Official Power and Countervailing Powers
Dec 9, 1500
Iroquois societyThe Iroquois society is matriarchy, which means that the women were the leaders and they were responsible for making decisions.
Dec 9, 1500
Algonquian SocietyThe Algonquian society is patriarchy, which means that the fathers play the vital leader roles.
French Regime: French and Huron Fur Trade AllianceStrategic military alliances in order to protect their economic interests in the fur trade. The group who the French traded with was the Hurons. To prove their alliance, the French would help the Hurons fight and the Hurons would help the French. The French fought against the Iroquois, who were trying to take over fur trade, until 1703.
French Regime: English & Iroquois Fur Trade AllianceEnglish were allies with the Iroquois for fur trade. The British fought against the French and the Iroquois fought with their enemies, the Hurons, who were allied with the French, but since they were allies the British fought in the Iroquois wars and the Iroquois fought in the British wars to take over the fur trade. The Iroquois destroyed the Hurons.
Royal Government p.1The King ended monopoly in New France and put the minister of marine, Jean-Baptist Colbert in charge. They installed Royal Government in the colony. The King and the Minister of Marine would stay in France and in NF there was a sovereign council. It consisted of the Governor, who was the highest rank, commander of the army, dealt with external affairs... The Bishop, who was appointed by the Pope, administered over parish priests, hospitals, schools
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Royal Government p.2The third member on the sovereign council is the intendant. The intendant was the most influential, chief administrator, controlled budget, collecting taxes, justice, seignorial system, built roads, set up industries. The intendant was basically the money man. The captain of the militia was not on the sovereign council but still had power, he dealt with problems on the seigneuries. He could be considered the chief of police. Absolute monarchy was still there, the King could recall any descisons.
Great Peace of MontrealThe Great Peace of Montreal, was a peace treaty between New France and 40 First Nations of North America. it was signed by Louis-Hector de Callière, who was the governor of New France, and 1300 representatives of 40 aboriginal nations. This treaty provided 16 years of peaceful relations and trade before war started again.
Articles of CapitulationWhen the British took over, a document called Articles of Capitulation was signed, giving the terms under which the French would surrender.
1. The French Militia could return home, no one would lose their property
2. The regular French military would lay down their arms and leave
3. The people could practice the Roman Catholic religion but the Bishop had to leave
4. The people who stayed became British subjects.
Royal Proclamation p.1
- Gives the King's new colony a name, Province of Quebec.
- Decreases borders to only around the St-Lawrence Valley
- Put in place a civilian government; the King appointed the Governor and the Governor appointed the members of the Executive Council to advise him
- English criminal and civil laws were applied
- Unused land would be divided into townships
- No new bishop
- No R.C. people could could hold public office (test act)
Royal Proclamation p.2The goal of the Royal Proclamation was to assimilate and control the French in Quebec. The Royal Proclamation did this by bringing them all together as to watch over them. A lot of their rights were taken away which forced them to become more English. No new French people came, the French Elite left and rich British merchants came to replace them.
James MurrayJames Murray was the first governor of the new colony. When he came to Quebec, he saw that the Royal Proclamation would not work because 99% of the population was French, R.C and 1% was English, Protestant. He changed some of the laws: allowed new bishop, allowed French laws in some lower courts, he did not call an elected assembly because it favoured the English merchants. The English merchants did not like what he was doing and they demanded a new governor. James Murray was then replaced.
Treaty of ParisThe Treaty of Paris was signed and puts and end to the seven year war. New France is given to the King of England and it is now a British colony. All the territory of New France now belonged to the king, except two small Islands, St.Pierre & Miquelon.
Quebec ActThe Quebec Act
- Guarentees French loyalty
- Enlarges area of Quebec
- Denied an elected assembly
- Appointed Council
- French civil laws were installed + tithe and seigniorial system are back
- Test Oath Act/Test Oath of Alligance. All these factors made the Americans very upset
Effects of the LoyalistsWhen the loyalists came to Canada, they had many effects. The English population in Quebec increased from 1% to 10%. These loyalists settled by township system, and gave their settlements english names. They were used to English civil laws and used to having elected assemblies. They also wrote petitions to London for changes.
Guy CarletonGuy Carleton was the new governor who replaced JamesMurray, the first governor of the new colony. When he came, he adopted the same views as James Murray, he does the same things as James Murray did. The point of making the French happy was to gain their loyalty for when the Americans revolted. All this led to the creation of the Quebec Act.
Representative Government p.1WIth representative government, the average person, men not women, has a say. The reason why it is called representative government is because there is still someone who has veto power. Governor-appointed (selected, not voted) by parliament, commanded forces, in charge of administration, called assemblies into session. Veto power- he could turn down laws. Lieutenant Governor-Acted as deputy governor.
Representative Government p.2Executive Council-appointed by Governor, advised Governor, Legislative Council-appointed, approve/reject laws from the assembly. Legislative Assembly-elected every 4yrs, power to approve/disapprove taxes, right to create laws. People-had a say for the 1st time,-only landowning men over 21.
Constitutional ActThe Province of Quebec was split in two parts called Upper Canada (it was up river) and Lower Canada (it was down river) Lower Canada was French and Upper Canada was English.
The Ottawa River was the boundary between the two Canadas.
Lower Canada: French kept their religion, civil laws and people could work in the admin. Upper Canada: Protestants, township system, English civil laws. With this constitution, there was a new government, representative government.
RebellionsThe Contitutional Act of 1791 caused some problems. By 1830, 2 groups had formed, British Party and Parti Canadian (Parti Patriote). Groups so different: never negotitated. Refusal of the 92 Resolutions: seen as an insult. Upper Canada’s Rebellion: led by William Lyon Mackenzie, put down quickly. Lower Canada’s Rebellion: led by Louis Joseph Papineau, after several battles St-Charles, St-Denis (French win), St-Eustache the rebellion was put down. Patriotes fail, not well organized or equiped.
Lord Durham's RecommendationsLord Durham was sent to the Canada's do see what to do about the rebellions. His recommendations were:
- Britain should increase immigration in other words assimilate the French
- Unite Upper and Lower Canada in which the English will be majority
- Responsible Government should be installed to eliminate the power of veto
Lord Durham’s idea’s were rejected by the British Parliament until 1840 Act of Union.
Act of UnionThe Act of Union in 1840, is the fourth constitution:
- Creates: Prov. of Canada which consisted of Canada East &West (upper and lower Canada)
- Canada east and west each had 42 members to its assembly
- Governor still had control and veto power
- Canada East and West equally pay for Canada’s debts
Responsible GovernmentThe Prime Minister would select members of the executive council from the assembly. Lord Elgin was the first governor to not use his veto power.
- The people would elect the legislative assembly.
- The Prime minister (head of the party with the most votes) would choose the members of the executive council
- The executive council would propose laws that had to be approved by the assembly.
- The governor and legislative council did not intervene.
The Charlottetown ConferenceLeaders of Canada East and West met with the leaders of three Maritime Provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. They had an agreement to consider a merger.
London ConferenceLeaders of the 4 colonies meet to make: Arrangement to release from the British Empire= new “self-governing” colony.
Dominion of Canada
Capital of Ottawa: created under British North America Act, which was passed on March 29, and ame into existence in Canada on July 1st 1867, it contained 4 Prov:
Native ProblemsThe Charlottetown Accord was created in order to deal with Native problems. Native people submitted to the Indian Act since 1876 which was essentialy the creation of the native reserves. Many agruments are made to deal with all of the native problems such as the James Bay agreement, the repatriation of the Constitution and the Peace of the Brave.
The Quebec ConferenceOctober of 1864, the same year as the Charlottetown Conference, NB, NS, PEI, Canada East &West and this time Newfoundland, agreed on 72 resolutions to make the merger work. Ex: federal system, 24 seats to each colony. The people weren't so happy with the conferences. In result: Nfld and PEI withdrew, Dorion’s Parti Rouge opposed the federation, the assembly of the Canada’s passed confederation.
Power Relations between Feminist Movements and the States
- In 1893, The National Council of Women was founded-actions of the suffragettes
- In 1961, election of the first woman to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec, Marie-Claire Kirland-Casgrain
- In 1964, 16, which ended the legal incapacity of married women
- In 1965, Foundation of the Federation des femmes du Quebec. It revised Civil Code, establishment of maternity leave, decriminalization of abortion, equality (men and women).
- In 1996, law on pay equity is adopted
Power Relations between Union Movements and the StateThe Government controled many things for working class and unions control others. A Union was responsible to improve peoples lives from the working class. The first union strikes were in 1872.
- Safety rights
- Minimum wage
- Protection of children
- Equality for women and elders
The Labour Code recognizes the right to strike to all workers.
Maurice Duplessis p.2Agriculture was the heart of Quebec's economy thanks to Duplessis. Duplessis did this to avoid urbanization and unemployment. Duplessis also supported rural communities, since they are the best places to promote traditional values. He also allowed American companies to invest in Canada. American industries thrived under Duplessis.
Maurice Duplessis p.1Maurice Duplessis is the was the prime minister of Quebec. Duplessis was a large supporter of the Catholic Church. The Church controlled education, health and social services. Duplessis promoted large families, rural life, and Christian values. He believed that the government should not intervene in the social and economic sectors.
Power relations between linguistic groups and the statesFrench had been forced to be apart of both WW1 and WW2. The Britsh then took control and made english rights although they were
minority. Many Quebecers became upset because they didn't have the same job opportunities as English and aren’t getting paid equal amounts as the Anglophones.
Quiet RevolutionThis revolution is described as a rapid process of social, economic, and political reform in Quebec in the 60's. This reolution was trying to make the Quebec goverment the major force behind Quebec's social and economic development by greatly increasing the role of the state
- To weaken the influence of the Church and to end Quebec's political isolation
- To modernize Quebec's educational system and to allow it to catch up to the other provinces in Canada
The Front de libération du Québec (F.L.Q)F.L.Q was a terrorist organization that began to plant bombs targeting military establishments in the Montreal area and mailboxes in Westmount an English area.These terrorists wanted the english people to leave quebec, so to scare them they planted these bombs. These terrorists wanted Quebec to obtain its independence for Quebec from Canada.
October CrisisThe October Crises started when the F.L.Q kidnapped James Cross and Pierre Laporte. F.L.Q ended up killing Lapointe and released James Cross. This caused Trudeau to involve the government of quebec who now had full charge of Quebec which means that all the laws changed. Those who the goverment thought was involved in F.L.Q were imprisoned.
Fighting for Quebec's IndependencePolitical parties in Quebec are either:
Separatists want Quebec to separate from Canada
Federalist parties want Quebec to stay a part of Canada
The main reason why these Separatits want to seperate is because of the cultural differences. Many Quebecois do not identify themselves as Canadian.
Rene Levesque and PQ proposed Quebec's first referendum on the issue. 60% of the population voted no and they wanted to stay a part of Canada.
Oka CrisisThe Oka Crisis was caused because a golf course wanted to expand into the land of the native people. These natives who lived on this piece of land were extremely furious. What these natives ended up doing is setting up road blocks. The situation got so out of hand that the the Canadian army had to be called in to stand up against these Mohawk warriors. The golf course never ended up expanding.