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Confederation in Canada

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  • Trade in Canada

    Trade in Canada
    British North American colonie enjoyed a special position when trading with Britian. Under corn laws Britian allowed wheat and flour from the colonies to enter Britian with very low tax. How ever Americans who sent their wheat or flour had to pay a much a much higher tax. Suddenly in 1846 Britian annouced that there would be free trade. Britian would allow good from any country in to its markets. Canadians had invested a great deal of money in trade with Britian. They had built a canal system
  • Trade in Canada

    Trade in Canada
    And flour mills to grind American wheat so that it could reach British markets at the preferred rate. Now they found themselves in financial trouble. Some angry Montreal merchants felt they would be better off joining the United states. Britians new free trade policy caused serious problems for the economy of Britians colonies. The colonies would have to find new trading partners. If they united it would be easy and logical for them to trade with on another.
  • Changing in British Attitudes

    Britians free trade policy in 1846 was a crushin blow to the economy of the colonies. To raise money for canals and roads canadians decided to place taxes on all goods coming in to the colonies. British manufacturers were furious . Taxes would raise the cost of british goods in the colonies. support for the colonies was weekening in britian. A group called the little englanders said its time the colonies pay there own way. Many people in britian agreed with the little englanders.
  • Rail links

    Rail links
    Between 1850 and 1867, 3570km of track was added in the colonies. The most ambitious railway project was the grand trunk railway. It was to be an all british route linking canada west with the atlantic ocean at Halifax. By 1860, the grand trunk had streched from Sarina only as far east as Riviere du loup. It costed tremendous amount of money to build and it was on the verge of being bankrupt. The grand trunk could be completed if the colonies were united then the expenses could be shared.
  • Politics in Canada

    Politics in Canada
    The push towards confederation began in Canada and the Maritimes. Politics in Canada in the mid 1800s was a stormy affair . The provice was divided by language, religion and different opinions on the direction the new province should take. In 1841 when the province was formed, Canada East and Canada West were given a equal numder seats in the goverment Assembly or parliament . There were two main political group s in the assembly the Conservatives and the Reform party.
  • Choosing the Capital

    Choosing the Capital
    Choosing a capital created a major crisis in the government. The assembly had met at different times in Kingston, Quebec city, Montreal and Toronto. It was time for the government of canada to have a permanent capital. In 1857, the government decided to leave the decision up to Queen Victoria. She announced her choice was Ottawa the reasons for her choice were. Ottawa is far from the States boarder and cloud be protected from a attack. It had good water transportation routes for moving troops.
  • Political Deadlock

    Political Deadlock
    How the government was workingin Canada getting any bills through the assembly was all most impossible. Members of the government and the oppostion in the canadian assemby were nearly even in numder. Since they naturally voted against each other, neither side could win. So durging the early 1860s the machinery of government gradually grounded to a halt. It was a Political deadlock.
  • Coatition Goverment

    Coatition Goverment
    George brown opposed the beliefs of the conservative party. He was John Macdonalds potical rival. For years the two men hurled bitter remarks at each other. But the future of the porince meant more to George than his personal feelings. He suggested that the answer to political deadlock was a coalition goverment . A coalition goverment is the joining of different politcal partys into one government. The government had a plan to form a union with all the British colonies North America.
  • Factors leading to confederation

    Factors leading to confederation
    The Fennian raids were only only one of many issues facing the British North american colonies in the 1860s. It was a unsetting time. The idea of confederation had been put forward, but there were still many obstacles to overcome. In 1860s five major problems provided the final push for confederation.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    Charlottetown Conference
    The Charlottle town conference was organized by the maritime colonies to dissuss union of the maritmes. Canadian politicians have come with a plan for a wider union that would include the maritmes and Canada. Thee speeches from the politions were effecive they planned to buid a railway connecting canada and the maritimes. They talk about advantages of free trade between the colonies.Maritimes fish and coal would find alarge new market with the 3 million people in Canada.
  • Quebec conference

    Quebec conference
    Delegatgates from all the colonies gathered togheter at quebec city.The politicians have to work out all the details of a union. All the fathers of confederation agreed on one point. The union must be strong one that could not be broken by any one provice. The centeral goverment must have great power it must be more powerful in every way than the goverments of the provinces. As worked out in the 72 resolultions.
  • Rejection of confederation

    P.E.I rejected confederation because they feared they would be swamped in the union. P.E.I would only have 5 out of the 194 members in the house of commons. They feared there voice would not be heard with only 5 membersin parliament and since their colonie is a island the railway from canad to the maritimes would be no use for them.New found land also rejected confederation they thought they would have to pay alot of tax and newfoundland products would not sell.
  • Confederation in the colonies

    When it came time to vote in New brunswick the people were not in favour of confederation but a few years later in 1866 Fenais attacked New bunswick. Then a election was held and this time people voted in favour of confederation. Canada west voted in favour of confederation after hearing George browns six reason why he was in favour of confederation. Canada east also voted for confederation. Nova scotica was pretty divided but voted for confederation after hearing about the Fenain raids.
  • Treat of Americans taking over

    The North saw this as the Canadians helping the South. When the North won the civil war in1865 Canadians realy began to worry. They wondered whether the North would now turn its vast armies against them. Would the North attack Canada as a way of getting revenge on Britan.
  • The Treat of Americans taking over

    From 1861 to 1865 the american s fought in a bloody civil war. A civil war is a war between people who live in the the same country.In the American civil war the Northern states were fighting the Southern states. Britian helped the South in the civil war which did not make them to popular with the Northern states. Canada became involved when a group of southern soldiers raid the village of ST.Ablans in Vermot, a Northern state. The robbed banks and set houses on fire then escaped to Canada.
  • Problem with Fenians

    Problem with Fenians
    The Fenians were a unsettling influence in the British colonies. In addition to the raid on Canada west at niagara the Fenias planed to invade British Norht America at several other points. After the Battle at Ridgeway in june 1866 a second group of Fenians invaded Canada East but were again driven off The same year British war ships prevented a Fenian raid in New Brunswick. For the next few years peopl along the States boarder lived in fear. United they would be able to resist Fenians invasions
  • How the Government will run Britian

    Ideas from the Britian model the queen will be head of the Canadian government. Canada would have a parliamentary government fashioned on the British government with a House of commons made up of representatives elected by the people.There will be representation by population when provinces elect members to the house of commons. They will have a second houseof parliament. It will be called the Senate. Its function is to double check all laws passed by the house of commons.
  • The London Conference

    The London Conference
    16 delegates from Canada, New brunswick and Nova scotia jounrey to london england. The Fathers of confederation worked with british officials. They were drafting a Confederation bill they can present to the British parliment. The major issue is to decide how the new country will be governed.
  • How the Govenment will run America

    The fathers of confederation had to models they copied from to decide how the country would be governd the American and British models. From the American model Canada would have a federal system. There would be a centeral government to deal with matters of concern to the whole nation Each province would have its own government to deal with matters of local concern. The centeral government will be more powerful than the provincial governments.
  • Constitution act

    Constitution act
    Queen victoria puts her royal signature on the act on July 1st 1867 is proclaimed as the day it will come into effect. Today the act is known as the consitution act 1867. It creates the Dommion of Canada uniting four Provinces Canada West, Canada East, New Bruswick and Nova Scotia.
  • Division of powers

    The constitution act of 1867 set out the division of powers between the federal and provincal governments. Fathers of conferation limited the powers of the provices on purpose. They were determined to have a strong centeral goverment. The goverment could disallow any law passed by the provinces also any power not set out would belong to the centeral goverment.
  • Naming a country

    Naming a country
    Toronto globe invited readers to submit names for the new country and the newspaper received many suggestions. Macdonald and his friends choose the name Kingdom of Canada. They said it would emphasize that the country was a monarchy, loyal to the queen. But Britian did not want to cause an uproar with Canadas southern neighbour the united states who abadonded the british monarcy. They would not kindly to a British monarcy on their northern boarder so Leanard tilly suggested Domminion of Canada.
  • Peoples rights

    Peoples rights
    The French religion, laugange and rights were protected. But women had on say in th workings of the government and they did not have the right to vote. Aboriginal poeple aslo had no part in the formation of the country or its government . They were not seen as independant nations they were placed under athority of the ferederal government. A federal department was created to manage the way Aboriginals would live but they saw themselves as indepentant nations with rights over their land.
  • Manitoba

    Manitoba joins confederation
  • North west territories

    The Noth West Territories joined confederation
  • British colomia

    British colombia joins confederation.
  • P.E.I

    P.E.I joins confederation
  • Yukon

    Yukon joins conderation
  • Alberta

    Alberta joins confederation
  • Saskatchewan

    Sasketchewan joins confederation
  • NewFoundLand

    NewFoundLand joins confederation
  • Nunavut

    Nunavut joins confederation