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Spain in18th and 19th centuries

  • Charles II

    Charles II
    King Charles II of Spain
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    Charles II Reign

    Charles II of Spain, the last Habsburg king in Spain
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    Age of Enlightenment

    An intellectual movement that recognised reason as the center of everything, the prime source of authority and legitimacy. New ideals were brought forward such as liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state. Some enlightenment thinkers from Spain are Jovellanos, Floridablanca and Goya. Religion ceased to have so much power and the scientific method appeared.
  • War of the Spanish Succesion 1.2

    War of the Spanish Succesion 1.2
    of Austria died, leaving Austria to Charles, and given the desire of balance, having Charles with both Austria and Spain was not a great idea, it was reconsidered, and the Grand Alliance agreed to leave Spain to Philip under the conditions of the Treaty of Utrecht ending the war at last. (http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/plaintexthistories.asp?historyid=ad06) Prince Philip of Anjou, King Philip V of Spain
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    War of the Spanish Succesion

    After the spanish Habsburg king Charles II died without an heir and gave the crown to Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV of France. But the Grand Alliance, worried by France's growing power, formed by England, Prussia and Austria, wanted to crown Archiduke Charles of Austria instead of Philip,the provinces of Catalonia, Aragon and Valencia supported the austrian. When war broke Philip was backed up by France against the Grand Alliance. Finally after a long war, emperor Joseph I ...
  • Act of Settlement

    Act of Settlement
    An order of succesion for the British protestant queen Mary II's heirs. Reinforced "The Bill of Rights". States that the goverment is under control of the sovereign and his or her constitutional advisers/ministers.
    (https://www.royal.uk/act-settlement-0)
    (https://global.britannica.com/event/Act-of-Settlement-Great-Britain-1701)
  • New Foundation Decrees Valencia and Aragon

    A number of decrees signed by Philip V abolishing the charters(fueros) of the territories that didn't support him in the War of the Spanish Succession Valencia, Aragon, Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. The decrees declared that the territories were to be ruled by the laws of Castile. These decrees effectively created a Spanish citizenship allowing anyone to trade with the American colonies; but also abolished internal borders, most institutions and customs whithin the territories...
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    A series individual treaties signed by various european countries in the city of Utrecht. Helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. The objectives of the treaty were to balance the power in the continent by stating that Spain's and France's crowns must never be united, Philip V was to inherit Spain's crown, Britain would gain territories both from Spain and France and would also be awarded the Assiento from Spain, France had to acknowledge The Protestant Succession in...
  • Treaty of Ultrech 1.2

    Treaty of Ultrech 1.2
    England(Act of Settlement). And finally Austria aquired Milan, Naples, Flanders and Sardinia. (http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Treaty_of_Utrecht)
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    British Assiento

    The premit granted from Spain to England in the Treaty of Utrecht, allowing Great Britain to sell a certain quantity of slaves to the spanish colonies in america
    (https://global.britannica.com/topic/asiento-de-negros)
  • New Foundation Decrees Balearic Islands

    New Foundation Decrees Balearic Islands
    The official language for the government was castilian disclaiming any other spanish languages. These decrees were in a way a begining for modernization similiar to other european countries at the time, but also a punishment for those territories that supported the austrian archiduke as king instead of Philip. (https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toma_borb%C3%B3nica_de_Mallorca)
  • New Foundation Decrees Catalonia

    New Foundation Decrees Catalonia
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    War of Polish Succession

    Began when King Augustus II died, leaving two possible candidates for the throne: Stanislas Leszczynski supported by France and Spain and Augustus III backed by Russia and Austria. The main problem was that because Poland was and elective kingdom Stanislas won but Augustus III was the natural heir. Finally the war came to an end when France and Austria signed the Treaty of Vienna where Augustus was the official king.
    (http://www.mariatheresa.com/warofpolishsuccession.html)
  • 1st Family Compact

    1st Family Compact
    Spain recieved France's help to recover territories from Italy in return for Spain's support in the War of the Polish Succession. Isabele Farnese of Parma, Philip V wife, found this compact adequate for her purposes, gain Italian kingdoms for both of her sons. And in 1743 Spain recovered both Naples and Sicily, and under Isabel's orders her older son Charles was to become king of Naples to become the future Charles III.
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    The Family Compacts

    An alliance between France and Spain in which Spain backed French interests. United by the House of Bourbon. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacte_de_Famille)
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    War of Austrian Succession

    After the death of Charles VI, his daughter Maria Theresa couldn't inherit the throne because of a Salic law . France and Prussia attacked allied with the Electorate of Bavaria. Austria had the support of Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Electorate of Saxony. The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. Maria became Austria's Archiduchess and Queen of Hungary, but lost Silesia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_Austrian_Succession)
  • 2nd Family Compact

    2nd Family Compact
    Signed during the Austrian War of Succesion. Philip V's fourth son and younger brother of Charles, Philip, was appointed as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1748 Philip, duke of Parma, Piacenza and Gusatalla
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    The Seven Years War

    Began when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America. Meanwhile in Europe, Austria wanted to recover Silesia from Prussia and had France and Spain as an ally while Prussia had Britain. Because of the Family Pacts France and Spain tried to invide Portugal but failed. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France, Spain and Britain, and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony Austria and Prussia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years'_War)
  • Charles III

    Charles III
    King Charles V of Spain, duke of Parma and Piacenza, Charles I of Naples, Charles VII of Sicily. (https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_III_de_Espa%C3%B1a)
    (http://www.buscabiografias.com/biografia/verDetalle/5480/Carlos%20III)
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    Charles III Reign

    King Charles V of Spain
  • 3rd Family Compact

    3rd Family Compact
    Made by King Charles V of Spain and King Louis XV. Created during the Seven Years War where France and by consequence Spain, supported Austria and Britain supported Prussia. When the war ended in 1768 with the "Treaty of Paris" Britain gaining Quebec and Florida, Spain also recovered Havana and Manila and obtained Louisiana from France. But in 1770 when the American colonies began to revolt France not only recognised them but send them troops against the British .
  • Treaty of Paris 1763

    Treaty of Paris 1763
    Signed after the Seven Year War by Great Britain, France, Spain and Portugal. After the British victory over France and Spain. In this treaty many territories in America were exchanged between Great Britain, France and Spain. This treaty ended the Spanish Succession War and the Seven Years War.
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  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    Ocurred during the rule of King Charles III. Caused mainly because of the rising cost of bread and other basic items. Began when Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marques de Esquilache, wanted to forbid the wearing of traditional garnments of long capes and broad-brimed hats that men wore, replacing them for french-styled short capes and three-cornered hats. The purpose for this was to modernize the appearance of a conservative spanish society and improve public safety. Esquilache Riots by Goya
  • Esquilache Riots 1.2

    Esquilache Riots 1.2
    Everything began on a Plam sunday at 4 o' clock when men wearing the forbbiden garments crossed Antón Martín's square and soldiers confronted them, marking the beginning of the riots. Lots of public property was destroyed. And on March 24 the rioters marched towards where the king was residing in the Arco de la Armería de Palacio. A priest made himself a rioter representative and presented himeslf to the king with the riots petition: Hats and Capes by José Martí y Monsó
  • Esquilache Riots 1.3

    Esquilache Riots 1.3
    That the minister Esquilache and all of his family leave Spain.
    That there only be Spanish ministers in the government.
    That the Walloon Guard be disbanded.
    That the price of basic goods be lowered.
    That the Juntas de Abastos be suppressed.
    That the troops withdraw to their respective headquarters.
    That the use of the long cape and broad-brimmed hat be permitted.
    That His Majesty show himself and speak from his own mouth his desire to fulfill and satisfy these demands. Marqués de Esquilache
  • Esquilache Riots 1.4

    The king accepted the peoples demands but retreated to Aranjuez with his family and ministers including Esquilache. The people, learning of the kings retreat, surrounded the house of the Bishop of Cartagena and president of the Council of Castile, who informed the king of the situation, to which he replied that he would comply the peoples demands. However he remained in Aranjuez after dismissing Esquilache to Venice. https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Esquilache%20Riots&item_type=topic
  • Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos 1.2

    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos 1.2
    ambassador in Russia but he denied. He became the Minister of Grace and Justice, where he tried to reform justice and disminish the influence of the Inquisition. Later he planed the creation of an Asturian academy with the idea to teach the history and Asturian language. His main works were essays about economy, politics, agriculture, philosophie, and customs with an enlightenment point of view. (https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaspar_Melchor_de_Jovellanos) Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos by Goya
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    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

    Writer, poet, politician and Enlightenment thinker. He was a member of the "Real Academia de la Historia", "Real Academia de San Fernando" and "Real Academia Española". He was exiled from the court to his homeland, during this time he traveled to the north of Spain to learn about the situation of coal mines, he projected the idea of a mine road. He created the "Real Instituto Asturiano de Náutica y Mineralogía" where he tried to teach with Enlightenment ideas. He was offered by Godoy to be
  • Jesuit Expulsion from Spain

    Jesuit Expulsion from Spain
    Being suspected of having meddled in the Esquilache Riots, the jesuits were in bad terms with the crown. The king's and his ministers kept their deliberations to themselves. On january 29 the orders to expulse the jesuits were sent. Secret orders, to be opened at sunrise on April 2, were sent to all provincial viceroys and district military commanders in Spain.
  • Jesuits Expulsion from Spain 1.2

    Jesuits Expulsion from Spain 1.2
    Each sealed envelope contained two documents: One was a copy of the original order expelling "all members of the Society of Jesus" from Charles's Spanish domains and confiscating all their goods. The other instructed local officials to surround the Jesuit colleges and residences on the night of April 2, arrest the Jesuits and arrange their passage to ships awaiting them at various ports. Despite Pope Clement XIII threats of eternal damnation, the expulsion took place as planed.
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    Louis XVI

    King Louis XVI of France. King of France during the French Revolution
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    The War of the Thirteen Colonies

    Ocurred when the 13 british colonies in America didn't recognize themselves as British and rejected Brithish control. It began when the British Empire taxed the colonies for basic goods, so many protests happened, like the Boston Tea Party. In answer to these protests, Britain passed the Intolerable Acts, restricting the colonies even more and creating more discontent. The first draft of the Constitution was made by Benjamin Franklin. The war finally ended with the Declaration of Independence.
  • Age of Enlightenment

    Age of Enlightenment
    Royal Botanical Gardens of Madrid, created during the period of the Enlightenment
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    Conde de Floridablanca

    An Enlightenment politician, Minster for Charles III and Charles IV . He created the "Dirección General de Caminos" in 1785. He oriented Spanish exterior politics reinforcing Spain against Britain. He helps the rebels in the Revolution of the 13 Colonies and recovered Menorca and Florida. He signed the Treaty of San Ildefonso. He built the "Canal Imperial de Aragon" which is still used to this day.
    (https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conde_de_Floridablanca)
  • Treaty of Paris 1783

    Treaty of Paris 1783
    Treaty signed between King George III of Great Britain, and the representatives of the United States of America. The treaty sets boundaries between The British Empire and the United States. The treaty ended the War of the 13 Colonies.
  • Charles IV

    Charles  IV
    King Charles IV of Spain
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    Charles IV Reign

    When he became king, he mantained Count of Floridablanca as his minister, who would then be replaced by the Count of Aranda, who would also be replaced by Manuel Godoy, who had the favour of the king. He was forced to abdicate by Napoleon along with his son Ferdinand VII.
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    The French Revolution

    Generated by the general discontent of the people, caused by a terrible harvest and draught, the exsesive spending of the crown, the help of France for the War of the 13 colonies, unjust social divison, and Enlightenment ideas. And in July 14th 1789 people stormed the Bastille, a prison and symbol of the king's power. After a great deal of struggle the revolution ended with Napoleon's coup d'état in 1799.
  • Manuel Godoy

    Manuel Godoy
    Minister Manuel Godoy (http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/g/godoy.htm) Manuel Godoy by Agustín Esteve
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    Manuel Godoy

    Was a prime minister and was believed to be lover of King Charles IV's wife, María Teresa but had the favour of both kings. He signed the Peace of Basel and the Treaty of San Ildefonso. He tried to save King Louis XVI from the guillotine.
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    War of the First Coalition

    The first attempt by the European monarchies to defeat the First French Republic both by sea and land.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Because of the discontent during the French Revolution and Enlightenment ideas, Louis XVI, king of France at the time, had to escape the country. While on the run to Austria, he was captured in Varennes along with his family and arrested. Later he was tried for high treason and declared guilty. He was guillotined at the "Place de la Révolution" in Paris. He was the first victim of the Reign of Terror.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Execution_of_Louis_XVI) Louis XVI
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    War of The Pyrenees

    This war was fought in the eastern and western Pyrenees, at sea and at the French port of Toulon. Fearing the republican ideals of France caused for Spain to create an alliance with France's greatest enemy, Britain, declaring war to Spain and Portugal. Because of Spanish deficencies in leadership the French were able to enter Catalonia, Navarre and basque provinces. The war was ended with a treaty signed in Basle.The French retired but Spain had to cede half of Santo Domingo Island to the French
  • Peace of Basel

    Peace of Basel
    Three treaties concerning France during the French Revolution. The first treaty stated peace between France and Prussia. The second treaty ended the War of the Pyrenees. And finally the third treaty concluded the Stage of the French Revolutionary War against the First Coalition. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Basel) Central Europe After the Peace of Basel
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Treaty of San Ildefonso
    A militar alliance between France and Spain. In it both countries agreed to mantain a militar policy against Great Britain which threatend the Spanish float while on trips to America. Signed by Manuel Godoy representative of Charles IV of Spain, and the french general Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon. Signed in the poyal palace of "La Granja de San Ildefonso". Manuel Godoy
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  • Peace of Amiens

    Peace of Amiens
    A treaty between Great Britain and France, in which hostilities were temporarily ended. Signed by Joseph Bonaparte from France and Marquess Cornwallis from Britain. In this treaty Britain recognised the French Republic, dropped its historical claim to the now dead French Kingdom and marked the end of the Second Coalition in which it had waged war against Revolutionary France since 1798. This treaty only lasted one year. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Amiens)
  • Napoleon is crowned emperor

    Napoleon is crowned emperor
    Napoleon crowned himself emperor at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. He wanted to establish legitimacy of his imperial reign with the a new nobility and royal family. He wanted his ceremony to be different to that of the past kings, so he brought toghether an assortment of different rites and customs. The ceremony cost was over 8.5 million francs. Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    When the "Peace of Amiens" ceased, the War of the Third Coalition began, in which France and Spain went against Great Britain. Napoleon was determined to conquer Britain, but to do this, he had to control the the English Chanel, which could only be done if the British Royal Navy didn't interfere, that is the reason this battle began. Under the leadership of Horatio Nelson, Britain found victory. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/trafalgar_01.shtml The Battle by J.M.WTurner
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    Signed between France and Spain with Napoleon I and Charles IV as representatives. Under this treaty France and Spain agreed to attack and take possesion of Portugal, which was divided into three regions the Entre-Douro-e-Minho Province, given to the Crown of Etrúria in exchange of Tuscany, the Principality of the Algarves giving its control to Manuel Godoy, and the remaining territories, which were to be arranged in the future. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Fontainebleau_(1807)
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Napoleon forced both King Charles IV and his son Ferdinand to abdicate the throne so he could crown his brother Joseph as King of Spain. This was the cause of the Spanish War of Independence. (https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Abdications%20of%20Bayonne&item_type=topic) Joseph Bonaparte, called mockingly "Pepe Botella" or "rey pepino" by the spanish people.
  • Ferdinand VII 1st Reign

    Ferdinand VII 1st Reign
    After becoming king he abolished the Constitution of 1812, La Pepa, and ruled as an absolute monarch and repressed any liberal thinking. During this reign he aggravated Spain's financial problems and restored the jesuits. Portrait of Ferdinand VII of Spain in his robes of state by Goya, who despised him.
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    Ferdinand VII Reign

    Son of Charles IV, was forced to abdicate by Napoleon. Was called "El deseado" by Spanish people durign Joseph Bonaparte's reign. He finally recovered the throne for the first time with the Treaty of Valençay on March 19th 1808. His reign can be divided into three periods.
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    Peninsular War

    After Napoleon made Charles IV and his son Ferdinand abdicate, he placed his brother Joseph on the throne, which caused major discontent with the Spanish people who had national pride and devotion to religion. The people had no cohersive plans and weren't organised, but they were difficult to subdue and constantly harassed the French. The British sent a force under the order of the Duke of Wellington, defeating the French. During the war there were two governments Central Council and Joseph I
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    Joseph I Reign

    Brother of Napoleon Bonaparte I, became King of Spain after his brother forced the Bourbon king Charles IV and his son Ferdinand VII to abdicate the throne. He was highly disliked by the Spanish people and nicknamed "Pepe Botella" and "El rey Pepino" by them.
  • Joseph I

    Joseph I
    Joseph Bonaparte I King of Spain, and older brother of Napoleon.
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    Known as "La Pepa", its the first proper Spanish constitution. Signed in Cádiz during the Spanish War of Independence, was the reaction of the people against Napoleon. This constitution was linked with the traditional laws of the Spanish Monarchy but at the same time, incorporated liberalist principles, such as the separation of powers, national sovereignity, universal male suffrage, right to privacy, freedom of the press and the prohibition of torture. It also states a constitutional monarchy.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    Intended the a preliminary to a full peace treaty between France and Spain. The agreement provided the restoration of Ferdinand VII of Spain. Whithin the treaty there was included an armistice which neither countries respected.
  • Ferdinand VII 2nd Reign

    Ferdinand VII 2nd Reign
    It's considered as the liberal period, however Ferdinand did all in his power to resist it. In this time he restored the Constitution because of Riego's "pronunciamiento". (http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/f/fernando_vii.htm)
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_VII_of_Spain) Triumphal welcome of Ferdinand at Valencia
  • Riego's Pronunciamiento

    Riego's Pronunciamiento
    A coup d'état by the liberal military leaded by comander Rafael de Riego, who forced Ferdinand VII to restore the 1812 constitution he had abolished. This ended Ferdinand's absolute monarchy. (http://www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/pronunciamiento%20de%20riego.html) Commander Rafael de Riego
  • Ferdinand VII 3rd Reign

    Ferdinand VII 3rd Reign
    Called the Ominous Decade, during this period he strongly executed his vindictive hate against liberalism, prosecuting any liberal thinkers and harshly punishing any liberal thoughts. He asked the Holy Alliance to help him re-establish the absolutism. It was also during this period he did the Pragmatic Sanction to abolish the Salic Law and allow his daughter Isabel II to ascend the throne and causing his brother Carlos's anger. Main countries belonging to the Holy Alliance
  • Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis

    Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis
    A French contingent, with Spanish volunteers, sent to Spain by the Holy Alliance in defence of the ancièn régime of Ferdinand VII against Riego's Pronunciamiento. This contingent would be comanded by the Duke of Angoulême. (http://paseandohistoria.blogspot.com.es/2012/12/los-cien-mil-hijos-de-san-luis.html) Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême
  • Pragmatic Sanction, Slaic Law

    Pragmatic Sanction, Slaic Law
    King Ferdinand VII having fathered only two daughters wouldnt be able to heir the throne to them because of the Slaic Law, which forbid any female descendant to inherit the crown. As consecuense he brought forward the Pragmatic Sanction, in which the Slaic Law was partly abolished, dictating that women were able to get the throne if there was no male heir. But Ferdindand VII's brother Charles was the last heir to the throne, so he wasn't in favour of the Pragmatic Sanction. Ferdinand VII
  • Carlos María Isidro de Borbón

    Carlos María Isidro de Borbón
    Carlos VII. Suitor of the Spanish throne during the Carlist Wars.
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    Three Carlist Wars

    Divided in three wars. It was a dispute for the throne between the last king's, Fernando VII, brother, Carlos María Isidro de Borbón and his daughter Isabel II. But also a battle between ideologies with absolute monarchy and religion by Carlos's side and the liberal and progressive by Isabel's side. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlist_Wars)
    (https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerras_Carlistas)
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    First Carlist War

    The main conflict centered on Carlist homelands of the Basque Country, Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia.
  • Isabel II

    Isabel II
    mother and General Espartero where regents. She was forced to marry her cousin Francisco de Asís, who was homosexual, causing her to have many affaires during her life and having 12 children. She finally had to flee to France with the Glorious Revolution. Queen Isabel II of Spain
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    Isabel II Reign

    Ferdinand VII's daughter. Was only able to ascend the throne because of the Pragmatic Sanction. She was favoured by the liberal ministers, and had the support of two liberal parties, the moderate liberal party, who favoured a stronger monarchy; and the progressive party who wanted to limit royal power. During her reign several constitutions were proposed and limited male suffrage was established, the military also participated in politics. Because she was very young when she became queen, her
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    Second Carlist War

    A minor Catalan uprising where the rebels tried to install Carlos on the throne. Also happened in Galicia but on a smaller scale.
  • Canal de Castilla

    Canal de Castilla
    Its main objective was to connect isolated parts of the countryand to use as a transport and comunication route. It was proposed by the Marqués de la Ensenada to Ferdinand VI, and originally only meant for Castille. The engineer Antonio de Ulloa presented the "Proyecto General de los Canales de Navegación y Riego para los Reinos de Castilla y León”. Its construction began in July 16th of 1753 but due to many mishaps wouldnt be used until 1849.
    (http://www.canaldecastilla.org)
  • Treaty of Ostend

    Treaty of Ostend
    Signed by the Progresist Party and Democrat Party by iniciative of Juan Prim. And although its main objective was to topple Queen Isabel II, it also provides many liberal rights, male universal suffrage, division of powers, religious tolerance, etc. (https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacto_de_Ostende)
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution

    Spanish Glorious Revolution
    A military rebellion against Isabel II, led by Juan Prim and Francisco Serrano depriving her of all military support and causing her to flee to France. This marks the first attempt in Spain for a democratic political regime with the parliamentary monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy. Caused by an economic and political crisis and the Pact of Ostend. After Isabela left Spain a Provisional Government was implemented. Later Spain searched for a monarch and decided on Amadeo de Saboya. Juan Prim
  • Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeus of Savoy
    Amadeus I of Spain, known most of his life as the Duke of Aosta. Was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy. Briefly became King of Sain for three years after abdicating.
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    The second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy. After Isabel was overthrown, the Spanish Parliament elected him as the new monarch. But only lasted three years due the general opposition. He abdicated because both reublicans and carlists rejected him, and Isabela's son Alfonso followers also opposed him. Cuba's independent movement likewise became a strong reason. After his reign the First Republic of Spain began. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amadeo_I_of_Spain)
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    Third Carlist War

    After Isabel's abdication in 1868, and the Parliament crowned Amadeo of Savoy. In 1872 the Spanish elections resulted in government violence against Carlist candidates, Carlos VII, the Carlist pretender, decided only force would grant him the throne.
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    First Republic

    Began whith Amadeus of Savoy's abdication. It was the first time Spain had a republican government. But was short-lived because of many problems such as demands for greater regional autonomy in Andalucia, Levante and Cataluña, the division of republicans, the Third Carlist War. So in 1874 monarchy was restored with Alfonso XII, Isabel II's son, to reign with a new liberal constitution .
  • Alfonso XII

    Alfonso XII
    Nicknamed as "El Pacificador". His reign ended the First Republic and began the period of the Restoration. He was the first soldier king in Spain, so there could be no coup d'état. He died at a very young age, 27 years old, of tuberculosis. (https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_XII_de_Espa%C3%B1a)
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    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7krHyBu2Css) This song was sang by rebel cuban troops and talks about the remembrance of the Burn of Bayamo by cuban independists.
    More information here: (https://spapesenti.wordpress.com/2014/11/10/conociendo-con-canciones-la-independencia-de-cuba-y-su-importancia/)
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    Cuban War

    Occurred after the Ten Years War and the Little War, where Cuba fought against Spain for liberation. The final three months of the conflict became the Spanish-American War when United States sent forces to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands against Spain. And after loosing Puerto Rico and the Philipines, Spain and USA signed a Protocol of Peace, in which Spain gave up Cuba, and then on december 10th signed the Treaty of Paris recognising Cuban Independence.
  • Treaty of Paris 1898

    Treaty of Paris 1898
    Agreement between Spain and USA. Where Spain relinquished nearly all of the remaining colonies. Gave up Cuba and recognised its independence, and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philipines to the United States. This treaty marked the end of the Spanish Empire and ended the Spanish-American War.. It came into effect on April 11, 1899.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_(1898) John Hay, Secretary of State, signing the memorandum of ratification on behalf of USA