History 414 (2)

  • Influence of Church

    Influence of Church
    -After 1837 the bishops became more powerful.
    • They would now register births, marriages and deaths
    .- Controlled education
    • Orphanages, Shelters, Charities
      • The R.C. Church attendance was very high
      • Protestants were divided (Anglicans, Presbyterians, etc..)
    • New Universities (McGill-1821), (Bishops-1843)
  • 1860 Politicial Parties

    1860 Politicial Parties
    In 1860, all the British colonies had a Responsible Government.
    Liberal-Conservatives (John A. Macdonald-West and Georges-Etienne Cartier- East) Revolutionary:
    - Parti Rouge (Canada East) led by Dorion focused on French, end tithe and make government in charge of schools.
    • Clear Grits (Canada West) led by Brown wanted to expand the province, governor and legislative council to be elected, rep by pop.
  • Unitary/Federal State

    Unitary/Federal State
    These political differences began making people think that the provinces should be divided and controlled separately. -They are deciding between a Federal or a Unitary state. Unitary State: One government that controls whole country. Federal State: the government deals with matters that affect the whole country. The states/ provinces will deal with all the local matters
  • The Charlottetown Conference

    The Charlottetown Conference
    In September of 1864, the Leaders of Canada East and West meet with the leaders of three Maritime Provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia,Prince Edward Island). They left the meetings all agreeing to consider a merging Canada.
  • Quebec Conference

    Quebec Conference
    • Same members from last time with Newfoundland.
    • They agreed on 72 resolutions that would allow Canada to merge.
    • Federal system
    • 24 seats to each colony (total 72 seats)
    • Rep by Pop- Railway between colonies
    • Newfoundland, and PEI withdrew- Parti Rouge opposed
  • The London Conference

    The London Conference
    • Leaders meet to make the British Empire become a “self-governing” colony.
    • Capital= Ottawa (British North America Act)
    • 4 Provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia
  • Federal vs. Provincial

    Federal vs. Provincial
    Federal: defense, banking and money, postal service, criminal law Provincial:education, · municipal institutions,hospitals, property and civil rights Shared: Immigration and agriculture
  • Period: to

    New Provinces

    1870 North West Territories
    1870 Manitoba
    1871 British Columbia
    1873 Prince Edward Island
    1898 Yukon
    1905 Alberta and Saskatchewan.
    1949 Newfoundland
    1999 Nunavut
  • National Policy

    National Policy
    -The federal government needed to unify provinces.
    - John A. Macdonald planned to promote national unity. -Increase Custom Duties: Promote Canadian Industries by ensuring Canadians bought from Canadians
    -Build Railways: The Canadian Pacific Railway (unify people, increase trade)
    -Encourage Immigration (Western Canada): to make a bigger market.
  • Improvements in Agriculture

    Improvements in Agriculture
    • Traditionally farming and Government stepped in to modernize,and teach new methods
    .- Quebec moves from wheat to dairy.
    • Farms were still over crowded so they encouraged people to farm new areas.
  • Quebec City Lifestyle

    Quebec City Lifestyle
    Population in cities were increasing,due to Industrial Revolution
    -VERY difficult working conditions, dangerous, long hours, unheated and not paid well.
    -The boom in population caused the cities to grow.
    - Pollution was everywhere. There was no piped water, poor sanitation, diseases and most were malnourished.
    - There was a high mortality rate.
  • New Railway

    New Railway
    Three main new railways: -Grand Trunk -Intercolonial -Canadian Pacific - 900 km was built in 1867
    - 5500km was built in 1900
  • Population Changes

    Population Changes
    -National Policy favored immigration-Pop. of Qebec & Canada rose from 30-49%-Quebec Birth rate remains very high but farms still over crowded-Better jobs in the USA-Church encouraged people to populate new areas
  • World War One

    World War One
    World War One (1914-1918)
    • Powers of the time were piling weapons and training men.
    • Germany invaded Belgium and then allies like Britain and France got involved.
    • Canada was forced into war becase of Britain
    • Factories would converted to build munitions and weapons.
    • Conscription was implemented
    • Women obtain the right to vote in Federal election for their husbands.
    • Statute of Westminster (Canada is now in charge of all internal and external matter)
  • Definitions

    Imperialism – you are loyal to mother country
    Nationalism – you are loyal to Canada
    Conscription - forced to join the army
  • Second Phase of Industrialization

    Second Phase of Industrialization
    • In this phase natural resources are exploited like minerals, pulp and paper)
      • Many new factories opened, (financed by USA or Britain)
    -New Railways were built to find more valuable in resources in Abitibi and Lac St-Jean)
    • We see an even stronger division between the rich and poor.
    • Trade unions grew even though they were opposed by employers in 1900.
    • Women dealt with sexism, poor jobs, inferior schooling. Once married they were expected to stay home.
  • Black Thrusday

    Black Thrusday
    People were buying shares in companies on borrowed money, when debts were called in the stocks went down! “Black Thursday”
    -Stocks dropped below zero, people committed suicide.
    -Most sectors of the economy were hit like wheat farmers and was made worse by drought/plague of insects.
    -Families bought as little as possible
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    • Cause: The stock market crash in 1929
    • Money was "theoretical"With the creation of new products, people wanted to invest. They decided to take out their money from the banks but none of it was there because it was lent to another person already. The people who took our money invested in companies. When the companies went bankrupt, they couldn’t repay the bank. People were in fear and decided to take out all their money.This caused many people with no money (depression starts).
  • Government Solutions to Depression

    Government Solutions to Depression
    To end the great deprssion the government:
    -Public works projects to boost economy- creates work camps - gives direct Aid to certain families- encouraged Farming
  • Statute of Westminster

    Statute of Westminster
    The Statute of Westminster: gave federal government powers over foreign affairs
  • World War 2

    World War 2
    • Canada was much more independent and wasn't forced comapred to WW1.
      • Women’s increased participation
      • Another conscription crisis -Post war prosperity
      • Natural increase and immigration
      • Out of great depression
      • The Baby Boomers were born
  • Maurice Duplessis

    Maurice Duplessis
    • The Church continued to promote large families, rural life, and Christian values which he valued.
    • He believed the rural communities were the best places to promote traditional values such as family life and religious beliefs. - Agriculture should continue to be at the heart of Quebec's economy
    • He loved country life - brought electricity to farms and paved roads
    • fan of foreign investments (US)
    • made Quebec flag
    • new tax plan
    • opposed federal allowance payments to QC families
  • The Quiet Revolution

    The Quiet Revolution
    The Quiet Revolution (1960s) started with the defeat of the Union Nationale by Jean Lesage and his Liberal Party. It was a social, economic, and political reform in Quebec.
    - Hydro-Quebec became government owned, trans-canada expanded, Montreal Metro too.
    - Parent Committee, free public school till 16,
    - Church is no longer part of education
    - We are moving away from blue collar to white collar and wanting people to have an education
  • Pill is invented to moderate menstrual cycle

    Pill is invented to moderate menstrual cycle
    In 1961, a pill was invented to moderate women's menstrual cycle
  • Creation of the Office de la langue francaise

    Creation of the Office de la langue francaise
    In 1961, the Office de la langue francaise was created to promote the French language.(The language issue was very big in Quebec politics).
  • Parti Quebecois

    Parti Quebecois
    In 1966 Rene Levesque quit the Liberal party for the Mouvement Souverainte association. Along with the RIN and the RN, they form the Parti Quebecois (PQ) in 1968 which was lead by Rene Levesque.
  • Expo 67 World Fair/ General de Gaulle of France

    Expo 67 World Fair/ General de Gaulle of France
    In 1967, General de Gaulle of France came to Montreal to celebrate 100 birthday of Canada which is the Expo 67. In City hall he calls out “Vive le Quebec libre”. These words send Quebequers into an uproar.
  • The October Crisis

    The October Crisis
    In 1970, the October Crisis occurred. The FLQ (terrorist group) kidnapped James Cross and Pierre Laporte. The Prime Minister Trudeau decided to use the war measures act to call out the army. Hundreds of FLQ members were arrested. Police later found out that Pierre Laporte was in the trunk of his car. James Cross is released.
  • Bill 101

    Bill 101
    Only French signs were allowed in public spaces, only children with English speaking parents educated in Quebec could go to English schools. The bill was modified later on so that only English speaking parents educated in Canada could send their kids to an English school.
  • 1st Referendum

    1st Referendum
    Leader of the PQ Rene Levesque felt so strongly that Quebec should separate. He decided to hold a referendum in 1980 in which about 60% voted against separation.
  • Meech Lake Accord and Charlottetown Agreement

    Meech Lake Accord and Charlottetown Agreement
    In 1984 under Prime Minister Brian Mulroney the federal government tried to organize a package that would satisfy Quebec and the other provinces:The Meech Lake Accord(1987-1990) was written with various reforms but it was denied by two provinces Newfoundland and Manitoba. Later the Charlottetown Agreement wanted to do the same (including recognize aboriginal and Quebec rights) it was voted against by the people.
  • Oka Crisis

    Oka Crisis
    In 1990, Mohawk warriors blocked roads on the borders to their reserves in Oka just outside Montreal because a golf course wanted to expand onto their land. The natives militarily assembled and the Canadian Forces were called in. It ended without armed conflict, however the issues remained.The Charlottetown Accord dealed with these issues.
  • 2nd Referendum

    2nd Referendum
    Another referendum was held in 1995 which was led by Jacques Parizeau at the time. With even closer results 50.6% against, and 49.4% for. The issue is still not resolved and another referendum may be held in the future. It takes 50% and another vote to win(separate).The question they asked: “Do you think Quebecor’s are a distinct society?”