Period: Jan 1, 1450 to
HISTORY 414 assignementMy History timeline project for Mr. Thompson, this is the best way to learn history in my opinion. Good Day
Aug 30, 1492
Colombus sailed the ocean blueColombus sails the ocean blue in 1492. he officialy disovers America. he names the people Idians, because he thinks he has landed in India
Apr 30, 1500
- Iroquois: Agrarian based staple diet (agricultural) Farming, gathering of forest products, fishing and hunting. Gathering forest products is mainly handled by women and children Matrilineal society, (mother and women are leaders), which is a Matriarchy 10 to 15 years in one sight Lived in long houses, Semi-permanent settlements Stone and wood tools and bows and arrows Teamed up with the French
Apr 30, 1500
- Algonquians: Temporary housing (wigwams) Moved often (nomadic) Depended on hunting for survival and trading Patriarchy, led by the men More northern living (to kill caribou)
Apr 27, 1519
Magellan travels the worldServed King Charles I of Spain.
He died in the Philippines before he had completed the tour of the world, on April 27, 1521.
He was the first to "complete" the tour of the world. This made it known that the world was in fact round
Aug 30, 1534
Cartier's 1st voyageCartier voyages to the land now known as Canada. this is his first voyage. Explored and mapped the Gulf of St-Lawrence, reported what he thought was gold but lots of fish, timber, and furs.
Aug 30, 1535
Cartier's 2nd voyageSailed up the St-Lawrence, reached Stadacona (Quebec). Nice natives showed Europeans how to survive winter and scurvy. They return with native captives (incl. Chief Donacona)
Aug 30, 1541
Cartier's third and final voaygeAttemped to set up a colony (not successful). Missionaries attempted to convert natives. France lost interest for 60yrs.
FailureThe king first sent a voyage in 1605 to establish a settlement in Nova Scotia called Port Royal. This failed because, it was to far for the natives to canoe.
Vive là QuébecChamplain returned in 1608-09 to establish a trading post near Stadacona, this city is known as Quebec
The Royal GouvermentThe first forme of Gouverment.
Theres the Sovereing council. with 3 people;
Governor-highest rank – Kings Representative, big boss in New France, chosen by Minister of Marine (M.O.M.)
Intendant- deals with; the peoples
Bishop- no political power, just the head of the church
The Seignurial systemThe Seigneurs had to let everyone use the mill. He had to make a spot where everyone was allowed to graze on food. The Censitaire were required to pay the seigneurs money to use the mill, it was first come first serve to get land. The land was divided into long stripes of land.
Religion in New France-Priests in charge of parishes (cure)
-Priests working as missionaries (black robe guy, tried to convert, very poor, most likely died trying to convert the natives)
-Nuns working in hospitals
-Nuns working in schools
-Potential priests were trained in a seminary. Only the brightest of boys were sent there.
-Money to make all this happen came from the church tax called the tithe.
Life in New France-Settlers had happy lives but it was work;caring for crops, making clothes, fixing tools, preparing for winter.
-Because New France was not really developing settlers became self-dependent
-Life differed from France, you had: very rich and very poor/starving.
-In New France the people were autonomous.By 1760 distinct people called Canadien(13 colonies Americans).
- Distinct people would remain after British Conquest.
Jean Talon... the intendant
- Soldiers were offered free land is the agreed to stay in New France after their service was done
- Minor criminals, they escaped going to prison
- Payments were also given to couples who married young
- Fathers of unmarried girls were paid fines. Bachelors over 21 paid fines with the hopes to increase the population
- Les Filles du Roi (orphans from the streets of France, they were quickly married off to men)
Intercolonial beefThe First Intercolonial War --> Ends with the Treaty of Ryswick, this is the debut of the war
intercolonial issuesThe Second Intercolonial WarEnds with the Treaty of Utrecht
3rd times the intercolonial charm?The Third Intercolonial War --> Ends with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
The Seven Years War (1756-1763)The Four Intercolonial War (a.k.a. the 7yrs War).
-Important to understand there was fighting going in both Europe and North America (the battle for N.A. ends first in 1760)
-The British try to take New France by land. unsuccessful, a sea attack was planned.
-British sail down river;attack Quebec;battle would decide the colony of New France and the future of Canadian History.
-The English first take Louisbourg an extremely powerful fort
Battle on the plains of AbrahamThe battle last about an hour.(start 10am)
Both Generals are fatally wounded ( Wolf on the English & Montcalm on the French)
Articules of Capitulation
- The French Militia could return home, no one would lose their property
- The French Regular military would lay down their arms and leave.
- The people could practice the R.C. religion, but the Bishop would have to leave.
- The people who stayed would become British Subjects.
- James Murray found the Royal Proclamation unworkable, only 1% of the population of Quebec was Eng/Protestant. To make the rest of the French Roman Catholics content, he bent the rules. -He allowed a new Bishop (Monseigneur Briand) -He allowed French laws in the lower courts -He did not call an elected assembly because it would favor the English Merchants
Treaty of Paris1763 Treaty of Paris ---> 7rys war ends. All the Territory known as New France is given to the King of England except two small Islands, (St.Pierre, Miquelon)
Conquest of New FranceNew France (Catholics) ~70,000
13 Colonies (Protestants) ~ 1,500,000
3 theaters of battle- Great Lakes/Niagara, Montreal/Albany, St-Lawrence
-Louisbourg falls in 1758 (clears way to St-Lawrence and Quebec)
-Siege begins June of 1759, 200 ships (1/9 of British fleet)
-by morning they’ve assembled on the Plains of Abraham
Royal Proclamation1- It gives the King’s new colony a name, The Province of Quebec
2- It decreases the borders to just around the St-Lawrence river valley.
(The rest would be known as Indian Territory)
3- Put in place a civilian Government to run the new
Colony: The King appointed a Governor who then appointed members of an Executive Council to advise him.
4- English Criminal and Civil laws were applied.
5- Unused land would be divided by the Township System
6-No new Bishop would be allowed
Quebec Unhappiness-The 13 colonies = unhappy they had fought to gain control of the Ohio Valley however it was denied to them.
-British merchants who had come to Quebec were unhappy because they wanted power through an elected assembly similar to those in the 13 colonies, and they expected the colony to favor English interests.
- Canadians fearful of the Proclamation because of changes it brought. They didn’t like the new boundary.
-scared of a possible elected assembly
-Uneasy lack of guarantees to religion
Guy Carleton/ Quebec Act-adopts the same attitude
Guarantees French Canadian loyalty
-Enlarges the area of Quebec
-Denied an elected assembly
-Appointed council (min.17 members)
-French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigniorial system are back
-Test Act Oath--> Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal, and could hold office)
The American RevolutionUp until 1763 the Americans needed British protection from the French.
-They wanted Western Expansion into the Ohio Valley
-Britain was unhappy with the 13 colonies. (Did not give enough in war)
-Some Americans had also been trading with the French, therefore….
Britain wanted to place strict control on trade and inc. taxes.
Americans attackThe Amereicans attack teh Canadiens for having said no to joining them, at one point even capturing Montreal
Loyalist effect36,000 loyalists came to Canada (Most settled in the Maritimes)
6,000 loyalists came to Quebec (Most settled West of Montreal)
The English population of Quebec had a sudden increase (1% ---> 10%)
The Loyalists were used to English civil laws.
They were used to having elected assemblies.
They started writing petitions to London for change.
They settled according to the Township system.
Treaty of Versailles-The British then accepted the United States as an independent country.
-The fur trade largely south of the Great Lakes relocated. Move towards the Northwest = mush longer journeys for voyageurs (Grand Portage). Lead to creation a fur trading company “North West Company” by men such as McGill, McTavish.
-All territory south the Great Lakes now apart of the USA, all who had been loyal to King of England during the war of Independence find new place to live.
-We call these people LOYALISTS
Constitutional ActLower Canada-was almost entirely French (160 000ppl)
Upper Canada-was entirely English (20,000ppl)
The Ottawa River would be the boundary between them.
In Lower Canada the French kept their religion, civil laws, and people could work in the admin.
In Upper Canada the Protestants, would use the township system, English
The War of 1812The Americans were now free from the British since 1783
The Americans attempted badly organized attacks Canadian settlements = failed. Burned towns such as York (Toronto)
-French Canadian militia, + British troops attacked American towns and burned down the white house!
Results of The War of 1812-The fighting ends in Stalemate (neither side won)
-Boosts the Canadian economy (Britain needed trade)
-Loyalists and Canadians felt safe under British
-People still feared American Expansion
The Immigrationpoor immigrants were coming from Great Britain (especially Ireland) in search of a better way of life. there were also Scottish and Welsh
Non aggressive startLeader of the Patriotes was Louis Joseph Papineau, he wrote 92 Resolutions (a list of the assemblies demands) their main demand was for Responsible Government (for the members of the councils to be selected from the elected assembly)
Act of Union
- Creates the Prov. of Canada consisting of Canada East and West (former upper and Lower Canada).
- Canada East and West each had 42 members to its assembly
- Governor still had control and veto power
- Canada east and west would equally pay for Canada’s debts (Canadian West owed 10X).
Assemblythe Priminister Minister would select membres of the executive council from the assembly
Lord of Non-VetoGovernor Lord Elgin would be the first to not use his veto powers, and allow the Prime minister (majority holder) to have executive powers.