Period: Nov 29, 1500 to
Official Power and Countervailing Power
Dec 12, 1500
First Occupants-No official governement however they did have structure.
-The Iroquois lived in a society that was Matriarchy (Women made the decisions and the mother was head of the family).
-Algonquians lived in a society that was Patriarchy (Men made the decisions and the father was head of the family).
- The period the French were in control.
Relations between Amerindians and colonial administators-In order to suceed in the fur trade Europeans alligned themselves with amerindians.
-The French alligned with the Hurons.
-The English alligned with the Iroquois.
-The English and Iroquois wfought against the French and Hurons and won.
Power relations between the Church and the State:-The Church was involved in political decisions because of its role in the Souvereign Council.
-Companies who held monopoly were destroying New France.
-The monopoly of fur was placed by the Minister of Marine.
-The Royal Government was put into place in 1663
Royal Government-The King and the Minister of Marine would remain in France.
-Sovereign Council ran New France directly.
-The Sovereign council was made up of: Governor, Intendant, Bishop.
-The Bishop was appointed by the Pope.
Power Relations Between the Colony and the Mother Country-The influence of decisions made by the mother country on the power in the colony.
-The king names administrators of the colony and can still reverse any decisions they make. (Absolute Monarchy)
The Great Peace of Montreal-Peace treaty between New France and 40 First Nations of North America.
-It was signed on August 4,1701.
-The French, allied to the Hurons and the Algonquians, provided 16 years of peaceful relations and trade before war started again. -Present for the diplomatic event were the various peoples part of the Iroquois confederacy, the Huron peoples, and the Algonquian peoples.
Life In New France-Settlers had a happy life but there was a lot of work to do.
-New France was not really developing settlers became self-dependent.
Nobility/Elite (Governor)Middle Class/Bourgeoisie (Seignuers)Peasants/Habitant (censitaries)
Articles of Capitulation-Rules the population had to follow after the British conquered New France:
1. The French Militia could go back home and wouldn't lose their property.
2. The French pro soldiers and military would lay down their arms and leave.
3. The people could practice the R.C. religion, but the Bishop would have to leave.
4. Everyone can leave, but if they stay they are British subjects.
British Rule-The period of time that the English were in control.
Treaty of Paris-Treaty that ends the Seven Year War in Europe.
-All territory goes from French to English.
-France only kept St-Pierre and Miquelon.
James Murray-James Murray did not agree with the Royal Proclamation because the population of Quebec was only 1% englsih and 99% french.
-It did not make sense to imply all these English rules on the French.
-He changed rules to make the French happier.
-He allowed French laws in the lower courts and he changed the civil laws to French.
The Royal Proclamation1-It gives the King’s new colony a name: The Province of Quebec2-It decreases the borders to just around the St-Lawrence river valley. 3-Put in place a civilian Government to run the new Colony 4- English Criminal and Civil laws were applied.5- Unused land would be divided by the Township System6-No new Bishop would be allowed7-No Roman
Guy Carleton-The English were unhappy with James Murray because he was favoring the French so they damanded for a new governer.
-James Murray was replaced by Guy Carleton.
-He kept James Murrays decisions the same however he was still tolarent towards the French so that they would stay loyal.
The Quebec Act-Act to keep the French loyal to the British:
1.Guarantees French Canadian loyalty 2.Enlarges the area of Quebec
3.Denied an elected assembly4.Appointed council (min.17 members)5.French civil laws were instated, tithe and seigniorial system are back6.est Act Oath→ Test Oath of Allegiance (swear to king you’re loyal, and could hold office)
American Independance-Americans were unhappy with the British.
-They faught for their independance and won.
Loyalist-After the US gained their independance some of the population wanted to stay loyal to Britain and moved back to British owned land.
-36000 loyalists went to Canada and 6000 loyalists went to Quebec.
-The English population of Quebec increased 1% →10%-They settled according to the Township system.-They gave their settlements English names.-The Loyalists were used to English civil laws. -They were unhappy so they wrote petitions to London for change.
Constitutional Act-Made to satisfy the loyalists.
-Quebec was seperated into Upper and Lower Canada.
-Lower Canada was mostly French.
-Upper Canada was mostly English.
-Ottawa River was the boundary between them.
-In Lower Canada the French kept their religion, civil laws, and people could work in the administration.
-In Upper Canada the Protestants, would use the township system and english civil laws.
92 Resolutions-Written by rhe leader of the Patriotes Louis Joseph Papineau.
-List of assemblys demands.
-Mainly for a Responsible Government.
-Sent to London.
-Upper Canada's rebellion which was lead by William Lyon Mackenzie was put to a quick end.
-Lower Canada's rebellion which was led by Louis Joseph Papineau after several battles (St-Charles, St-Denis, St-Eustrache) was also put down.
Lord John Russell's 10 Resolutions-In response to thr 92 resolutions.
-Instead of solving problems he gave more power to the councils.
-Rebellions broke out.
Lord Durham-He was sent over to Quebec to find solutions.
-His solutions included:
1.The 2 Quebecs should be joined together.
2. Increase British immigration to assimilate the French.
3. Repsonsible Government should be put into place to eliminate veto power.
Union Act-Included the following:
1.Created the Province of Canada consisting of Canada East and West.
2.Both Canada's each had 42 members to it's assembly.
3.Governor still had control and veto power.
4.Both Canada's would equally pay off Canada's debt.
Politics-The political system had become responsible but no one could agree on who should be in charge.
-The party leaders agreed a merger was necessary.
Quebec Conference-Agreed on 72 resolutions that would make the merger possible:
2.24 seats to each colony
3.Assembly elected by “rep by pop”
4.Railway between colonies
Charlottetown Conference-Leaders all across the Canadas and provinces met and agreed that it would be a good idea to merge and form 1 country.
London Conference-Leaders of the 4 colonies meet to make arrangement to release from the British Empire to become a new “self-governing” colony.
-The Dominion of Canada.
-Its capital of Ottawa was created under the British North America Act
Federal and Provincial ResponsibilitiesFEDERAL:
Defense, Banking and money institutions, Postal service and criminal law.
Education, Municipal, Hospitals, Property and civil rights.
Immigration and Agriculture.
Power relations between union movements and the state-Beginning of Strikes.
-Partial legalizations of Unions.
Feminism-Foundation of the National Council of Women (1893); actions of the suffragettes.-1961: electing the first woman to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (Marie-Claire Kirland-Casgrain).-1964: 16, which ended the legal incapacity of married women.-1965: Foundation of the Federation des femmes du Quebec
Maurice Duplessis-Previous premier of Quebec.
-Didn't believe in urbanizations.
-He believed that the rural communities were the best places to promote traditional values.
-Adopted the fleurdelisé as Quebec's flag
-Provincial income tax plan
-Refused to accept federal subsidies for education.
-Opposed federal allowance payments to Quebec families on the same grounds.
Intellectuals and Journalists-Intellectuals (Pierre Elliott Trudeau and René Lévesque) were against the Duplessis government
-Went against him through newspapers, magazine articles and television programs.
Quiet Revolution-Began with the electoral defeat of the Union Nationale by Jean Lesage and his Liberal Party.
-Begining of Welfare state.
-To make the Quebec gov’t the major force behind Quebec's social and economic.
-To modernize Quebec's educational system.
-To weaken the influence of the church.
Language, Nationalism and Separatism-Quebec wanted to seperate from the rest of Canada.
-They were afraid of their culture becoming a monortity
Native Issues-The Oka crisis lasted 78 days, when the stand-off finally came to an end with out armed conflict, however the issues remained.
-The Charlottetown Accord was created to deal with these issues.
-The Peace of the Brave 2005.
-James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement 1975.