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Unit 5 Enlightenment and Revolutions

By BFeu
  • Apr 10, 1400

    Johannes Gutenberg

    Johannes Gutenberg
    Johannes Gutenberg contributed to the humanist movement in a very important way. By printing the first book in Europe, the spread of information became easier as well as making the information easier to read. Although he is given credit for his work, without the Chinese invention of paper, his printing would not have been possible.
  • Jan 1, 1451

    The Printing Press

    The Printing Press
    The first book printed in Europe was the Bible. It was printed by Johannes Gutenberg. Although this was not the first book ever printed, it was the first one to be printed in Europe. Within fifty years, the printing press would transform Europe by making easily readable texts and making information more easily accessable.
  • Jan 1, 1451

    Gutenberg Bible

    Gutenberg Bible
    The Bible was the first book to be printed by Johannes Gutenberg. This was printed around 1451. Even though it was the first book to be printed in Europe, the first book actually to actually be printed was printed in Korea about 50 years before.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1543 to

    Scientific Revolution

    The developments of scientific ideas, methods, and theories that developed the views of society. If an idea or discovery was made before this time, it was likely validated during. This revolution prompted the intellectual/social movement that is the Enlightenment.
  • Feb 15, 1564

    Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei
    Galileo Galilei played a large part in the scientific revolution. His main contribution was the discovery of a heliocentric solar system, which puts the earth in a orbit around the sun instead of the opposite, which many people at the time thought to be true. This went against the church and Galileo was forced to step down from his position, but was later vindicated by other scientists during the scientific revolution
  • Apr 23, 1564

    William Shakespeare

    William Shakespeare
    William Shakespeare is considered to be one of the greatest playwrites of all time. He used accounts of settlers in Virginia to spark his vivid imagination. This was similar to many people's thoughts in the early 1600s.
  • Thomas Hobbes

    Thomas Hobbes was a philosopher from England who is known for work on political philosophy. The most well known book written by Hobbes is the Leviathan, which was the foundation for most political philosophy in the West. Hobbes also believed that all men were naturally equal and that most government decisions should be based on the people's decisions.
  • King Charles I

    King Charles I
    King Charles I was the cause of the English Civil War. After demanding more money from Parliament, he arrested several leaders on treason charges. He fleed London, and the English Civil War began. When he died in 1649, the civil war ended.
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    John Locke is considered to be one of the most influential figures during the Enlightenment period. His work influenced many Scottish thinkers, as well as revolutionaries in America. Locke wrote the Two Treatises of Government, which dealt with a person's natural rights and political philosophy.
  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    The English Civil War was caused by the fleeing of London, which started the war. His flee was caused by King Charles I arresting several members of Parliament. King Charles's death signified the end of the English Civil War.
  • Sir Isaac Newton

    Sir Isaac Newton
    Isaac Newton is recognized as a key figure in the scientific revolution. He created laws of motion and gravity as well as practiced calculus. Finally, his creation of the first telescope paved the way for further studies of the stars.
  • Period: to

    The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment is a period in history where began to emphasize reason instead of tradition. It reformed society by using reason and the scientific meathod. The beginning of this time originated from philosophers such as Francis Bacon and John Locke.
  • Leviathan

    Leviathan was written by Thomas Hobbes. It deals with society and government structure, and is known as of the earliest and most influential examples of the social contract theory. This book shows how Thomas Hobbes believed that civil war could only be avoided by a strong, undivided government.
  • Principia

    The Principia was written by Isaac Newton that holds his work on the principles of gravity and motion. Newton later came out with two more editions of the Principia after revising his first copy. The Principia is considered to be one of the most important works in scientific history.
  • Two Treatises of Government

    Two Treatises of Government
    The Two Treatises of Government has to deal with political philosophy and was written by John Locke. The First Treatise talks about patriarchilism. The Secon Treatise deals with Locke's idea for a better society based on a person's natural rights.
  • Baron de Montesquieu

    Baron de Montesquieu
    Montesquieu is a French political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment period. He is known for his ideas of speration of power in the government (executive, legislative, judicial), ending slavery, and equality. These views are expressed in his book "The Spirit of Laws".
  • Period: to

    European Agricultural Revolution

    The agricultural revolution was a time when there was a huge increase in the production of food. By 1750, the output of food was higher than the population at the time, allowing for the population of England to grow above 5.5 million for the first time. Because the agricultural revolution freed up labor from growing crops, it is often seen as a leading cause of the industrial revolution.
  • Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet)

    Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet)
    Voltaire is known for his attacks on the Catholic Church and advocacy for seperation between church and government. He was also a talented writer, with his works ranging from plays, poems, essays, and research papers. He used these papers to express his opinions on intolerance and religion.
  • Jean-Jacques Rosseau

    Jean-Jacques Rosseau
    Jean-Jacques Rosseau was a writer on political philosophy who had a great influence on the French Revolution. He also had a minor influence and had similar ideas to leaders in the colonies in America. Rosseau was also an author and composer, writing many novels and what we know to be the first modern autobiography.
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    Adam Smith was a Scottish political econominst who was alive during the Enlightenment period. He is most known for his two books "The Theory of Moral Sentiments" and "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations". Smith is credited to be the "father of modern economics" and influences economists even today.
  • James Watt

    James Watt
    James Watt was a Scottish mechanical engineer who made improvements to the steam engine. These changes very much helped the rest of the world throughout the Industrial Revolution. The unit "watt" is named after him.
  • Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson is a Founding Father of the United States of America and is the third president of the US. He was a strong advocate of democracy as well as the rights of man. Jefferson was a significant figure in American politics before, during, and after the colonies won freedom from Great Britain. He is also known to be one of many Enlighenment leaders.
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture

    Toussaint L'Ouverture
    Toussaint L'Ouverture led the Haitian Revolution. He was an extremely good leader as well as a political one. The success of this revolution was a shock to the whole world.
  • The Spirit of Laws

    The Spirit of Laws
    The author of the Spirit of Laws is Montesquieu. This treatise was first published anonomously as Montesquieu and his work were subject to censorship. The Spirit of Laws also had an impact on the Founding Fathers of America and the United States Constitution. This treatise covers things such as laws, a constitutional government, power seperation, and ending slavery.
  • Miguel Hidalgo

    Miguel Hidalgo
    Miguel Hidalgo was a Mexican priest who lead throughout the Mexican war for independence. He gave the poor a famous speech "The Cry of Dolores". This urged them to rebel against the Spanish born.
  • King Louis XVI

    King Louis XVI
    King Louis XVI was the French king who is known for ultimately sparking the French Revolution. He was also the first king to call upon the Estates-General to meet, which had not been done for over 100 years. He was finally executed during the French Revolution.
  • Factory System

    Factory System
    The Factory System is a method of manufacturing which originated from England,but later spread to other places. This system replaced the Cottage Industry (Putting-Out System). The main idea behind this system is the use of machinery.
  • Marie Antoinette

    Marie Antoinette
    Marie Antoinette was the Austrian wife of King Louis XVI. They were married in an attempt to bring France and Austria closer together. She received the nickname "Bloody Mary" as she would have many people exeuted. She is seen as one of the main causes of the French Revolution as she spent money on many needless things.
  • Capitalism

    Captialism picked up in Europe as Mercantilism began to decline. This is the start of factory manufacturing systems, divisions of labor, and routine tasks during work. This also gave rise to the production of cash crops.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution was a time of transfering to new manufacturing ways such as machines and chemical manufacturing. Textiles were a very dominant market during this time. This was the first time a person's income maintained a steady growth.
  • The Social Contract

    The Social Contract
    Originating from the Enlightenment Age, the Social Contract is a political theory that questions the origin of society. It also questions the legitimacy of the person who is currently in charge of a state. Finally, it questions a persons ability to surrender some of their natural rights to a ruler for protection rights.
  • Period: to

    American Revolution

    This political conflict was between the American colonies and Great Britain. It was caused by political and social transformations in the society in the colonies, as well as unfair taxes being implemented upon them. This eventually lead to the Revolutionary War, the creation of the Constitution and Declaration of Independence, and ultimately the breaking away of the colonies from Great Britain.
  • Jose Maria Morelos

    Jose Maria Morelos
    Jose Maria Morelos was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and rebel leader during the revolution. He led the movement for the Mexican War for Independence. Morelos assumed the leadership after the death of Miguel Hidalgo.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte
    Napoleon Bonaparte was a military and political leader who gained power in France after the French Revolution. He won many important battles and his war tactics are studied worldwide. He is regarded as on of the greatest military leaders in history. When he took power in France, he was very well liked by French citizens.
  • The Wealth of Nations

    The Wealth of Nations
    "The Wealth of Nations" is written by Adam Smith. It describes how a nation builds its wealth and is known today as one of the most important works on classical economy. The book deals with economics during the Industrial Revolutions as well as division of labor and free markets.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence is the document written by the Continental Congress which declared the American colonies to be independent from Great Britain. This document is the inspiration to many other documents written for the same reason around the world. The Declaration of Independence is the foundation of American politics.
  • USA Independence Date

    USA  Independence Date
    The United States gained their independence from Great Britain. They wrote the Declaration of Independence to garuntee their freedom. They went on to win the Revolutionary War.
  • Jose De San Martin

    Jose De San Martin
    Jose De San Martin was born in Argentina and was a key figure in the struggle for freedom from the Spanish. After organizing a new army, he liberated Chile from Spanish rule. He is known to be a a hero in Peru and Argentina.
  • Simon Bolivar

    Simon Bolivar
    Simon Bolivar, born in Venezuela, was a political and military leader. He is known to be a key figure in the successful independence battle in Latin America. Bolivar is also known to a prominent figure politics throughout the Americas.
  • Steam Engine

    Steam Engine
    The improved steam engine was created by James Watt. It had already been created nearly 100 years before, but Watt made it much more efficient. The steam engine was powered by coal.
  • American Constitution

    American Constitution
    The American Constitution is the the ultimate law of the United States. It deals with the seperation of power, courts, federalism, and mcuh more. So far, the Constitution has been amended 27 times.
  • First Estates

    First Estates
    The First Estates was made of clergy. The clergy only made up 1% of the French population. They also owned 10% of the land in France, which was the highest per capita in any of the Esatates. Finally, the First Estates was tax exempt.
  • Second Estates

    Second Estates
    The Second Esates was made of nobility. The nobility made up 1% of the French population. This Estate had a monopoly held over most government services.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a time of upheaval in France. It was caused by King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette. The Third Estates was always being shot down with what they wanted, even though they had 98% of the people in their party.
  • Estates General

    Estates General
    The Estates General was the first meeting of the Three Estates for over 100 years. This meeting was called by King Louis XVI in an attempt to fix the financial crisis in France. Eventually, the Third Estate turned itself into the National Assembly as it felt it was not getting sufficient say in the voting. This was the beginning of the French Revolution.
  • National Assembly

    National Assembly
    TheNational Assembly was created from the people of the Third Estate, who felt they were not getting enough say in the government at the Estates General. The beginning of the French Revolution started here.
  • Jacobins

    The Jacobins were an influential club dealing with politics that were around during the French Revolution. Over 400,000 people were part of this club during the revolution. After the execution of Robespierre, the club was closed.
  • Bastille Day

    Bastille Day
    The prison in France was a symbol of monarchy and abuse. This was a high point of the French Revolution. After taking control of the Bastille, the revolutionaries tore down the prison.
  • Period: to

    Haitian Revolution

    The Haitian Revolution is different from other revolutions because it is the only one where slaves revolted and won their freedom. It is considered the most successful rebellion ever. Haiti became an independent state on the first day of 1804.
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Women

    A Vindication of the Rights of Women
    "A Vindication of the Rights of Women" is written by Mary Wollstonecraft. It is known as one of the earliest writings about feminist philosophy. In her work, Wollstonecraft calls for equality between the two sexes. She sent this into the French government during the revolution.
  • Comittee on Public Safety

    Comittee on Public Safety
    The Comittee on Public Safety was the executive government during the Reign of Terror in France during the French Revolution. This comittee was given rule over the military efforts as well as judicial and legislative branches of government. It became most powerful under the leadership of Maximilien Robespierre.
  • Guillotine

    The Guillotine was a device used to execute or behead someone. It was seen as a humane way to kill as it was quick and painless. Over 40,000 people were killed by the guillotine during the Reign of Terror.
  • Bank of France

    Bank of France
    The Bank of France was France's central bank. Its main job was to adjust the intrest rate when times required it. The people in charge of the different banks throughout the country during the time of the revolution helped Napoleon Bonaparte rise to power.
  • Haiti Independence Date

    Haiti  Independence Date
    The Haitian Revolution was the first revolt to be won by slaves. They went on be the first state to be formed by slaves in a revolt. This is considered to be the most successful rebellion in history.
  • Napoleonic Code

    Napoleonic Code
    The Napoleonic Code was the civil code written by Napoleon Bonaparte. It stated that government jobs went to the most qualified, as well as freedom of religion. This code was a big step in replacing old French laws.
  • Columbia Independence Date

    Columbia Independence Date
    Columbia gained its independence from Spain. Simon Bolivar played a large part in helping Columbia gain their freedom. An emergency government of a Supreme Central Junta also helped the independence push.
  • Mexico Independence Date

    Mexico Independence Date
    Mexico gained their independence from the Spanish. Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Maria Morelos were key figures who pushed Mexico towards independence. A civil war followed the Mexicans' push for independence.
  • Paraguay Independence Date

    Paraguay Independence Date
    Paraguay fought for its independence from Spain.Jose Gaspar Rodriguez Francia was a key figure in this revolt. He reudced the power of the curch in his first rule of Paraguay.
  • Venezuela Independence Date

    Venezuela Independence Date
    Venezuela gained their independence from Spain. Simon Bolivar played a huge part in the independence battle. Without him, Venezuela would not have gained lasting independence.
  • Argentina Independence Date

    Argentina Independence Date
    Argentina gained its independence from Spain. The main leader behind the revolution in Argentina is Jose De San Martin. They declared thieir full independence from Spain written in a national constitution.
  • Karl Marx

    Karl Marx
    Karl Marx is a German economist who was had a major impact on labor and capital. Collectively, his theories on economy are known as "Marxism". His ideas suggest that society progress thorugh the struggle of classes.
  • Chile Independence Date

    Chile Independence Date
    Chile gained its independence from Spain. Although Chile wrote their declaration of independence in 1818, Spain did not recognize them as independent until 1844. This was when full diplomatic relations were established.
  • Peru Independence Date

    Peru Independence Date
    Peru gained its independence from Spain. Jose De San Martin was a key figure in this push for independence. Simon Bolivar was also very influential.
  • Ecuador Independence Date

    Ecuador Independence Date
    Ecuador gained its independence from Spain. The Battle of Pinchincha ended this war for independence in Ecuador's favor. This brought independence for all of Ecuador.
  • Brazil Independence Date

    Brazil Independence Date
    Brazil gained its independence from Portugal. A treaty between the two countries confirms the independence. The push for independence was casued by political upheaval.
  • Bolivia Independence Date

    Bolivia Independence Date
    Bolivia gained its independence from Spain. This began with establishing a juntas government. Simon Bolivar played a large part in helping Bolivia gain independence.
  • Uruguay Independence Date

    Uruguay Independence Date
    Uruguay gained its independence from Brazil. Juan Antonio Lavalleja was a key figure in this struggle. This led to a 500 day war.
  • The Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto
    "The Communist Manifesto" was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It has been known as a very influential political script. Instead of describing future communism, it suggested problems with capitalism.
  • Petroleum

    The first "modern" oil well to be built was in Pennsylvania. At first it was mainly used for lamps and heaters, but later it was replaced with light bulbs. Gasoline, and unwanted byproduct of oil mining, was not used until 1914 when cars where mass produced.
  • Interchangeable Parts

    Interchangeable Parts
    Interchangable Parts are components that are very identical. They are made this way so that they can be put into any same production line. This allowed for goods to be easier produced or fixed.
  • Bessemer Process

    Bessemer Process
    Henry Bessemer took out the patent on this process. It was the first inexpensive way to create steel. This process had been used before, but not for industrial purposes. This allowed for many steel buildings to be built.
  • Vladimir Lenin

    Vladimir Lenin
    Vladimir Lenin was a Russian communist who lead the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. His ideas were similar to Marxism, and his theories were named Leninism. These theories come together to be known as Marxism-Leninism.
  • Electricity

    Electricity had been known before the 18th century, but wasn't used in factories or for manufacturing. During this time, power stations began to be built. Electricity allowed for major things such as the assembly line and mass production to come into play.
  • Period: to

    Mexican Revolution

    Over time, this revolution changed from a struggle for freedom into a civil war with power shifting often. After constant shifts of power, the Mexican Constitution of 1917 was finally produced. This conflict is known as one of the greatest upheavals of the 20th century.
  • Period: to

    Rusian Revolution

    The Russian Revolution removed the Tsarist autocracy and created the Russian SFSR. There was a civil war which lasted for years after the actual revolution ended. During this time, peasants took over land and redistributed it.
  • Communism

    Communism is a variant of the popular ideas of Karl Marx's Marxism. The Russian Revolution led to the control of Russia eventually falling to Joseph Stalin. Communism is a system in which many areas of society are controlled in an attempt to establish order.
  • Declaration of the Rights on the Man and Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights on the Man and Citizen
    The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen is a document written during the French Revolution. It states that all humans have natural rights no matter who or where they are. It was partly inspired by the American Revolution, but later on went on to influence other documents worldwide.
  • Cottage Industry

    Cottage Industry
    The Cottage Industry was a way of work at a person's own home instead of in a factory. Many goods made in the Cottage Industry were unique, but this system has many disadvantages when competing against a factory business. This system was popular with farmers so that they could make money all year round instead of just growing season.