Nov 21, 1499
Nov 21, 1500
First nationsNo elected central governing body, however, Iroquois follow a matriarchy and Algonquians follow a patriarchy.
Period: Nov 21, 1500 to
French regime- 1608-1760
Power and relations between the French and AmerindiansFrench allied with Hurons & Montagnais (Innu)
Looking for control over the fur trade
“Petite guerre” -- guerilla warfare
Great peace of montreal 1701
40 aboriginal nations agreed to consider the king of France their father and allowed the governor general to resolve their disputes and help France in wars.
Collaboration between state and Catholic ChurchChurch was automatically involved in political decisions because of its role in the sovereign council. Priests were in charge of the parishes
Nuns worked in the hospitals and some education
In effect, the church had a monopoly on religious matters, expected to be a Catholic and practice was obligatory Church would encourage the population to listen to the governor and intendant, in exchange the church was allowed the tithe and had insurance that religious matter was respected.
The power of state- Royal governmentAfter 1663- Absolutism:
After the chartered companies period (1608-1663), The French Monarchy took back control of its American colonies. The king ,Louis XIV set to making his kingdom absolutist. From 1663 to 1760, Canada lives under the royal administration
Royal government- functions pt.1-King +minister of marine remained in France and put the following people in charge of the colony
-Governor had the highest rank in the colony, the commander of the colony, commander of the army, defence, dealt with external affairs (English + Natives).
-Intendant was the most influential person, chief administrator, controlled budget, collect taxes, seigneurial system, roads, set up industries
-Colony’s high court
-Included governor, bishop, intendant and several councillors
Royal government functions pt.2-Bishop
Administered over the Parish, Priests, Hospitals, schools, charities -Captain of the Militia (chief of the civilians who act as police)
Like a chief of police, dealt with issues on the seigneuries but had no seat on the council
Life in New FranceSettlers were happy, worked hard
Work was done daily: Caring for crops,making clothes,fixing tools, preparing for winter
Settlers had to care of themselves bc NF was not developing. Autonomous, known as Canadiens
France: gap between the rich and massive amounts of poor/starving
Post conquest, many remained in BNA
3 levels of civilians
Censitaires worked the land
Life in New France pt. 2Theses distinct groups thrived because of the distance from France, even though there were representatives of the King, he had less direct control compared to France. Contact with the Aboriginals also led some to develop an independent spirit and worked or lived with the natives; voyageurs/coureurs de bois
Collaboration between state and Catholic ChurchChurch was automatically involved in political decisions because of its role in the sovereign council.
Priests were in charge of the parishes
Nuns worked in the hospitals and some education
In effect, the church had a monopoly on religious matters, expected to be a Catholic and practice was obligatory
Church would encourage population to listen to the governor and intendant, in exchange the church was allowed the tithe and had insurance that religious matter were respected.
British regime- 1760-1867
Seven year war and consequencesEurope 7 years war in the colonies also
France focuses on Europe, NF is left to defend itself (basically)
Wolfe vs Montcalm- English win
Articles of capitulation;
French Militia could return home, wouldn't lose their property
The french military would lay down their arms and leave
The people could still practice their R.C. religion but the Bishop would have to leave.
Those who stayed become British subjects
French elite left, they could afford to do so, still could live as elite in France
Royal ProclamationQuebec capitulated -colony comes under British military rule until 7 year war ends
1763- Treaty of Paris- New France ceded to England, not St. Pierre & Miquelon
Royal proclamation to control population
Renames colony province of Quebec
Decreases borders to around St. Lawrence Valley
Civilian government- King appointed Governer, appoints members to executive council
English criminal law applied
No new Bishop allowed
No Roman Catholics could hold office-Test Act
Goal to assimilate the population
Quebec Act 1774American revolution is happening -- fear that the french will join the rebellion
Guaranteed French Canadian loyalty
Enlarged the area oF QC to again include the great lakes
Still denied elected assembly
Allowed appointed counsel
French civil laws were reinstated
Test Oath Act replaced with an Oath of Allegiance (Loyal to King=hold office)
Situation in North AmericaBritish: Merchants unhappy, wanted elected assembly and favour their interests.
Americans needed British Protection from the French
Upset didn't get control of the Ohio Valley after helping the British fight
Americans traded with French, King wanted to control trade+increase taxes
Fear of changes in proclamation, eased slightly with Quebec act but still not =s
Governors James Murray,Guy Carleton bent rules to please French because they had majority needed their loyalty
America and the loyalistsAfter the American war of Independence, many remain loyal to the king of Britain, do not want to remain in America.
Only British colony left is Canada
36 000 loyalists came to Canada
6000 come to QC
West of MTL or eastern Townships
Effects of Loyalists:
English population 1%-10%
Settled land using townships instead of seigneuries
They were used to:
English civil laws (French civil laws used in QC)
Elected assemblies (none in QC at the time)
Petitioned London demanded changes to QC
Constitutional ActQuebec is split up, Ott river used as boundary between the 2 Canada’s
Upper Canada -roughly 20000 people
Protestant, used the townships system and English civil laws
Lower Canada -roughly 160 000 people
Mostly French people (remember the 10% loyalists and merchants)
Kept their catholic faith, civil laws and now Francophones could work in the administration of Lower Canada
Representative governmentGovernor general- held veto power
Lieutenant governor- acted as deputy governor
Executive council- appointed by governor to advise him
Legislative council- appointed, approve or reject laws from the assembly
Legislative assembly- elected by people every 4 years. Had the power to approve or disapprove taxes. They also had the right to create laws.
Ordinary people- right to vote for 1st time, men over 21 and own land
Faults in the Representative GovernmentLegislative assembly had the power to make laws but they were more often than not shut down by the Governor and council’s right to veto The LA and governor had different interests
The wealthy wanted to invest into big business and tax property so they could build canals and railways The LA wanted to tax goods, NOT property and didn't want to invest into large projects that would not benefit them -The situation in was worse in Lower Canada because there were constant battles over language
Political parties in Upper and Lower Canada prior to the rebellions
Concerns in Upper and Lower Canada prior to the rebellions
92 Resolutions -- 10 Russell ResolutionsLJP (lawyer and seigneur), leader of Parti Patriote, wrote a letter containing demands
Main demand: Responsible Government -members on council chosen from elected assembly government made up of the people would be responsible for its decisions
document was sent to London
Request rejected for elected council
Elected assembly loses power
Governor (Lord Gosford) gained power to take money from provincial treasury to pay the officials in the colony
Further upset patriots and began rebellions
The rebellions of 1837 and aftermathTwo armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838. Motivated by frustrations with political reform.
WLM led the rebellions in Upper Canada dealt with quickly
LJP lead in Lower Canada
Battles: St.Charles,St. Denis(french won),St-Eustache.
The British army overpowered the militia Patriote rebels because they were poorly organised and not well equipped
Aftermath: 99 captured militants were condemned to death
Only 12 went to the gallows
Durham reportBritish politician Lord Durham was sent to Canada to investigate the causes of the Patriotes rebellions. His reports led to serious changes including Canada uniting to form a single colony and responsible government.
Report contents included:
Recommendation to unite Upper and Lower Canada
Recommendation to instil responsible government
Condemnation of Family Compact and French culture
Act of unionAfter Durham’s reports, Charles Poulett Thomson was sent to get Canadian consent to unite the Canadas. Louis Lafontaine (Canada East) and Robert Baldwin (Canada West) got both Canadas to work within the Act.
The British government rejected the idea of a responsible government and accepted the idea of uniting the two Canadas from Durham’s reports.
The Act also consolidated debt between the two Canadas, even though Canada West had more debt than Canada East.
Form of gov before and after Act of Union
London ConferenceIn London, Final conference that lead to the formation of the confederation
16 delegates from Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia gathered with members of the British government to draft the British North America Act.
This act was a continuation of the 72 resolutions.
Contemporary period- 1867-Present
British North America Act (BNA)Created the Dominion of Canada, provinces Quebec,Ontario,Nova Scotia,New Brunswick. Capital Ottawa
Created government departments:
Including its federal structure Justice system House system Taxation system House of Commons
The Dominion was a self-governing colony
Accorded specific powers to the federal and provincial governments
Federal:Defense Banking money Postal service Criminal law
Provincial: Education Municipal institutions Hospitals Property+civil rights
Louis RielLeader of the Metis+ founder of Manitoba
Wanted to preserve culture +rights of the Metis since they were losing it in their homelands in the Northwest
He lead 2 resistance movements against the Canadian government
The first rebellion was the Red River Rebellion (1869-1870).The rebellion ended in negotiation between Riel and the government about including Manitoba in the Dominion
In 1885, some Canadians demanded that Riel be hanged, but the French Canadians begged Macdonald not to. He was hanged
Conscription crisisConscription- law that makes military participation during wartime for men mandatory.
In WW1, many Canadian volunteers (English-speaking) went to fight in France to support the British troops.
In 1916, soldiers die. Recruitment slows: lack of volunteers/ French Canadians in the Army.
In May 1917, Borden decided that conscription was necessary. QC was against it.
Months later, the Military Service Act became law in August 1917.
Election of 1917federal election was divided. English supported conscription while French didn’t.
As a military measure, conscription was a failure; it was responsible for the reelection of Borden and left the conservative party with a heavy liability and feelings of betrayal in QC and agricultural west.
Wartimes Election Act gave right to vote in the federal election to women because of the lack of men in Canada. Denied people who had immigrated recently from voting unless they were related to military member
Language within QuebecAllophones who adopted English when coming to Qc fed the separatist and nationalist movements. In response govs:
1961- Lesage (Liberal) created the Office de la langue Francaise was created to promote the French Language
1974- Bourassa-Liberaladopts the Official Language Act, Bill 22, making French the official language of Quebec
1977- Levesque (PQ) Charter of French Language, Bill 101, immigrant children must go to French school, forced companies to adopt french and put french on signs
Nationalism in Quebec from 1960 onwardsMore people proposed political sovereignty as the only solution to the problems facing Quebec
1963- Rasemblement pour Independance National
1967- Mouvement Souvranite Assosiation
Charles Gaulle speaks
1968- RIN + MSA= PQ
1976- Parti Quebecois comes to power
1963- Front de Liberation de Quebec
Referendum on independence Quebec - Round 1:Federalists-- Quebec stays
Separatist-- Quebec leaves
Cultural differences and oppressive struggle since the conquest had many Quebecois seeing themselves as completely independent from Canada and not Canadians
1980--Referendum on sovereignty (Rene Levesque’s PQ)
Quebec would still keep the economic benefits of being apart of Canada but be a politically independent nation
No side won with about 60% of the vote
Quebec and the Canadian constitutionAfter referendum of 1980, Trudeau attempts to unify the country by patriating (BNA Act was transferred from Britain to the Federal and Provincial legislatures) the constitution-- meaning complete independence from Great Britain.
All Provinces agreed, except Quebec, but the Constitution and Charter of Rights and Freedoms were implemented in 1982.
Still to this day, Quebec has not signed the constitution.
Referendum on an independent Quebec- Round 2Constitutional agreement failed because
English Canada refused to give QC special status
Quebec’s mixed feelings towards independence weakened their negotiations
Other groups saw QC making demands and wanted their interests heard as well
1994-- PQ return to power under Jacques Parizeau
1995-- Referendum on sovereignty
This time the vote was for a completely independent Quebec
No side won with 50% of the vote