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History assignment, Michael Schwartz

  • Aug 29, 1500

    Reason for searching for a new route to Asia

    Reason for searching for a new route to Asia
    (late 15th century) The Ottoman turks had taken over constantinople, located directly on the trail once used to go to Asia. This made it impossible to travel over land without confronting the Turks.
  • Nov 29, 1500

    Algonkian Characteristics

    Algonkian Characteristics
    Algonkians: -Several tribes, including Algonquin, Cree, Ottawa,
    Micmac
    -Nomadic
    -Patrilineal society
    -Hunter-gatherers
    -Often lived in Northern regions since fertile soil

    was unecessary
    -Lived in small groups, loged in wigwams
  • Nov 29, 1500

    Iroquois Characteristics

    Iroquois Characteristics
    Iroquois: -Semi sedentary
    -Stayed for 10-15 years in one area, then moved on
    when they ran out of ressources
    -Stayed in the more Southern regions, where fertile
    soil is abundant
    -Included tribes like the Mohawk, Senesca
  • Sep 4, 1530

    Things that helped with the voyages

    Things that helped with the voyages
    Items and equipment such as the caravel, astrolabe, compass, musket and cannon made traveling in the ocean without today's modern technology possible.
  • Sep 4, 1530

    People interested in the voyages

    People interested in the voyages
    Merchants: interested in trading and finding new riches in the new colony. Scholars: Interested in imporving their intelligence and learing about the new colony. Clergy: They wanted to spread the influence of Catholicism to the new colony and its inhabitants. Superpowers: Interested in the wealth, land and power.
  • Sep 4, 1534

    Jacques Cartier's first voyage

    Jacques Cartier's first voyage
    Jacques set out to find a new route to Asia, claim territory for the king of France of find riches like precious metals, spices. In his first voyage, he explored and mapped the Gulf of St-Lawrence, did not find any REAL gold, but found much timber, fish and fur.
  • Sep 4, 1534

    Postive and negatives effects that the Europeans and Natives had on eachother

    Postive and negatives effects that the Europeans and Natives had on eachother
    Natives: They taught the Europeans to survive the winter, survive and treat diseases, how to farm, make clothing, hunt animals, travel using canoes. Europeans: They taught the Natives how to use weapons, how to use iron utensils, religion, alcohol.
  • Sep 4, 1535

    Jacques Cartier's second voyage

    Jacques Cartier's second voyage
    On his second voyage, he sailed up the St-Lawrence, reached Stadacona (Quebec). The natives taught the europeans how to survive the winter and diseases like scurvy.
  • Sep 4, 1541

    Jacques Cartier's third voyage

    Jacques Cartier's third voyage
    On his third voyage, he attempted to establish a colony but was unsuccessful, and missionaries attempted to convert the natives.
  • Period: Sep 4, 1542 to

    France loses interest in setting up a colony in the new territory

    France did not succeed in finding gold in the new territory.
  • Port Royal, Nova Scotia

    Port Royal, Nova Scotia
    The king sends a voyage to Nova Scotia in order to establlsh a trading posts for furs, but the efforts were futile because of inconvenience.
  • Champlain Trading Post, Stadacona

    Champlain Trading Post, Stadacona
    Samuel de Champlain returns after the failed Port Royal and establishes a trading post in Stadacona (present day Quebec City). It flourished and became known as New France.
  • Economic systems

    Economic systems
    New France and France, led by the the King of France, used MERCANTALISM as their economic system. This meant that the King of France made profit of taxes and sales in the colony. The Thirteen Colonies used an open economy where theinhabitants made money off their business transactions.
  • The fur trade develops

    The fur trade develops
    Initally, the main export to France was fish that was salted (rich) or dried (poor). Shortly after, fur became the main export because it was perfect for making beaver pelt hats.
  • Royal Government

    Royal Government
    The Royal Government is the first government utilized to govern New France is put in place by the French king. To govern the New France, a Governor whohad hand in military affairs, militia, construction, external relations with neighboring colonies, an Intendant who was in charge of civil administration settlement and economical development and justice, and the Bishop was in charge of schooling, charities, religion and health care.
  • Seigneurial System

    Seigneurial System
    A new system of land divison was created called the seigneurial system. The Captain of Militia was in charge of the farmers (militia) and the seigneurs would receive rent from the censitaires (farmers) who rented land there. The format of the seigneuries was rectagular and near the water.
  • Period: to

    Jean Talon's Filles du Roy

    New France's population was not developping so they sent itendant Jean Talon to increase the population. Between 1663 and 1673, he sent thousands of young female orphans in order to balance out the male/female ratio in New France. These orphans were know as the ''Filles du Roy''
  • Military and economic disadvangtages

    Military and economic disadvangtages
    The popualtion of New France was very weak since France wouldn't send in troups during the Seven Year war. The population of the Thirteen Colonies however was very high. The economy of New France was very restricted and centered on furs. The economy in the Thirteen Colonies however was thriving and free.
  • Period: to

    Seven Years War

    Was between England and France IN EUROPE that lasted seven years
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    The 4th intercolonial war takes place on the Plains of Abraham where the French, led by General Montcalm, and the English, led by General Wolff, fought for an hour. The French retreat to Montreal.
  • Capitulation of Montreal

    Capitulation of Montreal
    The frech soldiers who retreated to montreal after the hour long war on the Plains of Abraham capitulated in 1760 in Montreal
  • Articles of Capitulation

    Articles of Capitulation
    A document was written to state rules of the french loss.
    1. The French Militia could return home, no one would lose their property
    2. The French Regular military would lay down their arms and leave.
    3. The people could practice the R.C. religion, but the Bishop would have to leave.
    4. The people who stayed would become British Subjects.
    All the french stayed except the Elite. This is because these french citizens had lived their whole lives in New France, and had nothing to return to France.
  • Period: to

    Under command of James Murray

    For these three years, the war in Europe still continued. The french and english people of New France were waiting for there fate to be decided. However, for the time being, James Murray was in control in New France.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The signing of the Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Year War in Europe, with the English as the victors. All territory of New France is given to the King of England, except St. Pierre and Miquelon.
  • Royal Proclamation

    Royal Proclamation
    In the attempt to assimilate the 99% of French that occupied the newly claimed land, the Royal Proclamtion was instilled.
    1- Colony become Province of Québec
    2- Borders are just around the Saint Laurence River
    3- Governor chose his counsel of five english men
    4- English criminal and civil laws put in place
    5- Unused land divided using Township system
    6- No new Bishop allowed
    7- No Roman Catholics allowed in public office
  • DIfficulties of governing for James Murray

    DIfficulties of governing for James Murray
    James Murray realised that this assimilation attempt was very unrealistic considering that 99 % of the population was French. So he gave the French concessions;
    1- A new Bishop was allowed.
    2- Allowed French laws in lower courts
    3- Did not call the governors assembly since it benefitted the English.
  • Guy Carleton

    Guy Carleton
    The English were unhappy with James Murray's laws and concessions, so they demanded a new governor, who was Guy Carleton. Guy Carleton looked over James Murray's changes in rules and completely agreed. Also, the English were beginning to rebel, so he wanted to keep the French loyal.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    The Quebec Act was adopted to gain the favour and loyalty of the French in Québec, and it beneiftted them in every way.
    -Guarantees French Canadian loyalty
    -Enlarges the area of Quebec
    -Denied an elected assembly-Appointed council (min.17 members)
    -French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigniorial system are back-Test Act Oath→ Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal, and could hold office)
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    Reasons leading to Thirteen Colony discontent:
    - Quebec Act
    - Wanted Western expansion into Ohio Valley
    - Britain wanted to place restrictions on trading Thirteen Colonies demand independance in 1776 and rebel.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Thirteen Colonies and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Versailles grating the Thirteen Colonies indeoendance. People who were loyal to the King, LOYALISTS, had to find a new place to live. They emmigrated to Quebec. They were used to Enlish laws and elected assembly. They petitioned to the governor and got their wish.
  • Constitutional Act

    Constitutional Act
    Seperates Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada. Lower Canada: Mainly french, french laws, catholic religion, worked in the admin. Upper Canada; Mainly English, english laws, township systems, protestantism.
  • Constitutional Act: Representative Government

    Constitutional Act: Representative Government
    Governor-appointed by parliament, commanded forces, administration, called assemblies. Veto power each Canada had:
    Lieutenant Governor-Acted as deputy governor
    Executive Council-appointed by Governor, advised Governor,
    Legislative Council-appointed, approve or reject laws form the assembly
    Legislative Assembly-elected, approve or reject or create laws
  • Faults in Representative government

    Faults in Representative government
    -veto power of the governor made legislative assembly's job worthless
    -Governors wanted to tax properties, Legislative assembly wanted to tax goods.
    -*in lower canada: Legislative assembly was french which caused language issues
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    British were still upset about losing colonies and the birth of the United States. The british attacked ships thought to be trading with France and forced the crew to serve as english military. This made the Americans furious and wanting revenge. \Americans attack Canadian settlements and candians attack America. RESULTS:
    War ends in stalemate
    Canada boosts economy
    Canadians feel safe under british reign
    American expansion still feared.
  • Irish Potato Famine

    Irish Potato Famine
    IN 1815, the Irish potato famine left many irish in Ireland desperate for food and money. So they emmigrated to Canada and brought over many diseases, took many jobs and made Upper Canada's population higher than Lower Canada's
  • Growing discontent in Lower Canada

    Growing discontent in Lower Canada
    By 1830, Lower Canada become unhappy because the representative government allowed the representatives to be elected, but the veto power made it so that they held no real power. There were two groups that formed: The British and Patriot parties. These two groups were very different and could never agree and the Patriotes started speaking of a rebellion.
  • 92 Resolutions

    92 Resolutions
    The leader of the Patriots Louis Joseph Papineau wrote the 92 resolutions in which the main demand was responsible government (the members of the coucil were chosen from the elected assembly).
  • John Russell resolutions

    John Russell resolutions
    In 1837, John Russel responded to the 92 resolutions with The 10 Resolutions where he didn't give the Patriots what the wanted and gave more power to the councils. The Patriots were insulted and rebelled.
  • Rebellions

    Rebellions
    William Lyon Mackenzie lead Upper Canada Rebellions but didn't last long. The Lower Canada Rebellions lasted a little longer, but they still lost. 12 patrots were hung, 58 exiled to Australia
  • Lord Durham

    Lord Durham
    Lord Durham was sent to Canada to study the political instability and made the following recommencations:
    -Merge the two Canadas to assimiilate the French
    -Grant Responsible Government
    -Increase immigration to assimilate the French
  • Union Act

    Union Act
    "Responsible Governement" granted
  • Period: to

    Trade

    Canada's preferential trade with britain ends in 1854 and they establish Free Trade (No customs or duties)
    Canada signs the Treaty of Reciprocity with the US (no customs or duties between the two countries)