Jan 1, 1500
Algonquins and IroquoisThe Iroquois:
- They were semi-sedimentary. Would reconstruct their longhouses every 15 years (deterioration)
- They practice agriculture (fertile lands)
- Women have power Algonquins:
- They are constantly changing locations and following food sources.
- They lived in tipis (nomadic)
- Men have power
Jan 2, 1534
The Explorations in the late 1500
European and Native Influences
Important People of QuebecMaisonneuve: Founder of Ville-Marie Laviolette: founder of Trois Rivieres Jeanne Mance: established the first hospital in Montreal Marguerite Bourgeoys: she developped the first catholic community church Lasalle: He was the first European to travel the length of the Mississippi River. He wanted to explore and establish fur trade routes along the river.
Royal GovermentThe royal government was the first offical governent for New France. The council was made up of the following members:
Jean Talon's Methods of PopulatingJean Talon = intendant in which the king put in charge to get the population to increase. Methods:
- soldiers were offered free land and agreed they would stay in New France
-Filles du Roy: orphan girls from France who were quickly married
-Payments were also given to couples that married young
-Fathers of unmarried girls paid fines.
-Men over 21 and single would pay fines
Seigneurs and CensitairesSeigneurs:
Had to give lots
Had to build mills
Had to build roads
Had a court house (for diputes)
3-4 free work days
Has right to take away land Censitaire:
3-4 free labour days
Ability to sell his land
Could use mill
Had to give lots
He had to build mills
Had to build roads
The New France Lifestyle-Settlers(habitants) had happy lives but but worked everyday.They had to take care of crops, make clothes, fix tools and prepare for winter. -Because New France was not really developing settlers took care of themselves. -Life differed from France,where you had the very rich and massive numbers of poor/starving people. -In New France the people were very independant and by 1760 grew to become people called "Canadien".
The Intercolonial WarsNew France: weak economy,mercantilist, furs.
British colonies more freedom, prosperous
France and Britain were always enemies in Europe (issues: religion, and power)
-The First Intercolonial War ends with the Treaty of Ryswick 1697
-The Second Intercolonial War ends with the Treaty of Utrecht 1713
-The Third Intercolonial War ends with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748
-The Four Intercolonial War (7yr War)
The 4th Inter-colonial War 1756-1763Conflict: New France never had a chance defeating the 13 colonies.
Articles of CapitualtionThe Articles of Capitulation of 1760 did:
1.The French Militia could return home with no consequence
2.The French Regular military would give their arms and leave.
3.The people could practice the R.C. but the Bishop left.
4.The people who stayed would become British Subjects.
The Royal Proclamation1763 Treaty of Paris ends the 7 year war.
The goal was to control and assimilate the French in Quebec. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 did:
1- Now called The Province of Quebec.
2- Borders to just around the St-Lawrence valley.
3- Civilian Government: King gave job to Governor who appointed members of an Executive Council to advise him.
4- English Criminal and Civil laws applied.
5- Land divided by Township System
6- No new Bishop allowed
7- No Roman Catholics could hold Test Act
Difficulties of the first GovernorsThe English Merchants strongly apposed and demanded a new Governor . They got Guy Carleton (kept the same polices of Murray). Carleton was tolerant towards the French in Quebec. He wanted their loyalty as the Americans wanted to be independant.
The Quebec Act 1774What does it change?
- Guarantees French- Canadian loyalty
- Enlarges the area of QC
- Denied elected assembly
-Appointed council (minimum 17 members)
-French civil laws were in place, tithe and seigniorial system
-Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal) All these changes made the Americans mad.
Constitutional Act (1791)-Lower Canada: French (160 000 people)
-Upper Canada: English (20,000 people) -The Ottawa River: boundary between Canadas
Faults in Representative Governement-Legislative Assembly had the power to make laws, but got shut down by veto power.
-The two sides had different interests:
-The wealthy governors & council members thought about investing money in big business + tax property. Whereas:
-The legislative assembly wanted to tax goods, not property and didn’t want to invest.
Changes in Transportation-Trade was important to Canada. Moving their exports quickly was essential.
- Merchants wanted big canal systems to move these goods around rapids.(Lachine canal). These investments lead to conflicts between the councils and assembly.
- Steam power, invented by James Watt in 1802, then adapted to ships, and then early trains. This facilitated transportation.
Trade Change-Napoleons armies take control of Europe
-Britain needs lots timber to build its great naval fleet, because they were cut off from their normal sources.
-This causes the price of timber to increase 1300%...
- Timber is now the new main export
-Canada provides food to feed Britain’s army and gets preferred trading partner for its exports to Britain.
The War of 1812
Results of War of 1812-The fighting ends with neither side winning.
- The Canadian economy gets boosted as Britain needed trade.
- Loyalists and Canadians felt safe under British
- People still feared American Expansion
The 92 Resolutions
The Canadian RebellionsResult:
12 patriotes hanged
58 exiled to Australia
Lord Durham’s Recommendations
The Act of Union
Trading with BritainTrading with Britain was great.
-Britain ends the preferential treatment with Canada (to explore new markets)
- They establish Free Trade (no customs/ duties)
- Canada needs a new trade partner so they sign a Reciprocity treaty with the USA in 1854 (for 10 yrs).
- This meant the customs and duties between the two countries were over for 10 years.
- This gave Canadian producers and advantage because the US has a bigger market.