Econ and development

  • Sep 26, 1500

    First Occupants

    First Occupants
    They had a Trading system and no notion of ownership : barter system or the value of objects defined according to one’s needs. (trading). Trade network between families, groups, and the various tribes (maps, potlatch). Men were hunters, women farmers, elderly looked after children. Transportation via canoe, snowshoe, skis
  • Period: Sep 26, 1500 to

    Econ. and Developement

  • European fishing grounds

    European fishing grounds
    Europeans would often fish in North america and have encounters with the natives, sometimes it would be peaceful others not.
  • Economy Based on Fur trade

    Economy Based on Fur trade
    The effects of an economy based on the fur trade on the organization of society and territory: Insufficient density of population, required the Natives alliance to do the hunting, Exploration and enlargement of territory to search for more and more furs. New France was constantly expanding, Establishment of trading posts, foundation of the towns of Quebec and Three Rivers
  • Fur trade 2

    Fur trade 2
    Alliances with certain aboriginal groups were made. This meant that the Europeans were at times pulled into Native conflicts and vice versa for the Natives who were pulled into battles for European control of resources.
  • Chartered companies (Company of 100 associates)

      Chartered companies (Company of 100 associates)
    The chartered company system was based on privileges (monopoly) and obligations (administer and develop the colony) Unfortunately, the Population was kept small and mostly male. They ignored the development of the colony.
  • Mercantilism

    Mercantilism
    European philosophy of doing business.
    Imported more than they exported.
    Raw materials were shipped to Europe to be turned into finished products and shipped back to NF as finished products, therefore costing more.
  • Agricultural activity

    Agricultural activity
    At the time mostly subsistence agriculture (planting just enough to provide for your family) Attempts to diversify the economy by Jean Talon (triangular trade) would fail due to too much demand for the fur trade and not enough people with different skills to diversify
  • British Regime

    British Regime
    British took over New France
  • Diversified Economy (British)

    Diversified Economy (British)
    Based on Fish, Fur, and Timber. Fish: Fished in waters near Newfoundland Fur: Fur trade economy passes into the hands of the English. Creation of the North West Company in 1783 after the American Revolution and merge with the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1821.
    The fur trade declined by the beginning of the 19th century.
  • Diversified Economy #2

    Diversified Economy #2
    Timber: A blockade by Napoleon in 1806 gives rise to new demand for timber. The creation of the Bank of Montreal in 1817 allows people to invest and obtain credit.
    New jobs are created (lumberjack, loggers, sawmill)
    Improvement and development of transportation: canals, railroads, steamships.
  • Reciprocity treaty

    Reciprocity treaty
    Trade with Britain was doing extremely well until Britain ends it’s preferential/protectionist treatment with Canada in order to explore new markets. Canada needs a new trade alliance and looked to its neighbor to the south. Canada signs a Reciprocity treaty with the USA in 1854 (to last 10 yrs). This treaty meant customs/duties between the two countries temporarily ceased. Proved advantageous For Canadian producers, because the states were such a large market with a bigger population.
  • CONTEMPORARY PERIOD

  • Exploitation of resources

    Exploitation of resources
    agriculture, forest, mining, hydroelectricity, and other natural resources are exploited (ore, pulp & paper) Birth of Crown corporations.
  • Opening of new regions

    Opening of new regions
    Regional development linked to the development of different industries and the explotation of resources.. (Abitibi, Saguenay Lac Saint Jean, Mauricie, Côte-Nord, Gaspésie…).
  • Population Changes

    Population Changes
    National Policy favored immigration.
    From 1871 until 1901 Population of Qc & Canada rose 30 to 49%
    Quebec's Birth rate remained very high. However, people kept leaving Quebec as farms over crowded
    People were moving to urban centers due to new unskilled labor demands (factories
    Better jobs available in the USA, Ontario, and Western Canada so we saw large emigration
    1/3 of children didn’t live to their first birthday, there was a high mortality rate.
  • The Nationalist politics of MacDonald

    The Nationalist politics of MacDonald
    The policy had three main points:
    Increase of Custom Duties in order to Protect/Promote Canadian Industries by ensuring Canadians bought Canadian goods.
    Build Railways such as The Canadian Pacific Railway was to run coast to coast to unify people and increase trade.
    Encourage Immigration: Especially in Western Canada, bigger population = bigger market.
  • Opening of new regions

    Opening of new regions
    Overpopulation of seigneuries lead to the opening of new regions.
    Timber industry causes the development of new Regions (Mauricie, Outaouais, Laurentides).
  • industrialization Phase 1

    industrialization Phase 1
    1885 to 1900: With new capital coming from Britain the first phase of industrialization began in Quebec. Where Skilled craftsmen were used (costly/time-consuming methods) Factories were now being used.The first assembly lines were created. Although more efficient it is dangerous and boring work. These first manufacturing industries were powered by coal/steam engines. Many industries were established in Montreal.
  • Industrialization Phase 2

    Industrialization Phase 2
    Introduction of new technology prompted a second phase of industrialization
  • World War I

    World War I
    End of the first phase of industrialisation. Although war is a terrible thing it advances the economy due to the availability of jobs and need for weapons and war supplies
  • Great Depression

    Great Depression
    Cause by The stock market crash of 1929
    (People were buying shares in companies on borrowed money,debts were called in the stocks plummeted)
    The boom that had occurred as a result of the first world war came to an abrupt end, the 1930’s are characterized as the Great Depression for this reason.
    Most sectors of the economy were hit hard (Wheat Farmers esp., made worse by drought/plague of insects)
    Massive lay offs
    Families bought as little as possible
  • Great depression solutions

    Great depression solutions
    Government Solutions:
    Public works projects
    Work Camps
    Direct Aid
    Encouraged Farming
    Finally the start of WWII in 1939 led to a huge economic boost and the depression ended.
  • World war II

    World war II
    Although it was a terrible event it kickstarted the economy due to the need to create and purchase weapons and other things necessary for war.
  • Maurice Duplesis

    Maurice Duplesis
    Maurice Duplesis ran a traditional/ conservative governement which repressed creativity and innovation due to his influence from the churth
  • Quiet Revolution

    Quiet Revolution
    a rapid and far reaching process of social, economic, and political reform in Quebec from the early to the late 1960s. It can be called the beginning of the welfare state, where we see a massive increase in government intervention Quebec's role in the social setting increased greatly with their intervention in health, education, power ,and many more. Wages were increasing for the french and English and so was the presence of unions.
  • Workers’ demands

    Workers’ demands
    The impact of workers’ demands on the organization of society and territory are:
    Development of unions: the first unions (CTCC) to the larger central unions (CSN, FTQ, CSQ).
    The nature of the demands include improved working conditions and living conditions, better wages, etc... They did this through strikes and lockouts
  • James Bay hydroelectric dams

    James Bay hydroelectric dams
    Work Project in Quebec in the 1980s
  • Recent economy

    Recent economy
    An Oil Crisis in the late 1970s and 1980s led to a recession and the Disengagement of the State. Many government companies were privatized. In more recent history Canada entered into trade agreements with the USA (The Free Trade agreement of 1988) and also Mexico (NAFTA signed in 1993). Which shows the ever increasing effects of globalization.
  • Urban expansion

    Urban expansion
    The impact of urban expansion on the organization of society and territory if the Development in the cities (concentration of services transportation, hospitals, education…), infrastructure (aqueducts, sewers)
    the Development of suburbs and Rural exodus.