Study Guide Timeline

  • Period: Mar 23, 1415 to Mar 23, 1460

    Prince Henry the Navigator opens the Portuguese “Age of Exploration”

  • Oct 12, 1492

    Christopher Columbus discovers the New World

  • Mar 23, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas divides the New World between Spain and Portugal

  • Mar 23, 1507

    A german cartographer named the New World after Amerigo Vespucci

  • Mar 23, 1513

    Vasco Nunez de Balboa charted the coast of the Pacific Ocean

    Vasco Núñez de Balboa (c. 1475 – around January 12-21, 1519[1]) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. He is best known for having crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513, becoming the first European to lead an expedition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World. He traveled to the New World in 1500 and, after some exploration, settled on the island of Hispaniola. He founded the settlement of Santa María la Antigua del Darién.
  • Period: Mar 23, 1513 to Mar 23, 1521

    Ponce de Leon explores Florida

  • Period: Mar 23, 1519 to Mar 23, 1522

    Cortez conquers the Aztecs

  • Mar 23, 1524

    Council of the Indies established

    The Council of the Indies, officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies (Spanish: Real y Supremo Consejo de Indias), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire, both in the Americas and in Asia, combining legislative, executive and judicial functions. The Crown of Castile incorporated the new territories into its domains when Queen Isabella I withdrew the authority granted Christopher Columbus and the first conquistadors, and established direct royal control.
  • Mar 23, 1532

    Inca Empire falls to Francisco Pizarro

  • Period: Mar 23, 1535 to Mar 5, 1550

    Antonio de Mendoza is named the first viceroy of New Spain

  • Mar 23, 1545

    Silver discovered at Cerro Rico, Potosi (Bolivia)

  • Mar 23, 1570

    The Inquisition was established in Lima and Mexico City

  • Phillip V becomes king of Spain, and the Bourbon dynasty replaces the dynasty of the Hapsburgs

  • Establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Granada

    The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Spanish: Virreinato de la Nueva Granada) was the name given on 27 May 1717,[1] to a Spanish colonial jurisdiction in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated later in 1739. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, and parts of northwestern Brazil, northern Peru, Costa Rica and Nicaragua.
  • Treaty of Madrid shifts the Spanish- Portuguese border in South America

  • Expulsion of the Jesuits

  • Establishment of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata

  • Period: to

    Slave revolt leads to independence of Haiti

  • Period: to

    Napoleonic Wars

  • Creoles establish juntas in Venezuela, Chile, and Argentina

  • Venezuela and Paraguay declare independence

  • Argentina declares independence

  • Chile declares independence

  • Columbia and Venezuela declare independence

  • Augustin de Iturbide declares Mexico independent with the Plan of Iguala

  • Brazil declared as independent from Portugal

  • Period: to

    Iturbide declared emperor of Mexico

  • Mexico declared a republic under Santa Anna/Issuance of the Monroe Doctrine

  • Period: to

    Santa Anna ruled Mexico

  • Peruvian independence

  • Bolivian independence

  • Gran Columbia split into Columbia, Venezuela, and Ecuador

  • Texas declares independence

  • United Provinces of Central America broke up into Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, andCosta Rica

  • Texas joins the United States

  • Caste War in Mexico

    The Caste War of Yucatán (1847–1901) began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán, Mexico against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. A lengthy war ensued between the Yucateco forces in the north-west of the Yucatán and the independent Maya in the south-east. It officially ended with the occupation of the Maya capital of Chan Santa Cruz by the Mexican army in 1901, although skirmishes with villages and small settl
  • Period: to

    Period of Benito Juarez in Mexico

  • Period: to

    Paraguay defeated in War of the Triple Alliance by Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay

    The Paraguayan War (Spanish: Guerra del Paraguay; Portuguese: Guerra do Paraguai), also known as War of the Triple Alliance (Spanish: Guerra de la Triple Alianza; Portuguese: Guerra da Tríplice Aliança), was a military conflict in South America fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. It caused more deaths proportionally than any other war in modern history, and particularly devastated Paraguay, killing most of its male population.
  • Period: to

    Independence movement in Cuba and Puerto Rico led to the Ten Years War in Cuba

  • Period: to

    Porfiriato era in Mexico under Porfirio Diaz

  • Period: to

    Chile win War of the Pacific against Peru and Bolivia

    The War of the Pacific (Spanish: Guerra del Pacífico) took place in western South America from 1879 through 1883. Chile fought against Bolivia and Peru. Despite cooperation among the three nations in the Chincha Islands War, disputes soon arose over the mineral-rich Peruvian provinces of Tarapaca, Tacna, and Arica, and the Bolivian province of Antofagasta. Chilean enterprises, which largely exploited the area, saw their interests at stake when Peru nationalized all nitrate mines in Tarapaca.
  • Abolition of slavery in Brazil

  • Brazil proclaimed a republic

  • Spanish- Cuban- American War (Cuban Independence)

  • Platt Amendment added to the Cuban constitution

  • Panama separated from Columbia

  • Issuance of Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

  • Period: to

    Panama Canal built

  • Period: to

    Mexican Revolution

  • Women in Ecuador granted right to vote (first in Latin America)

  • Paraguay Defeats Bolivia Chaco War

    The Chaco War (1932–1935) was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of the northern part of the Gran Chaco region (known as Chaco Boreal) of South America, which was incorrectly thought to be rich in oil.
  • FDR’s “Good Neighbor Policy” announced

  • Platt Amendment annulled

  • Lazaro Cardenas nationalized the US oil industry in Mexico

  • Period: to

    Batista era in Cuba

  • Cuban Revolution / Rise of Fidel Castro

  • Failed Bay of Pigs Invasion

  • Period: to

    Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress

  • Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Salvador Allende elected president of Chile (first elected socialist president in Latin America)

  • Sardinistas controlled Nicaragua

  • British victory over Argentina in the Falkland Wars

  • North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement signed

  • Transfer of the Canal Zone from US to Panamanian control