History Timeline Evan Belfer 4C

  • Period: Jan 1, 1534 to

    French Regime

  • Apr 20, 1534

    Jacques Cartier's 1st voyage

    On April 20th, 1534, Jacques Cartier sets out towards the West in search of (1) a new route to Asia, (2) gold and riches, and (3) land to claim for France. Although he doesn't find a new route to Asia or gold and riches, he does explore and map the Gulf of the St Lawrence and found natural ressources such as trees and fish.
  • May 19, 1535

    Jacques Cartier's 2nd voyage

    In May of 1535, Cartier returns to Canada on his second voyage. He sails up the St. Lawrence and reached Stadacona (which is modern day Quebec). Friendly natives showed the Europeans how to survive scurvy and the frigid winters. Cartier returns to France with native captives, including Chief Donacona himself.
  • May 23, 1541

    Jacques Cartier's 3rd voyage

    In May of 1541, Cartier sets out on his 3rd and final voyage to Canada. This time, the goals have changed: France was no longer looking for a passage to the Orient and now concentrated its efforts on creating a permanent settlement in this new land. Sadly, this attempt failed miserably. Missionaries tried to convert the natives. France lost interest in this new territory for approximately 60 years.
  • Attempt to establish permanent settlement in Nova Scotia (Port Royal)

    Sixty years after having failed tp establish a permanent settlement in the New World, the King of France regains interest in attempting to set up a colony in order to keep up with the other world Super Powers. So, in 1605, he requests a voyage to Nova Scotia where Port Royal is the attempt at establishing a permanent settlement. Samuel de Champlain is a part of this voyage. In the end, Port Royal fails because of its position.
  • Establishment of Quebec City

    In spring of 1608, Champlain returns to the New World where he establishes a trading post near Stadacona. He strategically chooses Stadacona because it is an easy meeting point as it quite literally means "where the river narrows". These trading posts are used to trade for furs with the natives in exchange for small, cheap trinkets such as mirrors.
  • Establishment of Montreal

    In 1642, Paul Chomedy de Maisonneuve establishes Montreal, which at the time is named Ville-Marie. It is set up deep inside Iroquois territory and is established with the goal of converting the natives.
  • King Louis 14th takes control of France

    After having technically become king at the age f 5 years old, King Louis the 14th takes control of France in 1661. He sees how the British Colonies are developping and expanding and while his colonies are indeed making him money, he decides that it's time for things to change. He is nicknamed the Sun King because they say that his empire was so large that the sun never set over it. Although he is gaining power in Europe, his colonies are still suffering and so he takes measures to develop them.
  • Implementation of a Royal Government in New France

    Politically, Louis the 14th abolishes the monopoly held by the 100 Associates Company and implemented a Royal Governemnt in order to develop his colony. It's structure resembled the below:
    King
    Minister of Marine (remained in France with King)
    Sovereign Council (made up of Governor, Intendant, Bishop, among others)
    Captain of Militia
    People
  • Implementation of the Seigniorial System

    A farming system would promote immigration to New France. In order to cultivate the colony, a method of land division was needed. The King would grant pieces of land to rich French men (seigneurs) which they would then have to develop and receive rent from peasants (censitaires) who lived on it.The land was long and narrow so that water was accessible by lakes and the seigneur had to build long narrow strips of land, a mill, a church, his own house, a grazing land, etc.
  • Jean Talon's policies

    Jean Talon is the intendant and has the responsibility of populating the colony. he comes up with many different policies: (1) offers soldiers free land if they stay in New France after their service was done, (2) the arrival of Filles du Roi, orphan girls found in the streets of France that are brought to New France and married off immediately, (3) payments to couples for every so many children they have, (4) fines to fathers of unmarried girls and bachelors over 21.
  • Period: to

    7 Years War

    Fighting goes on in North America (til 60) and in Europe (til 63). New France (70000 people, weak economy, held back by mercantalism, centered on furs) VS 13 colonies (1.5 millions people, economic freedom, prosperous, backed by Great Britain). British try for many years to take New France's forts by land (very difficult, hard labour, soldiers march for days), new method: gather armada and attack by sea, hope to sail into heart of the colony, take their capital and then New France will collapse.
  • Battle on the Plaines of Abraham

    General Wolf and the English vs General Montcalm and the French. Both generals will die in this very shory battle. The English reign victorious. Quebec falls, remaining French troops retreat to Montreal where they shortly capitulate (1760).
  • Articles of Capitulation

    -French militia can return home
    -French regular army must lay down arms and leave
    -Catholicism is tolerated but Bishop leaves
    -People who stayed would become British subjects
    James Murray waits on fate of colony under British Military Rule.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Officially ends the 7 Years War, states that all territory known as New France is given to King of England, except for the islands of St Pierre and Miquelon.
  • Royal Proclomation

    Adoption of new constitution to control French-speaking British subjects and assimilate them:
    1- New name: Province of Quebec
    2- Decreases borders to just around the St Lawrence Valley
    3- Civilian government to run the colony
    4- English criminal and civil laws applied
    5- Unused land divided by township system
    6- No new bishop
    7- Test act (no Roman catholic can hold office)
  • Period: to

    English Regime

  • Murray is recalled, Carleton takes over

    Murray, the first governor of the Province of Quebec, realizes that as only 1% of the population is English, it is impossible to assimilate the French. He bends the rules of the Royal Proc (allows bishop, allows french laws in lower courts, doesnt call an elected assembly). Carleton maintains these changes as he wants to assure the loyalty of the French Canadians in a time where the relationship between the 13 colonies and Great Britain.
  • Quebec Act

    Second constitution. Its goal is to assure the loyalty of the Franch-Canadian people in case of war with the 13 colonies.
    -Enlarges the area of Quebec -Denied an elected assembly-Appointed council (min.17 members)-French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigniorial system are back-Test Act Oath→ Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal, and could hold office)
  • American Declaration of Independance

    Many factors lead to Americans eventually declaring independance and waging war:
    -Up until 1763 the Americans needed British protection from the French.-They wanted Western Expansion into the Ohio Valley-13 colonies did not give enough in war-Some Americans had also been trading with the French, therefore….Britain wanted to place strict control on trade and inc. taxes.The King felt that the Americans should pay for the costs of the war.
    Quebec Act 1774→ Seen as the last straw
  • Period: to

    Arrival of the Loyalists

    The Loyalists are people living in the 13 colonies who wanted to remain loyal to Great Britain and opposed the impending revolution. From the declaration of independance all the way to the official recognition of the United States as an independant country in 1783, these Loyalists will look to move to the closest British colony: Canada. In total, 36000 loyalists arrive in Canada, most of which settling in the Maritimes, with 6000 settling in Quebec.
  • British final defeat in Yorktown

  • Treaty of Versailles

    Britain officially recognizes United States as its own independant country. They have to give up the south of the great lakes and the Ohio Valley to the new country. The fur trade had been largely located in this area, meanoing that Canadians will now look to find their furs to the Northwest, which leads to the creation of the Northwest company.
  • Constitutional Act of 1791

    The thousands of Loyalists who were used to the British civil laws and elected assemblies wrote petitions to the King to try and get the institutions they were used to. They achieved this in 1791 with the Constitutional Act which split up the Province of Quebec into two distict territories, Upper Canada and Lower Canada, seperated by the Ottawa River. A representative governemnt was implemented, with each Canada disposing of an elected assembly (legislative assembly).
  • Timber trade takes over from Fur trade

    As Napoleon's armies take control of Europe, Britain is in high demand for trees to build its greal naval force but they are cut off from their regular sources. They therefore turn to Canada. Timber becomes the main export of the colony and its price rises 1300%.
  • War of 1812

    Americans had been trading with the French and Napoleon, who were at the time at war with the British. The British were still upset about losing their colonies to the South and would seize any american ships suspected of trading with the French and forced the captured crew to enroll in the British Navy. Furious, the Americans want revenge and attempt badly planned attacks on Canada. The Canadian militia and British troops attack the US and burn down the White House. Fighting ends in stalemate.
  • Arrival of poor immigrants from Great Britain

    Living conditions were tough in Great Britian, specifically Ireland. Due to the Napoleonic Wars, rent was going up and many Irish farmers lost their land. To make matters worse, a blight destroyed the potato crops and left millions starving (Irish potato famine). Many come to North America. They settled mostly in Upper Canada as they spoke English, raised the population immensely (160000 in 1791 to 2.5 million in 1861).
  • 92 Resolutions

    Since the implementation of the Representative Government in 1791, the elected representatives had still not gained any real power. A group called the Patriotes spoke of a violent uprising. The leader of the Patriotes, Louis-Joseph Papineau, writes the 92 resolutions in 1834, a list of the assembly's demands. Their main demand was for a Responsible Government (for the members of the councils to be selected from the elected assembly).
  • 10 Resolutions

    3 years after the having sent the 92 resolutions, the Patriotes finally get an answer from Britain: Lord John Russell's 10 Resolutions, which didnt solve any of the Patriotes main demands, in fact, it gave more power to the councils. This response is taken as an insult and rebellions break out in both Canadas.
  • Rebellions of 1837

    Lower Canada's rebellions are lead by Patriote leader Louis-Joseph Papineau and after several battles, at St. Charles (English win), St. Denis (French win), and St. Eustache (English win). Eventually, the rebellion is put down. The clergy doesn't exactly support the Patriotes as Catholicism is being respected and recognized as is. 12 Patriotes are hanged outside Montreal's prison as a symbol and 58 others are exiled to Australia.
  • Durham Report

    After the sudden rebellions, Britain send Lord Durham to Canada to give his opinion on how to go from there. Durham's Report, officially presented to British officials in February of 1839, gave forth the following recommendations: (1) the two Canada's should be united as the English have now become the majority and they can this way assimilate the French and (2) give them the responsible governemnt, which can in no way according to Durham hinder the relationship between Britiajn and its colony.
  • Act of Union

    After going over Durham's recommendations, Great Britain implements a 4th constitution: the Act of Union.
    1. Creates the Prov. of Canada consisting of Canada East and West (former upper and lower Canada).2. Canada east and west each had 42 members to its assembly3. Governor still had control and veto power (no responsible government)4. Canada east and west would equally pay for Canada’s debts (Cdn West owed 10X).
  • Implementation of Responsible Government

    Governor Lord Elgin would be the first to not use his veto powers, and allow the Prime minister (majority holder) to have executive powers. A true responsible governement had been implemented.
    The structure of Responsible Government-The people would now elect the Leg. Assembly-The Prime minister(head of the party with the most votes) wouldForm the Cabinet (Executive Council) who would propose laws that had to be approved through the assembly.
  • Period: to

    Reciprocity Treaty with United States

    Britain ends its preferential treatment with Canada (British merchants did not have to pay taxes on products coming from Canada whereas they would have to pay taxes on the same product coming from anywhere else, boosts economy enormously) in order to explore othe rmarkets. They therefore establish Free Trade.Canada now needs a new trade alliance. They sign the Reciprocity Treaty in 1854, which meant that for 10 years, customs/duties between the two countries temporarily cease.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    Political problems (10 minority govenrments in ten years), economic problems (reciprocity treaty not renewed by the United States), and fear of manifest destiny lead to discussions about uniting the British colonies to form a Federation. In September 1864, leaders from Canada East and West as well as leaders of three maritime provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, PEI) and agree to discuss a merger.
  • Quebec Conference

    One month after first convening, the leaders of the same provinces with the addition of Newfoundland meet once again and agreed on 72 resolutions that would make the merger possible:
    A federal system 24 seats to each colony (total 72 seats)Assembly elected by “rep by pop”Build a railway between colonies Newfoundland and PEI withdraw, Dorion's parti rouge oppose a the federation (fear the assimilation of the Franch), but in the end, assembly of the Canada's passes the confederation.
  • London Conference

    Leaders of the 4 colonies travel to london to finalize the release from the British Empire and become a new self-governing colony.
  • British North America Act

    Made the federation official. New name: Dominion of Canada. Included Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The capital of the Dominion of Canada is Ottawa. It is governed by a federal government. The British North America Act comes into existence on July 1st, 1867.
  • North West Territory

    The North West Territory is bought from the Hudson Bay Company.
  • Manitoba

    Manitoba joins the Dominion of Canada.
  • Period: to

    First Phase of Industrialization

    Comes to Quebec in late 19th century. Skilled craftsmen who use costly, time-consuming methods are being replaced by more efficient, very simple, unskilled, boring, mechanized work in factories (first assembly lines, etc.). Urbanization occurs as people move towards cities for the new unskilled labour demands. Working conditions are horrible (dangerous, long hours, unheated, poorly ventilated, bad pay, and everyone was easily replaceable) and living conditions are just as horrible
  • Period: to

    First Phase of Industrialization (CONTINUED)

    (pollution, rampant diseases, no piped water, poor sanitation, malnourishment, etc). Women had terrible lives during this time: married young, produced many children (over ten was normal), forced to do as their husbands commanded, long days of work both at home and in factories, had the worst jobs, had few rights and little education, etc.
  • British Colombia

    British Colombia joins the Dominion of Canada in return for the completion of the coast to coast railway.
  • Prince Edward Island

    Prince Endward Island is in serious debt and joins the Dominion of Canada in order to save the economy.
  • National Policy

    Times are tough as trade is down, unemployment is high and Canada is experiencing an economic recession. John A. MacDonald (Conservative Party) comes up with a plan to promote national unity. It's three main points were: increase custom duties- raise taxes on products coming from places other than Canada to ensure the well-being of Canadian industries, build railways- Canadian Pacific Railway is to run coast to coast, unify people, increase trade, encourage immigration-bigger pop=bigger market.
  • Northwest Rebellions (AKA Red River Rebellions)

    The Metis (a mixed race of Europeans and Natives) people of Manitoba considered themselves to be independent of Canadian laws. They were lead by Louis Riel who demanded they be respected. Federal Government wanted to expand more and more and forced the Metis to move time and time again and give up their territory to the governement. In 1885, they decided it was enough and start an uprising in Saskatchewan. This rebellion is quickly put down and Louis Riel is hung for his crimes.
  • Yukon Territory

    Yukon joins the Dominion of Canada as a territory as it's population is too small for it to be considered a province.
  • Period: to

    Second Phase of Industrialization

    Imperialism VS Nationalism. Imperialists: close ties to empire, always thinking of Britain. Nationalists: put the nation first, focus on ourselves and not a country an ocean away. French=nationalist. English=imperialist. Some english nationalists, no french imperialists. English majority=they usually got their way in supporting Britain, especially in wars. A major part of this second phase: World War I. Imperialism and Nationalism are very important notions in the war (volunteer to fight vs its
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    Second Phase of Indusrialization (CONTINUED)

    not our war). End of the war brought about an incredible economic boost (war is in Europe=no damage to Canada=we can help others re-build=boost) and population grows. This is why we call the 1920's the Roaring Twenties. This phase is characterized by exploitation of natural resources and american investments.New regions open up as we expand for natural resources.Working conditions are still hard, unons grow but are opposed, strong divide between rich and poor.
  • Alberta and Saskatchewan

    Alberta and Saskatchewan join the Dominion of Canada as recent settlement allows them to be provinces.
  • Period: to

    World War One

    All the world powers ha dbeen stockpiling weapons and training men for years, it was only a matter of time until an international conflict broke out. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and thus larger allies such as Britain and France got involved. As soon as Britain goes to war, so does Canada. However, everyone is for the war as it is thought that the troops would be home for Christmas, but this is most definitely not the case. The home war effort is massive: factories converted to build
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    World War One (CONTINUED)

    munitions and weapons. Women played a huge role: as men went to war, they stepped up and worked in the factoried as well as seeing armed service as nurses. Most people had close ties to Britain (imperialist) and volunteered, except the French (nationalist).
  • Conscription (WWI)

    Less volunteers in the ar leads to the implementation of Conscription, which is compulsory service. This enfuriates the French nationalists, who think that this is Europe's war and that we should be concentrating on ourselves rather than focusing on helping Britain and the other allies.
  • Women's RIght to Vote (Federal)

    As a result of their incredible contribution during the war, women finally obtain the right to vote at the federal election. It is first given only to family of forces members in 1917 and then to all in 1918.
  • Peace Talks at Versailles

    Canada gets involved in the peace talks of 1919 at Versailles, also recognized independently when the League of Nations is formed.
  • Period: to

    The Great Depression

    Caused by the stock market crash of 1929.People were buying shares in companies on borrowed money, when debts were called in the stocks plummeted. "Black Tuesday": stocks dropped below zero, people were ruined, many committed suicide. Post-war boom comes to abrupt end, which is why we call this period the Great Depression. Many sectors of the economy were hit hard, massicve lay offs, people bought as little as possible.
  • Government Solutions (Great Depression)

    -Public works projects to boost economy-Work Camps-Direct Aid-Encouraged FarmingUS hit even worse, President F.D.R proposed his “New Deal” policy, stated that government should intervene to launch new projects, Canadian Prime Minister Bennett released a similar “New Deal”.
  • New Political Ideologies (Great Depression)

    Great Depression made many people realize that perhaps Capitalism wasn't the ideal way of basing a country's Politics and Economy. New theories develop: capitalism (market should rely on free competition, state does not intervene), communism (state controls/owns everything, sets prices and wages), socialism (state should intervene, key industries and social services owned and operated by the state) and fascism (dictator controls country, rule through propaganda/force).
  • Statute of Westminister

    Canada is now in charge of all internal as well as external mattersexcept highest court is the Privy Council and all changes to the BNA act must be made in Britain. BEforehand, Canada only had control over internal affairs.
  • Padlock Law

    Passed originally to eliminate communist activities and sympathizers. The law permitted the police to lock any building used for communist activity. However it was also used against unions and government opponents and was eventually declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of Canada.
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    World War Two

    People are hesitant to entrer another war, unlike WWI where people were "excited". Canada was then much more independent and went to war on its own accord. WWII is over a higher ethical issue. Similar wartime issues: war time restrictions and war oriented production, women's increased participation (leads to right of provincial vote), to keep control the government centralized its power, conscription crisis (plebiscite), post war prosperity, natural increase, immigration, propaganda, rations.
  • Period: to

    Premier Maurice Duplessis's Rule

    His time as premier is characterized by traditional elements. Major elements: RC Church (continued to control education, hospitals, charities, welfare. Influential in government, unions and caises populaires. Promotes large families, rural life, Christian values), Idealization of rural life (rural communities=ideal place to promote traditional values such as gratifying work, religious beliefs, etc) and Role of State (NOT intervene in social or economic sectors).
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    Challengers of traditional values

    Two major groups challenged the traditional and conservative nature of Quebec society and its government. They were Union leaders (accused Duplessis of opposing social progress and of serving American interests before the interests of Quebec workers, led to numerous strikes) and intellectuals and journalists (such as PET and René Levesque, oppose Duplessis and attack conservative nature of Que society in newspapers, magazine articles, and TV programs).
  • Adoption of fleurdelisé as Quebec's flag

    Nationalist policy adopted by Maurice Duplessis.
  • Newfoundland

    Newfoundland joins the Dominion of Canada because of economic reasons.
  • Asbestos Strike

    The Asbestos Strike of 1949 as a major development that pitted workers against the state and company scabs. It is often seen as a turning point in organizing opposition to Duplessis.
  • Refusal of federal subsidies

    Duplessis's government refused to accept federal subsidies destined for Quebec universities on the grounds that education was a provincial jurisdiction.
  • Introduction of Provincial Income Tax

    Nationalist policy adopted by Maurice Duplessis.
  • Rural electrification

    The government undertook a program of rural electrification and by 1956, 90% of all farms had electricity. Farm credit was offered to farmers who wanted to buy new equipment and agricultural cooperatives became more important.