Period: Oct 30, 1000 to
NativesThere were 2 main Amerindian groups, Iroquois and Algonkians. Both groups focused on different tasks and had different lifestyles. Iroquois were sedentary and focused on agriculture, while the algonkians hunted their food and were nomadic. They believed in spirits, an animist religion. They believed that everything had a spirit and would not let anything go to waste.(ex: bones for tools, skin for clothes).
Oct 30, 1500
Europeans Arrive- Explorations beginThe Europeans arrive in North America to begin their explorations. They were interested in explorations for MONEY. New inventions to help make their traveling easier.
Oct 30, 1534
Jacques Cartier- 1st VoyageExplored and mapped the gulf of St Lawrence reported what he thought was gold but lots of fish, timber, and furs.
Oct 30, 1535
Jacques Cartier- 2nd VoyageSailed up the St-Lawrence, reached Stadacona (Quebec). Nice natives showed Europeans how to survive winter and scurvy. They return with native captives (
Oct 30, 1541
Jacques Cartier- 3rd VoyageAttemped to set up a colony (not successful). Missionaries attempted to convert natives. France lost interest for 60yrs.
13 ColoniesBritish set up 13 new colonies
Fur Trade developed
Coureurs des bois are formed
Voyageurs are formed
Establising New Settlements
Port RoyalThe king first sent a voyage in 1605 to establish a settlement in Nova Scotia called Port Royal.Port Royal failed because of its position
ChamplainChamplain returned in 1608-09 to establish a trading post near Stadacona (Quebec), a point where the river narrows. To trade furs with the natives.
Later grew into a colony-New France
Maisonneuveestablishes Montreal. it’s deep inside Iroquois territory, established to try and convert natives. It’s called Ville-Marie
King Louis 14thhe took control of France for himself. He had two objectives: settle wars in Europe, and take command of his colonies.
Royal GouvermentJean-Baptiste Colbert and Louis decided to implement Royal Government in 1663
The council was made up of the following members:GovernorIntendantBishop Seigniorial system
purpose of this new system was to entice new settlers to come to New France and keep them organized
Jean TalonWas brought to develop france- Population wise.
Soldiers were offered free land if they agreed to stay in N.F. after their service was doneMinor criminalsFiles du roi- qucikly married
Payments were also given to couples who married young,Fathers of unmarried girls paid fines.
Bachelors over 21 paid fines all with the hopes to increase the population.
The Seven Years War - EuropeNew France never stood a chance at defeating the 13 colonies. Britain had more sea power, and could easily sent troops/supplies. France was focused on the war in Europe.
The Seven Years War- North AmericaEnglsh Vs. FrenchOn the battlefield the English numbered about 3,000, the French nearly 4,000The battle last about an hour.Quebec is capitulated, English Win
Seven Years War ends in North America
Articles of Capitulationa document was signed giving the terms under which the French would surrender.
CanadienIn New France the people were very autonomous and by 1760 grew to become a distinct set of people called Canadien
Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris ends the 7 years war
All the Territory known as New France is given to the King of England except two small Islands, (St.Pierre, Miquelon)
Lead to the Royal Proclamation
Royal ProclamationThe Royal Proc. Had a goal to control and assimilate the French in Quebec,
James Murray and Guy CarletonSaw that the Royal Proclamation was unworkable - 1% eng 99% French
Bent the rules
Tolerant to French
English merchants report him to king
Replaced by Guy Carleton
Had same thoughts as Murray
Quebec ActThis act was put in place to guarantee French Canadian loyalty.French laws, test act oath. Enlarged quebec territory.
Americans become upset
American RevolutionAmericans were upset = Revolted (attacked colonies)
Treaty of VersaillesEnded the revolution
The British then accepted the United States as an independent country.The fur trade which had been located largely in south of the Great Lakes had to relocate. Now had to move towards the Northwest this meant much longer journeys for les voyageurs
The Constitutional ActLower and Upper Canada
Both had different laws to suit the people who lived there.
Change in gouverment= Representatve Gouverment
Worked well for English, French were having problems
Period of ChangeTrade,Transportation,Population changes.
The War of 1812Britain was at war with Napoleon
British army seized any American ships suspected of trading with France and forced their crew to serve in the British military
Neither side won
Immigration from IrelandIrish Potato Famine. The Irish were forced to find somewhere new to live and many came to North America in search of a better way of life.
Growing Discontent in Lower CanadaBritish Party
The two groups were so different no negotiations could occur.
92 ResolutionsLouis Papineau demanded for a Responsible Gouverment
Got sent back 10 Resolutions which didn't solve anything
Rebellions then took place
Results of RebellionsLord Durham sent to Canada and makes recommendations.
Britain should increase immigration in order to assimilate the French.The two Canada’s should be united
Responsible Government should be granted to eliminate veto power.
Act of UnionCreates the Prov of Canada consisting of Canada East and West Canada east and west each had 42 members to its assemblyGovernor still had control and veto powerCanada east and west would equally pay for Canada’s debts
Lord ElginFirst prime minister to not use veto power
adapts responsible gouverment
Reciprocity TreatyAmerica promised and signed to be trading partners for 10 years with Canada.
Developed Responsible GovernmentModerate and Radical
Reciprocity Treaty was ending
timber=replaced by iron
Politicsno one could agree on who should be in charge
The Charlottetown Conference
The Quebec Conference
The London Conference
CanadaCanada becomes a confederation
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontatio, Quebec
IndustrializationModernization of agriculture and transportation. (New Railways and Trading with Agricultural Products)
Grand Trunk Railway-Intercolonial Railway-Canadian Pacific Railway
Hard Working & Living Conditions
Role of Women= Hard Lives
Influence of Church
ManitobaManitoba becomes a province of Canada
North West TerritoriesBecomes apart of Canada.
Was brought from HBC
British ColumbiaBritish Columbia becomes a Canadian province
Joined in return for railway completion
Prince Edward IslandBecomes a province of Canada
It was in serious debt, joined to save economy
National PolicyProgram set by John A Macdonald to increase the economy.
Promote national unity
3 main ideas: Increase Custom Duties,Build Railways,Encourage Immigration
SaskatchewanSaskatchewan becomes a Canadian province
World War 1nationalist or imperialist played a great role in the conflict
As men went to war, women stepped up and worked in the factories. Women also saw armed service as nurses.
Women obtain the right for Federal Vote
Leads to Post economic boost
Post Economic BoostHuge boost in population
Because they didn't lose much money during the war:
The Second phase of Industrialization begun=natural resources are exploitedMany new factories opened
New railways are built
Roaring 20'sPeople demanding high amounts of items=Too many items leftover
Leads to Great Depression
The Great DepressionPost Economic Boom comes to an end
The stock market crash crash was the causePeople were buying shares in companies on borrowed money, when debts were called in the stocks went down
-Most sectors of the economy were hit hard -Massive lay offs-Families bought as little as possible
Gouverment makes solutions
The Great Depression led to a new theory and way of thinking for the gouverment=No more Capitalism New theories:
Black Thursday=Stocks dropped below 0
Statute of WestministerGave Federal Goverment powers over Foreign Affairs
PadLock Lawwas passed originally to eliminate communist activists and sympathizers.
Put lock on company,
ock people out to see who breaks down first= Employees either need $ or company will shut down, therefore 1 side will break down first
World War 2Canada adopts War Mode
Different attitude towards the war than WW1
Canada are independant=Decide to go to war on their own(Statute)
Deal with War Time Issues
Women get Provincial Vote
Differences between WW1 and WW2
Kept the major traditional events involved:
The Roman Catholic Church Idealization of rural life
Role of the State (government)
Founded the Union National party
2 groups challenged the traditions:
Union leaders Intellectuals and Journalists
Americanization of lifeperiod of economic prosperity to North America.
American capital promoted the individual and material comfort.
Population Growthincreased immigration from Europe after the war and a high birth rate.
135, 000 infants are born each year on average in Quebec.
This phenomenon is known as the baby boom
Quebec FlagDuplessis adopts the fleurdelisé as Quebec's flag
NewfoundlandBecomes a province of Canada
Joined up for economic reasons
The Asbestos strikepitted workers against the state and company
It is often seen as a turning point in organizing opposition to Duplessis
OppositionMaurice Duplessis refused federal subsidies
He also opposed federal allowance payments to Quebec families
Income TaxDuplessis introduces a provincial income tax
Agricultural Changesrural electrification
90 % of the farms had electricity.
Farm credit was offered to farmers who wanted to buy new equipment
Quiet Revolution3 main features:
To make the Quebec goverment the major force behind Quebec's social and economic developmenTo modernize Quebec's educational system To weaken the influence of the Church