In 1854, Canada signs the Treaty of Reciprocity with the United States.