Official Power and Countervailing Powers

  • Jan 1, 1505

    First Occupants' Power

    First Occupants' Power
    Due to the lack of hierarchy in Native tribes, there is no elected central body. However, they do follow gender based organizations. Iroquois believe in centering the women of the tribe, while the Algonquians follow the males.
  • Period: to

    French Regime

    The period in which France occupied what would be Quebec, Ontario and multiple Central and Southeast States. It began with the foundation of Quebec, and officially ended with the signature of the Royal Proclamation.
  • The Power of the State

    The Power of the State
    Following the Chartered Company System from 1608 to 1663, the French Monarchy takes control of the colony's administration and King Louis XIV made New France absolutist. He selects the Minister of Marine, who controls all the colonies. He chooses the Governor General, who then select the Governors of each city, the Intendent, who assign Sub-Delegates, and the Sovereign Council. All together they choose the Intermediary Tribunals, who decide on Militia Captains, who reign over the populations.
  • The Power of The State's Roles Pt.1

    The Power of The State's Roles Pt.1
    The aforementioned King of France & Minister of Marine remain in France, simply deciding who runs the colony from within. The Governor holds the highest rank in the colony, as he commands the army, defense, and deals with external affairs. Meanwhile, the Intendent is the most influential person, as he is the chief administrator and the primary economist. There is also the Sovereign Council, the colony's high court, containing the past two jobs as well as the Bishop and several councilors.
  • The Power of the State's Roles Pt.2

    The Power of the State's Roles Pt.2
    Below the Governor, Intendent, and the Sovereign Council, lies the Intermediary Tribunals, who select the Militia Captains. They act as a chief of police, who deal with issues on the seigneurs. There are also Bishops involved in the political process, who stabilize the connection between Church and State
  • Power Relations between French and Amerindians

    Power Relations between French and Amerindians
    In search of control of the fur trade, the French ally with Hurons and Montagnais, fighting other tribes using guerrilla warfare, in which they strike while the enemy isn't expecting it. In 1701, Aboriginal fighting came to a short-lived end with the Great Peace of Montreal. 30-40 nations agreed to consider the King of France their father. This allows the governor general to resolve disputes between the groups, and then contracted them to help the French in wars.
  • Collaboration between Church and State

    Collaboration between Church and State
    Priests were allowed to run parishes, and acted as missionaries, spreading the Roman Catholic faith. Nuns worked in the hospitals & education. The Church had a monopoly on religious matters, forcing practice and excommunicating enemies. In exchange, they encourage the peoples to listen to the governor & intendent.
  • Life in New France

    Life in New France
    Settlers in the New World were generally happy, even with the hard work that came with colonizing. Most care for crops and feed themselves. There are three social tiers: Nobility/Elite, which only consisted of the Intendent, Governor, and Clergy. Then there's the Middle Class/Bourgeoisie, consisting of merchants and seigneurs. Lowest lies the Peasants, Artisans, and Tradesmen. They all thrive due to low government involvement, which develops a sentiment of independence, influenced by natives.
  • Articles of Capitulation

    Articles of Capitulation
    The effects of the invasion of Quebec and Montreal had long lasting effects on the population of Canada. All the French militants were allowed to return home, while the French Military was forced to surrender and leave the state. Roman Catholicism was allowed, but the bishop was forced to leave. All the French Elite returned home, as they had the money and no interest in staying in an English controlled territory. Everyone was too poor or didn't care to leave, so they became British Subjects.
  • Signature of the Royal Proclamation

    Signature of the Royal Proclamation
    Following the capitulation of Montreal and two years of British occupation, the Royal Proclamation was signed, which officially gave New France to the British. All of the wealthy French returned to France, but the peasants and workers stayed, while the English businesses moved in. French immigration stopped and English began, but at this point, the population was 99% French Catholic, which made it difficult to govern using British Standards and Laws. No Bishops and Catholics could hold office.
  • Period: to

    British Rule

    The period in which England occupied what would be Quebec, Ontario and several Maritime Provinces. It began with the signature of the Royal Proclamation, and officially ended with the forming of the Canadian Confederation.
  • Signature of the Quebec Act

    Signature of the Quebec Act
    To prevent the French population from joining the American Revolution, the English government decided to cozy up to the French speakers in hopes of keeping them docile. They gave them the Quebec Act, which enlarged their province into the fertile lands below the Great Lakes, allowed them to practice the Catholic faith, French civil laws were reinstated, and the Oath of allegiance is replaced with the Test Oath Act, which doesn't mention the Protestant faith.
  • Situation in British North America

    Situation in British North America
    The capturing of New France by England was divisive and controversial for all of its populations. British Merchants were unhappy, as they wanted an elected assembly, and didn't appreciate the benefits brought to the French with the Quebec Act. Meanwhile, the Canadiens felt oppressed by the Royal Proclamation, though this sentiment eased with the Quebec Act. Finally, the Americans became upset with the Quebec Act, due to its giving of the Ohio Valley to the French, and a raise of taxes.
  • America's Independence's Effects On British North America

    America's Independence's Effects On British North America
    Many of 13 Colonies citizens remain loyal to the English King, forcing them to leave. Some left for England, but many headed north. 36,000 went to Canada, many of which installed in the Great Lakes Region and in the Maritime provinces, with 6,000 to Quebec, mostly West of Montreal and the Townships. The grew the English population from 1% to 10%, and they settled using the townships method. They were used to English Civil Laws and Elected Assemblies, and they petitioned London to make changes.
  • Signature of the Constitutional Act

    Signature of the Constitutional Act
    In response to the angry English population who were fed up with the French culture, the Constitutional Act was signed, which opened up new lands to be given to Loyalists (who then colonized the Eastern Townships) and divided the territory into two; Upper and Lower Canada. Upper Canada was given to Loyalists, was protestant, and English speakers which used English civil laws, while the latter was given to the French speakers (Canadiens), Catholics, and used French Civil Laws.
  • Representative Government of the Constitutional Act

    Representative Government of the Constitutional Act
    The Representative Government brought to British North America with the Constitutional Act didn't actually provide democracy to its citizens. The King and Parliament in London select a Governor General, who then chooses a Lieutenant Governor for Upper and Lower Canada who then select an Executive and Legislative Council. Meanwhile, the population chooses a Legislative Assembly, but they are only able to propose laws to the Executive Council. The Governor could also veto anything.
  • Different Interests Between the Legislative Assembly and the Governor

    Different Interests Between the Legislative Assembly and the Governor
    The elected Legislative Assembly opinions varied with the Governor's. They wanted to tax goods, while levitating taxes on the land, which would improve the economical situation for poorer peoples. The Governor wanted to invest in Big Business, and tax property for infrastructure building in cities, which benefited the elites. This problem was even worse in Lower Canada, who divided on language as well.
  • Political Parties prior to The Rebellions of 1837-38

    Political Parties prior to The Rebellions of 1837-38
    Political parties in British North America were divided by the multitude of issues that faced the province. In Upper Canada, there was the Family Compact represented and consisted of wealthy British Tories, and the Reformers were intellectuals and professionals.
    In Lower Canada, the British Party was formed of Wealthy British and French who supported the English. Meanwhile, there was the Parti Canadien, which embodied most French, who fought for liberal reformist ideas.
  • 92 Resolutions and The 10 Russell Resolutions

    92 Resolutions and The 10 Russell Resolutions
    In 1834, Louis Joseph Papineau writes a letter containing demands of the Legislative Assembly to London. He states the members of the executive and legislative council should be chosen by the elected assembly, making a responsible government. London rejected the proposition, even removing power from the assembly, in a paper called the 10 Russell Resolutions. This kick-starts the rebellions in 1838. In Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie leads, while in Lower Canada, Papineau is in charge.
  • Aftermath of the Rebellions

    Aftermath of the Rebellions
    The rebellions were both poorly organized and eventually both lost, through battles in St-Eustache and St-Charles. 99 captured militias were condemned to death, however only 12 went to the gallows. 58 were transported to Australia. In total, 325 soldiers died, only 27 of which were British serving.
  • Durnham Report

    Durnham Report
    Following the rebellions, the English send Lord Durnham in hopes of discovering a solution to the conflicts. He encourages the uniting of Upper and Lower Canada and for a Responsible Government. He also calls for an aggressive assimilation of French, as they are dividing the population. He condemns the Family Compact's policies, as the traditionalist values demoralize the population. This leads to the Act of Union in 1840.
  • Signature of the Act of Union

    Signature of the Act of Union
    Due to attacks by the rebel group "Les Patriotes" and Lord Durham's report, the government passes the Act of Union, which unites and redivides the province into Canada West and East. It also made English the only official language, which forced the French to become a minority. This didn't however provide a responsible government to the Canadian people.
  • Church Powers in English Rule

    Church Powers in English Rule
    In 1837, a Bishop is allowed to live in Lower Canada, which begins a relationship between the Church and the English State. The Church were still in charge of education and health fields. Meanwhile, all protestants were shunned, as they weren't as powerful as the Roman Catholic religion. They encouraged large families, and a rural life based on traditional values.
  • Signature of The British North America Act (BNAA)

    Signature of The British North America Act (BNAA)
    The signature of the The British North America Act (BNAA), which was pushed by the Fathers of Confederation after conferences in Quebec, Charlottetown, and London. It established Canada as its own partly independent nation, though it was only in control of internal affairs, with several partly independent provinces. This began Contemporary Times in Canada. It provided the Federal Government with responsibilities (Defense, Banking), and the Provincial Governments with others (Education, Health).
  • Period: to

    Contemporary Times

    The period in which Canada is an independent nation formed of multiple provinces and territories. It began with the forming of the Canadian Confederation and continues to this day.
  • The Power of the State Post BNAA

    The Power of the State Post BNAA
    In the government established with the British North America Act, the British Government technically owns everything. However, the entire process is completely democratic, aside from the Governor and Lieutenant generals, who are mostly for show. Citizens elect a House of Commons nationally, and a Legislative Assembly in their province. They both select a Prime Minister or Premier depending on branch, who chooses a Senate or Legislative Council, again dependent on branch.
  • Responsibilities of Both Governments

    Responsibilities of Both Governments
    The BNAA divided the responsibilities of both governments. The Federal Government is responsible for the defense, banking, currency, trade, postal service, and criminal laws, whereas the Provincial Government is in charge of education, municipal Institutions, hospitals, healthcare, property, civil laws, infrastructure, and natural resources, though that has fluctuated. They both share agricultural and immigration duties.
  • Duplessis' Government

    Duplessis' Government
    Through 1944-1959 (though he did have a term in 1936 through 1940), Maurice Duplessis was Première of Quebec. He defends Provincial Autonomy, fighting multiple federal initiatives, the idealization of rural life, promoting traditional values and providing electricity across the country side, and believes that the government shouldn't intervene in social and economic sectors, leaving that for the Church and Big Businesses (mostly American) respectively. He also instituted nationalist policies.
  • Opposition To Duplessis

    Opposition To Duplessis
    Union leaders were frustrated with with Duplessis' opposition to social programs and workers, and accused him of serving American interests over Quebec's population. This forced numerous strikes over Duplessis' reign, including the asbestos strike of 1949. The Church even supported it. Intellectuals and journalists were also against him, including Pierre Elliot Trudeau and Rene Levesque, who attacked Quebec's conservative nature.
  • Jean Lesage and The Quiet Revolution

    Jean Lesage and The Quiet Revolution
    Driven by cultural and political assertion of Quebecers and the desire for a government with a more interventionist role, Jean Lesage is elected premier, through promoting and advertising change. He is in charge between 1960 and 1966. He brings Quebec onto the world stage with the World Fair of 1967, and the Olympics in 1976, and modernizes much of Quebec's infrastructure, with Medicare and Hydro Quebec.
  • Language within Quebec

    Language within Quebec
    Allophones who immigrated to Quebec often adopted English, which fed separatists and nationalists sentiments. We see Lesage create the Office of the French Language to promote, Henri Bourassa adopting Bill 22, which makes French the official language of Quebec, and Levesque enact Bill 101, making it compulsory for immigrant children to go to French Schools, forcing large companies to adopt French and imposed the language on public signs.
  • French Nationalism in Quebec

    French Nationalism in Quebec
    As time passes, more and more people propose political sovereignty. The R.I.N is formed in 1963, and the M.S.A is formed by Rene Levesque in 1967. At this time, Charles de Gaulle, the French Prime Minister, speaks, encouraging French independence. In 1968, the two parties merge, forming the P.Q, which takes power in 1976. This gives way to the first referendum. At the same time, the F.L.Q wreaks havoc on Quebec in the form of kidnappings, bombings, and murders in the name of freedom.
  • Quebec Referendums

    Quebec Referendums
    Following Rene Levesque being elected, he calls a referendum on Quebec's independence in 1980. His idea of an independence had Quebec keeping its economic benefits with Canada, including currency. The "No" side won with 60% of the vote. Then following disagreements with the Canadian constitutions during the Meech Lake Accords, there was another referendum in 1995, which didn't have the economic benefits included. The "No" side won with only 50.6 % of the vote.