History 414

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Algonquins and Iroquois

    Algonquins and Iroquois
    The Iroquois:
    - They were semi-sedimentary. Would reconstruct their longhouses every 15 years (deterioration)
    - They practice agriculture (fertile lands)
    - Women have power Algonquins:
    - They are constantly changing locations and following food sources.
    - They lived in tipis (nomadic)
    - Men have power
  • Jan 2, 1534

    The Explorations in the late 1500

    The Explorations in the late 1500
  • Fur Trade

    Fur Trade
  • European and Native Influences

    European and Native Influences
  • Important People of Quebec

    Important People of Quebec
    Maisonneuve: Founder of Ville-Marie Laviolette: founder of Trois Rivieres Jeanne Mance: established the first hospital in Montreal Marguerite Bourgeoys: she developped the first catholic community church Lasalle: He was the first European to travel the length of the Mississippi River. He wanted to explore and establish fur trade routes along the river.
  • Royal Goverment

    Royal Goverment
    The royal government was the first offical governent for New France. The council was made up of the following members:
  • Jean Talon's Methods of Populating

    Jean Talon's Methods of Populating
    Jean Talon = intendant in which the king put in charge to get the population to increase. Methods:
    - soldiers were offered free land and agreed they would stay in New France
    -Filles du Roy: orphan girls from France who were quickly married
    -Payments were also given to couples that married young
    -Fathers of unmarried girls paid fines.
    -Men over 21 and single would pay fines
  • Seigneurs and Censitaires

    Seigneurs and Censitaires
    Had to give lots
    Had to build mills
    Had to build roads
    Had a court house (for diputes)
    3-4 free work days
    Has right to take away land Censitaire:
    Clear trees
    3-4 free labour days
    Maintain roads
    Church taxes
    Ability to sell his land
    Granted land
    Could use mill
    Had to give lots
    He had to build mills
    Had to build roads
  • The New France Lifestyle

    The New France Lifestyle
    -Settlers(habitants) had happy lives but but worked everyday.They had to take care of crops, make clothes, fix tools and prepare for winter. -Because New France was not really developing settlers took care of themselves. -Life differed from France,where you had the very rich and massive numbers of poor/starving people. -In New France the people were very independant and by 1760 grew to become people called "Canadien".
  • The Intercolonial Wars

    The Intercolonial Wars
    New France: weak economy,mercantilist, furs.
    British colonies more freedom, prosperous
    France and Britain were always enemies in Europe (issues: religion, and power)
    -The First Intercolonial War ends with the Treaty of Ryswick 1697
    -The Second Intercolonial War ends with the Treaty of Utrecht 1713
    -The Third Intercolonial War ends with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748
    -The Four Intercolonial War (7yr War)
  • The 4th Inter-colonial War 1756-1763

    The 4th Inter-colonial War 1756-1763
    Conflict: New France never had a chance defeating the 13 colonies.
  • Articles of Capitualtion

    Articles of Capitualtion
    The Articles of Capitulation of 1760 did:
    1.The French Militia could return home with no consequence
    2.The French Regular military would give their arms and leave.
    3.The people could practice the R.C. but the Bishop left.
    4.The people who stayed would become British Subjects.
  • The Royal Proclamation

    The Royal Proclamation
    1763 Treaty of Paris ends the 7 year war.
    The goal was to control and assimilate the French in Quebec. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 did:
    1- Now called The Province of Quebec.
    2- Borders to just around the St-Lawrence valley.

    3- Civilian Government: King gave job to Governor who appointed members of an Executive Council to advise him.
    4- English Criminal and Civil laws applied.
    5- Land divided by Township System
    6- No new Bishop allowed
    7- No Roman Catholics could hold Test Act
  • Difficulties of the first Governors

    The English Merchants strongly apposed and demanded a new Governor . They got Guy Carleton (kept the same polices of Murray). Carleton was tolerant towards the French in Quebec. He wanted their loyalty as the Americans wanted to be independant.
  • The Quebec Act 1774

    The Quebec Act 1774
    What does it change?
    - Guarantees French- Canadian loyalty
    - Enlarges the area of QC
    - Denied elected assembly
    -Appointed council (minimum 17 members)
    -French civil laws were in place, tithe and seigniorial system
    -Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal) All these changes made the Americans mad.
  • Constitutional Act (1791)

    Constitutional Act (1791)
    -Lower Canada: French (160 000 people)
    -Upper Canada: English (20,000 people) -The Ottawa River: boundary between Canadas
  • Representative Governement

    Representative Governement
  • Faults in Representative Governement

    Faults in Representative Governement
    -Legislative Assembly had the power to make laws, but got shut down by veto power.
    -The two sides had different interests:
    -The wealthy governors & council members thought about investing money in big business + tax property. Whereas:
    -The legislative assembly wanted to tax goods, not property and didn’t want to invest.
  • Changes in Transportation

    Changes in Transportation
    -Trade was important to Canada. Moving their exports quickly was essential.
    - Merchants wanted big canal systems to move these goods around rapids.(Lachine canal). These investments lead to conflicts between the councils and assembly.
    - Steam power, invented by James Watt in 1802, then adapted to ships, and then early trains. This facilitated transportation.
  • Trade Change

    Trade Change
    -Napoleons armies take control of Europe
    -Britain needs lots timber to build its great naval fleet, because they were cut off from their normal sources.
    -This causes the price of timber to increase 1300%...
    - Timber is now the new main export
    -Canada provides food to feed Britain’s army and gets preferred trading partner for its exports to Britain.
  • Agriculture changes

    Agriculture changes
  • The War of 1812

    The War  of 1812
  • Results of War of 1812

    Results of War of 1812
    -The fighting ends with neither side winning.
    - The Canadian economy gets boosted as Britain needed trade.
    - Loyalists and Canadians felt safe under British
    - People still feared American Expansion
  • Population Changes

    Population Changes
  • Politicial Parties

    Politicial Parties
  • The 92 Resolutions

    The 92 Resolutions
  • The Canadian Rebellions

    The Canadian Rebellions
    12 patriotes hanged
    58 exiled to Australia
  • Lord Durham’s Recommendations

    Lord Durham’s Recommendations
  • The Act of Union

    The Act of Union
  • Trading with Britain

    Trading with Britain was great.

    -Britain ends the preferential treatment with Canada (to explore new markets)
    - They establish Free Trade (no customs/ duties)
    - Canada needs a new trade partner so they sign a Reciprocity treaty with the USA in 1854 (for 10 yrs).
    - This meant the customs and duties between the two countries were over for 10 years.
    - This gave Canadian producers and advantage because the US has a bigger market.