Spain in 18th and 19th centuries

  • Sep 27, 1540


    is a Christian male religious congregation of the Roman Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits. The society is spread throught 112 nations and six continents. Jesuits work in education,intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. The suppression of Jesuits in 1767 from Spain was the result of a series of political and economic conflicts rather than a theological controversy and the assertion of nation-state independence against the Catholic Church.
  • The Gloriuos Revolution

    The Gloriuos Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution,[b] also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending of the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England.
  • Isabella Farnese de Parma

    Isabella Farnese de Parma
    She came into live on October 25, 1692, in Parma, Italy,
    Isabella Farnese went on to marry King Philip V of Spain in 1714, wanting both of her sons to inherit the territory of Italy. Finally, her son, Charles III, came to the throne and ruled or decades. Farnese was also known for her close alignment with certain ministers and for initiating economic change.
    The Queen died on July 11, 1766, in Aranjuez, Spain.
  • Charles II die

    Charles II die
    Charles II die with no heir.
  • Philip V of Spain

    Philip V of Spain
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    Philip V of Spain

    Philip V abdicated because of his mental illness but came back when his son died.
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    The War of Spanish Succession

    This war started when Charles II died without heir. He gave the crown to Philip of Anjou (French prince). But Europe didnt want this as Spain and France would be united and too powerful. They aimed to put Archduke Charles of Austria instead. It finished when the Treaty of Utrech (1713, which proclaimed Philip king of Spain with the condition that Spain and France would never be united) was signed by the Austrian Emperor a year later and recognized the new order in the Peace of Rastatt (1714).
  • Barbara of Portugal

    Barbara of Portugal
    She was born on 4 July, 1711.
    She came to the throne when she married Fredinand VI of Spain in 1729. She was the eldest child of King John V of Portugal, who promised God to built a great convent to thank Him of he provided him with a born heir to the throne. On 4 December 1711 Barbara was born, and the Convent of Mafra was built.
    Finally, she died at the Royal Palace of Aranjuez, on the outskirts of Madrid on 27 August 1758.
  • Abdication

    Philip V abdicated becouse of his mental illness and his 17 year-old son Louis inherited the throne.
  • Maria Amalia of Saxony

    Maria Amalia of Saxony
    She was born on November 24, 1724 at Dresden Castle in Dresden and was the eldest surviving the daughter of Frederick Augustus II and Maria Josepha of Austria.
    As she married Charles III, in 1737, she was both Queen of Naples during her husband's rule in Italy; and Queen of Spain, when his brother-in-law died and they fled there in order to continue ruling.
    She died of tuberculosis at the Buen Retiro Palace outside the capital having been a heavy smoker; on September 1760.
  • Floridablanca

    He was a Spanish statesman; one of the heads of enlightened absolutism as he was prime minister in the court of the Spanish kings Charles III and Charles IV from 1777 to 1792.
    He also carried out reforms in order to have fa further centralization of the state, weakening the influence of the provincial elite, and developing the country’s economy.
  • The First Family Compact

    The Treaty of the Escorial, another way to call this event, took place when Spanish troops recovered Naples and Sicily and Isabel Farnese of Parma's older son Charles, was crowned King of Naples. This happened thanks to France, which backed Spain's right to recover possesions in Italy.
  • The Second Family Compact

    It resulted from the support of France's involvement with the Austrian War of Succecsion. Its consequence was the installation of Charles's younger brother Philip as duke of Parma nd Piacenza, which took place in 1848.
  • Jovellanos

    He was a spanish statesman and author, one of the most important figures of the 18th-century Spanish Enlightenment. He studied law and later was appointed to judicial posts of Sevilla and Madrid. His literary and scholarly activities and his personal integrity, provided him the fame he gained. But after unsuccessfully intervening on behalf of a disgraced friend, he was banished from Madrid to his native province of Asturias.
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  • Ferdinand VI

    Ferdinand VI
    He was born on 23 September, 1713 in Madrid, Spain.
    He was Philip Vand his first wife's second son but he didn't have acess to politics during the reing of his father who wa ssaid to be in complete influence under Isabella, his second wife. When he finally succeded to the throne, he looked for a policy of neutraluty and gradual reform while he tried his bets to avoid conflicts.
    He died on August 10, 1759 in Villaviciosa de Odón.
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    Ferdinand VI

  • Maria Luisa of Parma

    Maria Luisa of Parma
    She was born on December 9, 1751 in Parma. She was Queen consort of Spain from 1788 to 1808. Maria Luisa was said to have a lot of love affairs, including one she'd have had with Manuel de Godoy, her husband's prime minister; though there're no crealy evidences that prove it. She had been tried to be married to Louis, Duke of Bungurdy, heir to the French throne. As the young man died early and she maried Charles of Austrias, and then King of Spain,instead. She died in 1819 in Rome, Italy.
  • The Canal of Castille

    The Canal of Castille
    The Canal of Castille was started to built on the 16 july 1753 and finished on august 1791. It is a canal that runs through Catile and Leon to solve the problems of aislation the plateaus. It works as fluvial and transportation via. Although there had been before other similar proyects it wasnt until Ferdinand VI and his most influential minister the "Marqués de la Ensenada" started to think of this ambitious plan to improve Spain economy. It runs over 207 kilomenters.
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    The Seven Years War

    It's a global conflict known in America as the French and Indian War,It began when England declared war on France. French expansion into the Ohio River valley brought France into armed conflict with the British colonies. A series of defeats against the French took place until Prime Minister W.Pitt financed Prussia's struggle against France and the allies in Europe and got back the colonies. Frence was expelled from Canada. War ended with the signing of the treaties of Hubertusburg and Paris.
  • Charles III

    Charles III
    He was born on January 20, 1716 iN madrid, Spain.
    He was the first child of Philip V’s marriage with Isabella of Parma therefor, he was also duke of Parma during some years.On his half-brother's, Ferdinand VI, death he succeeded to the throne in Spain, giving Naples to his third son, Ferdinand I. His frugality and his application to the business of government impressed foreign observers. He had religious devotion, a blameless personal life and a chaste loyalty to the memory of his wife.
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    Charles III

  • Luxury Porcelain Factory

    Luxury Porcelain Factory
    Luxury Porcelain Factory (Real Fábrica del Buen Retiro) created by Charles III during his work trying to improve the services and facilities of his people. Crystal followed at the Real Fábrica de Cristales de La Granja and then there was the Real Fábrica de Platería Martínez in 1778.
  • The Third Family Compact

    The Seven Years War involved a battel between Britain and France for colonial supremacy, and Austrian and Prussian conflicts over domination of German lands. While Britain supported Prussia, France surppoted Austria.
    British victory would expand British power and increase pressure on Spanish territory in North ad Central America.
    War ended with the Treaty of Paris.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    Territories changed around in North America like pieces of a puzzle. Britain was the big winner, bu had to give back Havana and Manila to Spain. The big loser, France, also gave Louisiana to Spain, which had just lost Florida.
    In the 1770s, the American colonists began agitating for autonomy. French recognized the independence of rebels and sent troops to help them(American Declaration of indepence in 1776).
    Spain becme ally of the French but did not officially recognize rebels' independence.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    It took place during the rule of Charles III of Spain.
    The growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread and other staples caused it.
    Marquis of Esquilache, a Neapolitan minister whom Charles favored; sparked off people by a series of measures regarding Spaniards' apparel that had been enacted by Leopoldo de Gregorio. That's why people decided to rebel, through riots.
  • Cupolas of the Basilica of the Pillar

    Cupolas of the Basilica of the Pillar
    A cycle of frescoes painted in great part by Goya, in the monastic church of the Charterhouse of Aula Dei. Including Adoration of the Name of God.
  • Julie Clary

    Julie Clary
    She was born On December 26, 1771 in Marseille. She was Queen consort of Spain and the Indies,Naples and Sicily, when she married Joseph Bonaparte in 1794. Her sister Désirée Clary, six years younger, became Queen of Sweden and Norway, and she asked Julie to go with her to Sweden when Joseph was asked to fly because of Napoleon's fall. Finallym she went to Frankfurt with her two daughters, where she stayed for six years. She later travelled to Brussels and Florence, where she died with her kids.
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    Royal tapestry

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  • Real Jardín Botanico de Madrid

    Real Jardín Botanico de Madrid
    The Real Jardín Botanico de Madrid was moved to the Paseo del Padro and redesigned in 1774 by Charles III during his work trying to improve the services and facilities of his people. The new site was finally opened in 1781.
  • La Cometa

    La Cometa
    La Cometa, by Goya 1777-8. One of Goyas tapestry cartoons.
  • The blind guitarrist

    The blind guitarrist
    The blind guitsrrist was one of Goyas paintings
  • Puerta de Alcalá

    Puerta de Alcalá
    Puerta de Alcalá was built by Charles III during his work trying to improve the services and facilities of his people. It is a monumental gate in the city wall through which an expanded road to the city of Alcalá was to pass, replacing an older, smaller, gate which stood nearby. It was inaugurated in 1778.
  • Museo del Prado

    Museo del Prado
    The Museo del Prado was built on 1785 by Charles III during his work trying to improve the services and facilities of his people. It was built to house the Natural History Cabinet. It wasnt until 1819 until it was used as Royal Museum of Paintings and Sculptures.
  • Charles IV

    Charles IV
    He was born on November 11, 1748 in Portici, Kingdom of Naples. He was the son of Charles III, and so he was King of Spain during the French Revolution. Charles taught Manuel de Godoy, a "protégé" of the queen, Maria Luisa of Parma; how to work with pilitics.Riots and a popular revolt at the winter palace Aranjuez in 1808 forced the king to abdicate on March 19, 1808. Napoleon installed his brother Joseph Bonaparte as King Joseph I of Spain.
    He settled and died on January 20, 1819 in Rome,Italy.
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    Charles IV

  • Tomás de Zumalacarregui

    Tomás de Zumalacarregui
    He was a Spanish military leader and the most brilliant Basque soldier general to fight for Don Carlos, a Bourbon traditionalist contender for the Spanish throne, in the First Carlist War (1833–39). Due to which he becme military governor of Ferrol del Caudillo. When the French invasion of Spain took place in 1808,he fought in both sieges due to which, he rose to the rank of captain in 1812. His royalist sympathies and deep religious convictions,however,made him fight against liberal principles.
  • Painter of Charles III

    Painter of Charles III
    At the age of forty Goya was the painter for King Charles III and the newly appointed Charles IV (fall of the French Monarchy) (image: caza en dientes)
  • Manuel Godoy

    Manuel Godoy
    Manuel Godoy was the Prime Ministre of Spain during Charles IV reign. His was said to led a corrupt and inefficient government. He headed Spain with Charles IV form 1792 to 1797 and from 1801 to 1808. In the image you can see the portrait of Godoy by Goya.
  • Goya got deaf

    In 1793, Goya traveled to Cadiz with a good friend and when he came back he was completly deaf becouse of an illness.
  • Execution Louis XVI of France

    Execution Louis XVI of France
    Louis XVI of France was executed in 1793. The Bourbon France was guillotine, causing Spanish house to weaken. He was guillotined after an attempt to run away from France, after the French Revolution (1789). Nine months later his wife Marie-Antoinette was also guillotined. Spain, was forced by this event to join the first coallition of powers against the French revolutionary regime. In 1975 Spain withdrew from the war. In the image you can see him in front of the guillotine.
  • War of the Pyrenees

    War of the Pyrenees
    After the French Revolution, whoch ended up in 1789, with Louis's execution, Spanish Bourbon supporters feared the Spanish house could also fell as the French one had made. Because of this, Spain did an uneasy alliance with the one country able to withstand France: Britain. France declared war on Spain in March 1793. Finally, after some disastrous years for Spain, it swung back into the French camp signing the Traty of San Ildefonso (1796) and declaring war on Britain.
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    Reign Of Terror

    The Reign of Terror is a period on French history of the t French Revolution. After Louis XVI execution, caught up in civil and foreign war, the Revolutionary government decided to make “Terror” the order of the day (September 5 decree) and to take harsh measures against those suspected of being enemies of the Revolution (nobles, priests, hoarders). In Paris a wave of executions followed.
  • Caprichos: The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters

    Caprichos: The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters
    The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters. Plate 43 of Caprichos "El Sueño de la Razon Produce Monstruos"
  • Charles IV´s Family Painting

    Charles IV´s Family Painting
    Goya spent two years working on a large scale painting of the royal family.
  • Charles IV of Spain and his Family

    Charles IV of Spain and his Family
    According to the picture and the numbers these are the members of the family of Charles IV represented on this Goya painting:
    1-Carlos Maria Isidro
    3-future Fernando VII
    4-Maria Josefa (Carlos IV sister)
    5- Ferdinand´s future wife
    6-Maria Isabel
    7-Maria Luisa de Parma
    8-Francisco de Paula
    9-Charles IV
    10-Don Antonio Pascual (brother of the King)
    11-Carlota Joaquina
    12-Don Luis de Parma
    13-baby Carlos Luis (future Duke of Parma)
    14-Maria Luisa (Don Luis wife)
  • The Nude Maja and The Clothed Maja

    The Nude Maja and The Clothed Maja
    Two of Goya's best known paintings are The Nude Maja (La maja desnuda, 1800) and The Clothed Maja (La maja vestida, 1803). They depict the same woman in the same pose, naked and clothed, respectively. The painting was "the first totally profane life-size female nude in Western art".
  • Antonia Zarate

    Antonia Zarate
    Antonia Zarate 1805-6 by Goya.
  • Spanish defeat at Trafalgar

    Spanish defeat at Trafalgar
    Charles IV of Spain was joining France in the wars against European coallition. And so Spainsh fleet shared in the defeat of the French by Nelson in Trafalgar.
  • Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies

    Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies
    She was born on April 27, 1806. She became Queen consort of Spain when she married Ferdinand VII during 1829. They has wo daughters: Infanta Isabel II and Infanta Luisa Fernanda. As Isabel was too young to rule when her father was about to die, her mother would reing for her until she was old enough. Before dying, Ferdinand, amde the Pragmatic Sanction in order for her daughter to be able to rule, without caring about the Salic Law, which caused the Carlists Wars.
    She died in 1878.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    In the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Spain was forced to join in an invasion of Portugal by promisinf half Portugal territories, whose ports were still open to British ships and caused a leak in Napoleon´s "Continental System". Portugal was quickly overrun. This was the first step taken by Napoleon to conquer Spain.
  • Los Desastres de la Guerra

    Los Desastres de la Guerra
    During Spains struggles for independence from France Goya drew a series of 85 prints showing the travesties witnessed . This series were never published during Goya´s life , probably becouse of its pronounced indictiment of war. The image is "The Second of May"
  • The Colossus

    The Colossus
    The Colossus, 1808-12 by Francisco Goya. Belong to Goyas Black Paintings.
  • Events of the second of May

    Events of the second of May
    On the second of May 1808 Spanish people rebelled, as they didnt want Joseph (Napoleons brother) as the King of Spain. After the abdications of Bayonne. Charles and Ferdinand were given pensions and estates in Bayonne, where they were detained. On the 2 of May, spanish people without an organised army or plan revolt and won with irrregular forces and guerrillera bands. They made a substancial contribution to British campaings.
  • Napoleonic troops in Spain

    Napoleonic troops in Spain
    Central Europe was the primary theater of war and tbecause of that the largest armies and troops led by the best commanders fought there most of the time. Napoleon spent few years in Italy and only few months in Spain.
    In Spain the French army campaigned in 1793-1795;
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to the Peninsula War. King Charles IV was forced to abdicate the throne to his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 by order of the Spanish Royal Council. Due to riots and popular revolts at the winter palace Aranjuez. Napoleon summoned both on Bayonne April 1808. He tinstalled his brother Joshep as King, which led to the Peninsular War. Finally on December 11 1813 he appointed Ferdinand as King of Spain.
  • Joseph Bonaparte

    Joseph Bonaparte
    He was born on January 7, 1768.
    He became King of Spain when his brother,Napoleon, forced Charles III and his family to abdicate and be exiled of their own territory. The place in the throne that Charles had been ocuppying was given to Joseph by his winner, and France ruler, brother. Before, his elder brother had also made him King of Sicily and Naples. He was also ambassador of Rome and signed a treaty between France and U.S. of Morfontained. He died in 1844.
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    Joseph Bonaparte

    Akthough Ferdinand VII started his reign from march to may Joseph Bonaparte took control on the 6th June .
  • What More Can One Do?

    What More Can One Do?
    What more can one do?, from Goya´s Disasters of war, 1812-1815
  • The Burial of the Sardine

    The Burial of the Sardine
    The Burial of the Sardine 1812-19 by Goya.
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    When people revolt in Spain against French ruler Joseph, they expected Ferdinand VII, who they wanted as the new king, to accept the Constitution which wanted to be stablished in Spain. But when Ferdinand VII was proclaimed as the new king he rejected it as he supported absolutism. In 1823 he abolished the Spanish Constitution, that had been stablished during Riegos pronunciamiento.
  • Ferdinan VII

    Ferdinan VII
    He was born on October 14 in 1784 in "El Monasterio del Escorial"; being son of Maria Luisa de Parma and Charles IV of Spain, who put all their confidence in Godoy.
    When Godoy allowed French troops to enter Spain, Charles was overthrown by the Revolt of Aranjuez, and he abdicated in favour of Ferdinand. However, French troops occupied Madrid, and Napoleon summoned Ferdinand to the frontier and obliged him to return the crown to his father, who granted it to Napoleon. He died in 1833 in Madrid.
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    Ferdinand VII

  • Riego's pronunciamento

    Riego's pronunciamento
    It was created in Spain during the liberal revolution of 1820. It was a type of coup d'etat in which the territory which had been conquered illegaly, was given to another person whou would rule it. The first one to do this was King Alfonso XII, King Chief of the Spanish Army. Riegos main purpouse was to restore the constitution in Spain even though Ferdinand VII would continue ruling.
  • Black Paintings

    Black Paintings
    Having no royal commissions, Goya became isolated from political and intellectual life in Madrid. Between 1820 and 1823, he completed a series of very private works in fresco at his small country retreat, Quinta del Sordo (the Deaf Man's House). Today referred to as the Black Paintings, they are compelling in their sinister and often horrifying scenes with dark, emotional undertones.
    One of the most representative of this series of paintings is "Saturn Devoring his Son", the image shown.
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    Absolutist peruid Ferdubabd IV

    100 mil Hijos de S. Louis
  • Witches' Sabbath or Aquelarre

    Witches' Sabbath or Aquelarre
    Is one of 14 from the Black Paintings series by Goya.
  • Pragmatic Sanction (LOOK FOR DATE)

    When Ferdinand VII was about to die and he had no sons to inherit the throne, just to daughter Isabella and Luisa Fernanda, he passed the Pragmatic Sanction. The Pragmatic Sanction was a document in which he refused to accep the Salic law which said women couldnt rule.
  • Pragmatic Sanction

  • Firts Carlist War

    Firts Carlist War
    It was fought from 1833 until 1839; between supporters of the regent, Maria Christina, who was ruling and acting for the young Isabella II of Spain, and those of the late king's brother, Carlos de Borbón, who wanted to restore an absolute monarchy in which only men could rule and which they felt would protect their individual freedoms (fueros), their nationalism and their religious conservatism. When Ferdinand VII, passed the Pragmatic Sanction, Carlists (Carlos's supporters) attacked.

    Three years after her proclaimation to the throne of Spain, sixteen-year-old queen marry her double-first cousin Francisco de Asís de Borbón. However, there were persistent rumours about her king-consort to be a homosexual.Isabella had twelve children, but only five reached adulthood: Ferdinand, Maria Isabel, Maria Cristina, Alfonso XII, Maria de la Concepción, Maria del Pilar, Maria de la Paz, Francisco de Asis and Eulalia de Asis de la Piedad. In 1868, the Queen was exiled form the country.
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    Isabel II

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    Isabel II

    She wasFredinand VII's doughter and was queen regnant of Spain between 1843 and 1868. She was about to came to the throne when the Carlists refused to recognize a female sovereing. Finally, Ferdinand get to the Cortes Generales in order to abolished the Salic Law, Pragmatic Sanction; and his eldest daughter was abel to be proclaimed the new queen of Spain. As she was just three years old, her mother, Queen Maria Christina became regent on 29 September 1833. In 1843, Isabel II became the Queen.
  • Royal Statute of Spain

    Royal Statute of Spain
    It was based on a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament with elected lower house and appointed Senate.
    During this time, the minimum demand of all liberals was a constitution. Queen Maria Christina, supported conservative liberals against the radicals.
    The Royal Statute, which represented the alliance between respectable upper-middle-class liberals and the crown; was granted by Maria Christina in order to get support from the liberals in the First Carlist War.
  • Constitution of 1837

    Constitution of 1837
    Its main purpose was to restore features of the Spanish Constitution of 1812.
    In 1836 Maria Christina was oblied to name a government dominated by the Progressive Party and created ta new constitution:a mixture of the two lasts contitutions. Its main principles were:national sovereignty,the recognition of rights for citizens,division of powers,an increased role for the Cortes and crown's limitations.
  • Constitution of 1845

    Constitution of 1845
    It ws authored by the "moderados" and backed by the new Narváez government. However, it was passed by the then actual Queen, Isabel II.
    She, with the Cortes del Reino's help, wanted to regularize and regulate the actual need s of the State, at that time. Dhe didn't created it for and specific reason, just because she had just started reigning.
  • Amadeus of Savoy Dynasty

    Amadeus of Savoy Dynasty
    (Birth Date and Father picture) Amadeus of Savoy was the only king of Spain from the House of Savoy. His father was Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. He was king of Sardinia and later the first king of a united Italy. House of Savoy was formed in the early 11th century in Savoy region. It grew from ruling a county to the kingdom of Italty in 1861 till the WWII.
  • Second Carlist War (no exact date)

    Second Carlist War (no exact date)
    Don Carlos took advantage of the instability Isabel lI was facing due to the revolution of 1868, attacking Catalonia,Extremadura and Castille.
    Liberals began an aggressive campaign against Carlists in Catalonia.General Cabrera who commanded the Carlist troops was forced to cross the Catalan frontiers and was arrested in France, his troops crossed the French borders. By May the war was over and the "Isabelina" troops entered Catalonia. Isabella II won round two – the Second Carlist War was over.
  • Draft of the Spanish Constitution

    It was passed by the parliament but wasn't backed or supported by Isabel II as it led moderate liberals to get the power back.
  • Spanish Constitution of 1869

    Spanish Constitution of 1869
    This was the sixth constitution of Spain created and passed during the 19th century.
    It was created by the generals , who had decided to keep the leadership of the revolution in their own hands by changing it into a constitutional monarchy. Although they had to support universal male suffrage in the constitution of 1869, they as the rule told, suppressed republican risings in the summer of that year.
  • Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeus of Savoy
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    Amadeus of Savoy

  • Juan Prim

    Juan Prim
    Juan Prim, 1st Marquis of Catillejos was a Spanish general and statesman, he was Governor of Puerto Rico, military representative and Grande de España. He was a know by leading the military rebellion in 1868 to overthrown the Queen of Spain Isabell II, who went into exile in France. This rebellion is know as "The Glorious Revolution", led by Juan Prim and Francisco Serrano. Then he became president of the council and marshal. One year later in 1870 he was shot by an unknown assasin and died.
  • The Third Carlist War

    The Third Carlist War
    It's often reffered to as the "Second Carlist War" as it isn't as important as the other two and as it didn't have very remarkable consequences.
    Isabel II was in exile, and Amadeo I, proclaimed king in 1870, was not very popular.
    Carlist forces managed to occupy several towns in the interior of Spain and restored Catalonian, Valencian and Aragonese fueros, abolished by Philip V. They managed to lay siege to Bilbao and San Sebastián, but failed. In 1876,the Carlist leader was exiled. War ended.
  • Draft of the Spanish Constitution of 1873

    Draft of the Spanish Constitution of 1873
    During this period of time, there wasa federal republic with an unicameral parliament elected by universal male suffrage. Itw as created mainly due to the wide disagreement over the federalism against the centralist tissue.However, republic was collapsed before even passing the Constituton.
  • I Spanish Republic

    I Spanish Republic
    I Republic is proclaimed in Spain
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    Estanislao Figueras

    First President of the Spanish Republic. He led the Republican Party after Queen Isabella II was overthrown in 1868. He briefly became President after King Amadeo abdicated
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    Francisco Pi i Margall

    Second President of the Spanish Republic. His goverment was declared illegitimate and finally under the pressure from the Cortes and many leading Republicans he was forced to resign.
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    Nicolas Salmeron y Alonso

    He was the third president of the First Spanish Republic. He was forced to resign as he was opposed to capital punishment.
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    Emilio Catelar y Ripoll

    Forth President of the First Spanish Republic. He was forced to resign on 1874 as he had no support, and a provisional government was formed.
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    Francisco Serrano

    Prime Minister, Rgent and President of the First Spanish Republic. Finally on 1875 Alfonso XII ascended the throne and he went to spend some time on France.
  • Restoration of the Monarchy

    Restoration of the Monarchy
    On 29 December 1874 in Sagunto, General Martínez Campos came out in favor of the restoration to the throne of the Bourbon monarchy with Alfonso XII, son of Isabel II. The government of Sagasta did not oppose this announcement, permitting the restoration of the monarchy. It succeeded thanks to the previous work of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo. Picture of Alfonso XII.
  • Spanish Constitution of 1876

    Spanish Constitution of 1876
    After the Spanish Revolution of 1868, a failed Republic, and a Second Carlist War over succession to the throne, Spaniards hoped for order and stability. There was widespread support for the coup that defeated the Spanish Republic in January, 1874,and placed "General Francisco Serrano y Domínguez" in the position of Head of the Executive.The Constitution was backed by the new head of the state,which now was based on a stable political system with power shared by political parties by elections.
  • Spanish Constitution of 1931

    Spanish Constitution of 1931
    It provided a democratic system based on equal rights for all citizens, with provision for regional autonomy.
    It also introduced female suffrage, civil marriage and divorce. It permitted the state to expropriate private property, with compensation, for reasons of broader social utility.
    Finally, it established free, obligatory, secular education for all and dissolved the Jesuits.