History 414

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Algonquins and Iroquois

    Algonquins and Iroquois
    The Iroquois:
    - They were semi-sedimentary. Would reconstruct their longhouses every 15 years (deterioration)
    - They practice agriculture (fertile lands)
    - Women have power Algonquins:
    - They are constantly changing locations and following food sources.
    - They lived in tipis (nomadic)
    - Men have power
  • Jan 2, 1534

    The Explorations in the late 1500

    The Explorations in the late 1500
    • Caravels, astrolabes and compasses enabled travel to be more possible.
    • Merchants : find new trade routes
    • Scholars: to teach about the new places
    • The Clergy: wanted to evangelize
    • The Super-Power Countries : to take over land (power)
    • Jaques Cartier came to America:
    • Find a route to Asia
      2.Gold and precious rocks
    • Claim land for the king of France
  • Fur Trade

    Fur Trade
    • In 1608, Champlain decided to establish a trading post in Stadacona (Quebec City)
    • They would trade furs with the natives
    • The 100 Associates Company was in charge of the fur trade.The king granted them a monopoly (when one company ows the market)
    • Courreur de bois: they are French settlers who travel deep into the forest, live with natives and traded with the Amerindians.
  • European and Native Influences

    European and Native Influences
    • Europeans learned about: hunting methods, survival, clothes, new foods from the natives
    • Natives learned about: salt, bread, suffered from alcohol from the Eurpoeans
  • Important People of Quebec

    Important People of Quebec
    Maisonneuve: Founder of Ville-Marie Laviolette: founder of Trois Rivieres Jeanne Mance: established the first hospital in Montreal Marguerite Bourgeoys: she developped the first catholic community church Lasalle: He was the first European to travel the length of the Mississippi River. He wanted to explore and establish fur trade routes along the river.
  • Royal Goverment

    Royal Goverment
    The royal government was the first offical governent for New France. The council was made up of the following members:
    • Governor: commander of army, defense, external affairs with English colonies and natives.
    • Intendant (most influential) Chief administrator, budget, collected taxes, justice, seigniorial system and built roads.
    • Bishop: (appointed by the pope) priests, hospitals, schools, and charities.
  • Jean Talon's Methods of Populating

    Jean Talon's Methods of Populating
    Jean Talon = intendant in which the king put in charge to get the population to increase. Methods:
    - soldiers were offered free land and agreed they would stay in New France
    -Filles du Roy: orphan girls from France who were quickly married
    -Payments were also given to couples that married young
    -Fathers of unmarried girls paid fines.
    -Men over 21 and single would pay fines
  • Seigneurs and Censitaires

    Seigneurs and Censitaires
    Had to give lots
    Had to build mills
    Had to build roads
    Had a court house (for diputes)
    3-4 free work days
    Has right to take away land Censitaire:
    Clear trees
    3-4 free labour days
    Maintain roads
    Church taxes
    Ability to sell his land
    Granted land
    Could use mill
    Had to give lots
    He had to build mills
    Had to build roads
  • The New France Lifestyle

    The New France Lifestyle
    -Settlers(habitants) had happy lives but but worked everyday.They had to take care of crops, make clothes, fix tools and prepare for winter. -Because New France was not really developing settlers took care of themselves. -Life differed from France,where you had the very rich and massive numbers of poor/starving people. -In New France the people were very independant and by 1760 grew to become people called "Canadien".
  • The Intercolonial Wars

    The Intercolonial Wars
    New France: weak economy,mercantilist, furs.
    British colonies more freedom, prosperous
    France and Britain were always enemies in Europe (issues: religion, and power)
    -The First Intercolonial War ends with the Treaty of Ryswick 1697
    -The Second Intercolonial War ends with the Treaty of Utrecht 1713
    -The Third Intercolonial War ends with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748
    -The Four Intercolonial War (7yr War)
  • The 4th Inter-colonial War 1756-1763

    The 4th Inter-colonial War 1756-1763
    • Fighting was going in both Europe and North America -The British try to take New France by land. -Unsuccessful; sea attack planned. -The English take Louisbourg (fort)
    • Sail down river to attack Quebec -Battle on the Plains of Abraham (1759)
    • Both Generals die, English win, Quebec falls,
    • Remaining French troops retreat to Montreal.
    • The fighting will continue in Europe for another 3 yrs.
    Conflict: New France never had a chance defeating the 13 colonies.
  • Articles of Capitualtion

    Articles of Capitualtion
    The Articles of Capitulation of 1760 did:
    1.The French Militia could return home with no consequence
    2.The French Regular military would give their arms and leave.
    3.The people could practice the R.C. but the Bishop left.
    4.The people who stayed would become British Subjects.
  • The Royal Proclamation

    The Royal Proclamation
    1763 Treaty of Paris ends the 7 year war.
    The goal was to control and assimilate the French in Quebec. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 did:
    1- Now called The Province of Quebec.
    2- Borders to just around the St-Lawrence valley.

    3- Civilian Government: King gave job to Governor who appointed members of an Executive Council to advise him.
    4- English Criminal and Civil laws applied.
    5- Land divided by Township System
    6- No new Bishop allowed
    7- No Roman Catholics could hold Test Act
  • Difficulties of the first Governors

    • Only 1% of the population of QC was english. James Murray wanted to make the French Roman Catholics happy, so he bent rules. -He allowed a new Bishop -He allowed French laws in the lower courts -He did not call an elected assembly
    The English Merchants strongly apposed and demanded a new Governor . They got Guy Carleton (kept the same polices of Murray). Carleton was tolerant towards the French in Quebec. He wanted their loyalty as the Americans wanted to be independant.
  • The Quebec Act 1774

    The Quebec Act 1774
    What does it change?
    - Guarantees French- Canadian loyalty
    - Enlarges the area of QC
    - Denied elected assembly
    -Appointed council (minimum 17 members)
    -French civil laws were in place, tithe and seigniorial system
    -Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal) All these changes made the Americans mad.
  • Constitutional Act (1791)

    Constitutional Act (1791)
    -Lower Canada: French (160 000 people)
    -Upper Canada: English (20,000 people) -The Ottawa River: boundary between Canadas
    • Lower Canada kept their religion, civil laws, and people work in the administration.
    • Upper Canada would use the township system, English Civil laws.
    • Representative government
  • Representative Governement

    Representative Governement
    • Governor: commanded forces, administration, called assemblies, veto power.
    • Lieutenant Governor: Acted as deputy governor
    • Executive Council: appointed by Governor, advised Governor,
    • Legislative Council : appointed, approve or reject laws form the assembly
    • Legislative Assembly (every 4yrs), taxes and created laws.
    • Ordinary people had a say of government (only land owners over 21)
  • Faults in Representative Governement

    Faults in Representative Governement
    -Legislative Assembly had the power to make laws, but got shut down by veto power.
    -The two sides had different interests:
    -The wealthy governors & council members thought about investing money in big business + tax property. Whereas:
    -The legislative assembly wanted to tax goods, not property and didn’t want to invest.
    • In Lower Canada where the legislative assembly was French and there were constant issues over language.
  • Changes in Transportation

    Changes in Transportation
    -Trade was important to Canada. Moving their exports quickly was essential.
    - Merchants wanted big canal systems to move these goods around rapids.(Lachine canal). These investments lead to conflicts between the councils and assembly.
    - Steam power, invented by James Watt in 1802, then adapted to ships, and then early trains. This facilitated transportation.
  • Trade Change

    Trade Change
    -Napoleons armies take control of Europe
    -Britain needs lots timber to build its great naval fleet, because they were cut off from their normal sources.
    -This causes the price of timber to increase 1300%...
    - Timber is now the new main export
    -Canada provides food to feed Britain’s army and gets preferred trading partner for its exports to Britain.
  • Agriculture changes

    Agriculture changes
    • The infertile soil in Lower Canada became difficult to plant on.
    • The seigneuries became over populated and many people left to towns.
      • In Upper Canada,the soil was more fertile, and the new immigrants brought new methods of harvesting.
  • The War of 1812

    The War  of 1812
    • The Americans were now free from the British
      -Loyalists feared an American invasion.-Britain was at war with France and the Americans
      -Since they had won their Independence, the Americans traded with France.
      -The British seized American ships suspected of trading with France
      -The Americans were furious and they wanted revenge.
      -The Americans attempted an attack but failed.
    • French Canadian militia and British troops attacked American towns and burned down the white house.
  • Results of War of 1812

    Results of War of 1812
    -The fighting ends with neither side winning.
    - The Canadian economy gets boosted as Britain needed trade.
    - Loyalists and Canadians felt safe under British
    - People still feared American Expansion
  • Population Changes

    Population Changes
    • Many poor immigrants from Ireland especially were in search of a better life. -The fertile land belonged to rich lords, who rented it to peasants. The Irish planted potatoes and caught a disease, destroying the potato crop. Millions of Irish were starving “the Irish Potato Famine”. The Irish came to North America to live in better conditions. -They diseases like typhus and cholera. -These people arrived in Canada desperate so they got low paying jobs.
    • Most settled in Upper Canada.
  • Politicial Parties

    Politicial Parties
    • The Constitutional act established a representative government -Those elected held no real power = tensions grows
    • By the 1830’s two distinct groups have formed:
    • British Party: Controlled councils,money spent on public works.
    • Parti Canadian (Parti Patriote): Controlled assembly, power over taxes
  • The 92 Resolutions

    The 92 Resolutions
    • Leader of Patriotes: Louis Joseph Papineau
    • In 1834 he wrote the 92 Resolutions. It demands for a Responsible Government and made up by the people responsible for their decisions.
    • The document was sent to the British.
    • Lord John Russell responded with 10 Resolutions (solutions which didn’t solve anything the Patriotes wanted)
    • The response was taken as an insult and rebellions started in both Canadas.
  • The Canadian Rebellions

    The Canadian Rebellions
    • When they got the 10 Resolutions they treated it as an insult and rebellions broke out in both Canadas.
    • Upper Canada’s Rebellion = William Lyon Mackenzie (leader)
    • Lower Canada’s Rebellion= Louis Joseph Papineau( leader)
    • Several battles in St-Charles, St-Denis (French win), St-Eustache the rebellion died down.
      • The Patriotes are supported by clergy but don’t have enough support and they were poorly organized.
    12 patriotes hanged
    58 exiled to Australia
  • Lord Durham’s Recommendations

    Lord Durham’s Recommendations
    • Lord Durham was sent to the Canada’s to give advice.
    • He wanted:
      • Britain to increase immigration to assimilate French.
      • The two Canada’s united
      • Responsible Government so no veto power.
  • The Act of Union

    The Act of Union
    1. Creates Canada East and Canada West
    2. Canada East and West each had 42 members in assembly
    3. Governor still had veto power and control. 4.Canada East and West pay for Canada’s debts equally
  • Trading with Britain

    Trading with Britain was great.

    -Britain ends the preferential treatment with Canada (to explore new markets)
    - They establish Free Trade (no customs/ duties)
    - Canada needs a new trade partner so they sign a Reciprocity treaty with the USA in 1854 (for 10 yrs).
    - This meant the customs and duties between the two countries were over for 10 years.
    - This gave Canadian producers and advantage because the US has a bigger market.