Royal Proclamation<a href='http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/government-policy/royal-proclamation-1763.html' >
This document prevented further settlement in Aboriginal lands and recognized aboriginals as organized nations with their own lands.
Reserve SystemNatives were seen as blocking the future settlements and therefore were pushed into RESEREVATIONS. Indian Reservation System created reserves set aside for “Indians” to live on. Both the residentials schools and reserve systems are created with the intention to civilize and Christianize Indians. In today's reserves, the federal money is given to band chief and sometimes is not used wisely.
Limit the ability of the Natives to participate in Canadian Economy.
Indian ActThis act turned the Aboriginals into legal wards of the state. Any woman that married an Aboriginal man could be considered an Indian and could be allowed to live and even be buried on a reserve. These women also received other cultural and social benefits by gaining Indian status. However, any Aboriginal woman who married a white person lost their status. Advantages: Provide Medical care, hunting and fishing rights and annual payments. Metis or mixed people also lost their status.
1933-1959. Great DarknessDuplesiss era. Roman Catholic church was very strong.
Bribery and corruption was normal.
Many children who were just orphan were put into mental asylum to cost less.
Working conditions were bad and workers could not ask for better
Quiet RevolutionPremier Jean Lesage wanted to create new and equal partnership with English Canada.
Secularization (Move away from Catholic Church)
Increase welfare system.
Unionization of civil service Nationalization of Hydroelectricity
Increase of Quebec nationalism
Aboriginal Right to Universal Suffrageright to vote President Diefenbaker pushed for the aboriginal's right to vote in 1960
Maple Leaf FlagPM Pearson wanted a French and English Canada together.
Canadian flag should be meaningful to all.
He chose the Maple leaf and got rid of British enign.
Colour Blind immigration policybefore this only european were accepted very easily and other immigrants had a difficult time.
Demand for immigrant labour was high so all immigrants from all over the world were accepted.
point-system was introduced. potential immigrants get points in different category.
National Brotherhood & Native Council of CanadaAt the national level, Indians were represented by the National Indian Brotherhood (now the Assembly of First Nations), while Métis and nonstatus Indians were represented by the Native Council of Canada. This was created in response to White Paper. The fact that wanted "Indians" to become "non-Indians".
White Paper And Jean Chretianhttp://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/government-policy/the-white-paper-1969.html
Jean Chretian was the minister of Indian affair at this time and in charge of this White Paper. This paper was drawn to dissolve the "special status" of the Natives and make then equal other canadians. It would take away the advanages of "status" and reserves. However it meant that natives has to assimilate to the colonial way of life that was in Canada. This paper did not pass.
Official Language ActFrench and English became official languages.
All products and signs had to have 2 languages.
French Immersion programs were implemented across Canada.
Residential School SystemOriginally formed to Assimilate Native population and destroy their culture and language. In 1969, the Department of Indian Affairs took exclusive control of the system, marking an end to church involvement. Yet the schools remained underfunded and abuse continued. Many teachers were still very much unqualified; in fact some had not graduated high school themselves. Responsible for abuse and cultural genocide of natives.
MulticulturalismEncouraged various ethnic groups to express culture.
Cultural Activities were organized
1976- immigration policy allow sponsorship of new immigrants
1988 Department of Multiculturalism is created.
FLQ CrisisFLQ a canadian separatist terrorist group based in Montreal.
Bombing and Bankrobberies against English businesses. Total of 5 deaths.
They kidnapped and killed Minister of Labour Pierre Laporte and kidnapped British trade commissioner James Cross.
The War Measures Act, which gave the government the power to take away civil rights
Trudeau invoked the War Measure Act.
Land ClaimsOffice of Native Land Claims created.
Land claims are based on ancestoral lands or earlier treaties. 1) Specific Land Claims: Based on exisiting treaties.
2) Comrehensive Land Claims: Based on traditional use and occupancy, no treaties were signed.
Bill 22Birthrate of French Canadian were declining.
Immgration was increasing.
Bill 22 was introduced by Premier Robert Bourassa
Made French the Official language.
Made it difficult for children to go to English schools.
PQ and Bill 101Party Quebecois was created by Rene Levesque
wanted independent for Quebec, non-violent
Bill 101=charter of French Bill
French is to be used by government, courts and businesses in Quebec.
Not a good idea, many businesses left quebec.
1980s fight for rightsIn the early 1980s, Canada was preparing to create a Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as patriate the Constitution. During this time, Aboriginal leaders and organizations such as the Union of BC Indian Chiefs (UBCIC) lobbied for the inclusion of Aboriginal rights with the hope that its recognition in the Constitution would contribute to the protection of these rights. After a long struggle with much debate, discussion and revisions, in 1982 the Canadian government formally recognized Abor
Quebec ReferendumA referendum is when a political issue is submitted to a direct vote of all the citizens
Referendum= citizens decide yes or no.
Referendum said Quebec to be independent but keep ties with Canada.
The proposal was that Quebec would be an independent state, with control over its taxes, social policies, citizenship and immigration,but would maintain close ecomomic ties with the rest of Canada
60% said no (stay with Canada) 40% said yes (separate)
Forming the Assembly of the First NationsTo bring all Natives in Canada, their respective chiefs formed the Assembly of the First Nations. They used the United Nations General Assembly as a model. The first " Assembly of First Nations " was held in Penticton, British Columbia, in April 1982. The new structure was formally adopted in July 1985.
Constituting Patriating= Constituting ActTrudeau brought the Canadian Constitution to Canada
10 premiers met to draft a new constitution but for the last minute revisons Quebec Premier was not invited
Quebec felt betrayed and did not sign it
Included Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the ability for Canadians to change the constitution
Ammendments to The INDIAN ACT.
Treat men and women equally
Restoring lost status and membership rights
give more control over their own affairs.
Reform PartyCame out of western provinces unhapiness with the federal government
They wanted to reform the constitution so it would represent Western province more fairly
Opposed bilingualism and special and restrict immigration
Wanted to cut social spending and restrict immigration
Meech Lake AccordAll premiers met in Meech Lake under the supervision of Mulroney to create a constiution with Quebec.
1. Quebec would be "distinct" other Canadians felt that Quebecois should be "special
2. Three of the 9 judges of supreme court must be Quebecois
3. Any amendment would need all 10 premier signature
4. provinces could choose not to accept federal funding
5. Quebec could control its own immigration
But many provinces including aboriginal leaders refuses to sign this
Meech Lake Accord And Elijah HarperTrudeau wanted to make the Constitution Canadian so he drew the Meech Lake Accord but Quebec and Natives object to it. Elijah Harper, an aboriginal leader from Manitoba, rejected this contract because he beleived that aboriginals deserved special
status similar to Quebecoise
Oka Stand OffFinished Sept 26,1990.
Significance- Oka was a wake up call call to the government of Canada that First Nations people were willing to fight for their rights
Result, the Conflict ended when the Mohawks and the governent reached an agreement and the federal government bought the disputed land and negotiated its transfer to the Kanesatake First Naton.
Land Claim 2 : Aborginial people ocuupied land that they claimed was sacred ground.
Charlottetown AccordAnother attempt to include Quebec in the constitution
More provisions for aboriginals and Quebec
Still failed. Only 4 out 10
2nd ReferendumJacques Parizeau held another referendum
People voted no 50.6%
Quebec stayed in Canada
Supreme court ruled that Quebec cannot separate itself from Canada, but must have negotiations with the people, aborginials living in Quebec as well as all the premiers and federal government
Gustafsen Lake Standoffhttp://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/community-politics/gustafsen-lake.html The conflict was between traditional sundancers and the owner of the land. The Owner Lyle James, had agreed to Sundance with the condition of no permanent structure. But in 1995, he found out the Natives had built a fence. A stand off occured between RCMP and the Natives. On Sept 17, 1995 the stand off was over but the Natives cause had been completely covered up by RCMP, the leader of the Sundancer, fled to US
During WWII, military had occupied a native land called Ipperwash. in 1995, some aboriginals planned a peaceful demonstrations. But the Ontario Government responded in an hostile way and an unarmed man named Dudly George was killed. The courts later held the Ontarion Government responsible and gave the land to natives. This happened in 2007.
Statement of ReconciliationGovernment of Canada issued a public Apology letter for years of abuse and cultural oppression of the aboriginals. Also set aside some funding to help with the rehabilitation process. http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/socstud/foundation_gr9/blms/9-1-4e.pdf
Nisga'a TreatyA treaty between Nisga'a people and BC and Canada governments.
Unique: Modern Day Treaty
Full power of self governance to issues of language, culture and family life as well as 1922 Sq.Km of land with resources of fishing and huting rights.
Creation o Nunavuthttps://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100016496/1100100016497
The new territory of Nunavut was created and aborginals were given the right to self-goverment over natural resouces, education and justice. No political parties, but individual run for governent.