Spain in 18th and 19th centuries

  • Isabel de Farnesio

    Isabel de Farnesio
    She was the second wife of Philip V, Queen consort of Spain (reigned 1700–46) who exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy. Her ambitions to secure Italian possessions for her children embroiled Spain in wars and intrigues for three decades. Her son Charles beacame the king of Naples and Sicily. Her other son, Philip, the duke of Parma. Her capability in choosing able and devoted ministers, however, brought about beneficial internal reforms and succeeded in improving Spain’s economy.
  • Death of Charles II

    Death of Charles II
    he died without descendants
  • Philip V

    Philip V
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    Philip V

    the spirited. he had a mental illness, and abdicated in january 1724, and he gave the throne to his son Louis I. Louis reigned during 8 months because he died, and Philip V continued his reign in August 1724
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    War of Spanish Succesion

    -treaty of utrecht, reaty of rastatt and treaty of baden.
    -Candidates: Archduke Charles and Philip V
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    Decretos de Nueva Planta

    They were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon king of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. Philip V suppressed the institutions, privileges, and the ancient charters (fueros) of almost all the areas that were formerly part of the Crown of Aragon (Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands), because they supported the Archduke Charles.
  • Louis I

    Louis I
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    Louis I

    the Beloved and the Liberal
  • Floridablanca

    José Moñino y Redondo was a Spanish statesman. He was the reformist chief minister of King Charles III of Spain, and also served briefly under Charles IV. In 1767 he acted strongly against the instigators of the Esquilache Riots in Cuenca. He defended the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767. The chief minister at the time, the Marquis of Esquilache, recognized his ability and made Moñino Spanish ambassador to Pope Clement XIV in 1772. He was rewarded with the title "Count of Floridablanca" in 1773
  • First Family Compact

    the Treaty of the Escorial.
  • Second Family Compact

    Signed by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the middle of the War of Austrian Succession. The result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy
  • Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
    He was a enlightened statesman and author. In 1797, he was appointed secretary of Grace and Justice, but could only serve for one year due to pressure from Godoy to achieve his dismissal. During this short period he was noted for his reform will and his fight against the Inquisition and the church property. He was accused of having introduced into Spain a copy of Rousseau's Social Contract, book banned at the time, and so was imprisoned and deported to Mallorca (March 1801). He died in 1811.
  • Francisco de Goya portrait

    Francisco de Goya portrait
    Portrait by Vicente Lopez Portaña
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    Fancisco de Goya

    He was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns. He was born in Zaragoza and he died in Burdeaux. In 1770s, Goya began to work for Spanish royal court. In addition to his commissioned portraits of the nobility, he created works that criticized the social and political problems of his era.
  • Ferdinand VI

    Ferdinand VI
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    Ferdinand VI

    Ferdinand VI, called the Learned, was King of Spain from 9 July 1746 until his death. He was the fourth son of the previous monarch Philip V and his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy. Ferdinand, the third member of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty, was born in Madrid on 23 September 1713.
  • Canal of Castilla

    a canal which was built to facilitate irrigation. it is located in Castilla y Leon. it was finished in 1849
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    Seven Year's War

    The Seven Years War was a conflict between the major European powers with France, Austria, and Russia on one side and Great Britian and Prussia on the other. Frederick the Great began his reign at the same time as the empress Maria Theresa became the monarch of Austria. When Frederick seized the province of Silesia from Austria Maria Theresa organized an alliance of France, Sweden, Russia, Saxony, Austria, and other countries. Frederick who felt isolated, concluded a treaty with Great Britain.
  • Charles III

    Charles III
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    Charles III

    Charles III, king of Spain and king of Naples was the first child of Philip V’s marriage with Isabella of Parma. He was one of the “enlightened despots” of the 18th century, who helped lead Spain to a brief cultural and economic revival.
  • Third Family Compact

    in the Seven Year´s war (1756-63) between France and Britain for colonial supremacy Spain supported France because if Britain won, their power would expand on Spanish territory in north and central America. the war concluded with the Treaty of Paris (1763)
  • treaty of Paris

    Britain conquered the Spanish territories of Manila (philippines) and Havana. France captured Minorca. Britain restored Manila and Havana to Spain, Spain ceded Florida to Britain, and France gave Louisiana to Spain.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    The Neapolitan minister of Charles III, the Marquis of Esquilache, had made himself very unpopular with various economic reforms, but mainly by prohibiting the Spanish coat – a large cape – and the broad-brimmed hat. He was responsible for putting high taxes on bread.
  • jesuits

    The founder of the Jesuits was Ignacio de Loyola. The Jesuits played a very important role in the Counter-Reformation. The Bourbons expelled the jesuits from Spain in 1767 in order to eliminate their power in education.
  • Manuel Godoy

    Manuel Godoy
    Godoy (1767-1851) was Prime Minister of Spain from 1792 to 1797 and from 1801 to 1808. He was popular because he received many titles including Prince of the Peace. His frequent promotions were external signs of his increasing influence over the king and queen.
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    The Royal Tapestry

    Francisco Goya's 63 large tapestry cartoons were painted for Charles III of Spain and later Charles IV of Spain between 1774 and 1792 to hang in the San Lorenzo de El Escorial and El Pardo palaces.
  • El Quitasol

    El Quitasol
    an example of royal tapestry
  • Charles IV

    Charles IV
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    Charles IV

    In 1788, Charles III died and Charles IV succeeded to the throne. He intended to maintain the policies of his father and maintained his prime minister the Count of Floridablanca in office. Even though he had a profound belief in the sanctity of his office and kept up the appearance of an absolute, powerful monarch
  • Tomás de Zumalacárregui

    Tomás de Zumalacárregui
    Tomás de Zumalacárregui was a Basque Carlist general. In Zaragoza 1808 he served in the first siege, at the Battle of Tudela, and during the second siege until he was taken prisoner in a sortie. For a short time he served with Gaspar de Jáuregui, another Gipuzkoan known as "The Shepherd". He enlisted in the Independence War, which lead him to participate in numerous weaponry events.
  • Goya. Painter for Charles lll

    Goya. Painter for Charles lll
    1789, painter for king Charles lll, and later Charles lV.
    He was the first court painter. He was working for 2 years in a large scale painting of the royal family
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    louis XVI was guillotined in 1793 at the Place de la Révolution (Revolution Square) in Paris. It was a major event of the French Revolution. Louis was arrested, interned in the Temple prison with his family, tried for high treason before the National Convention, found guilty by almost all and condemned to death. He was the first victim of the Reign of Terror. His wife Marie Antoniette was guillotined on October, the same year.
  • War of Pyrenees

    It was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war against the First French Republic. This led to Revolutionary France against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal during the french Revolutionary wars. In the western Pyrenees, the French began to win and controlled a portion of northeast Spain.
    -Peace of Basel (treaty): ended the war of the pyrenees in 1795. Spain gave the eastern two thirds of the Hispaniola to France in exchange for keeping Gipuzkoa.
  • capricho nº1

    capricho nº1
    for the capricho nº1, he made a self portrait, to show that he was the author of this series os satires of the spanish society of that time.
  • capricho nº43

    capricho nº43
  • capricho nº25

    capricho nº25
    Goya in this picture criticised the violence in the education of the children.
  • Charles IV's family

    Charles IV's family
    The first painter to the king, Goya, received a commission to immortalize the king's family on an enormous canvas.
    Thanks to the recent restoration, we can appreciate the tonal qualities that establish the role of each person within the family hierarchy, for example, the king, whose head is placed against a light background, and the heads of the queen and the heir apparent, set against a darker one.
    It is generally thought that Goya have intended this painting as a critique of the royal family.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    It was a naval engagement between the British Royal Navy and the Fleets of France and Spain during the Napoleonic Wars. It took place at Cape Trafalgar, south of Cadiz. Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard HMS Victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under French Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve off the southwest coast of Spain. The Franco-Spanish leet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost.
  • treaty of Fountainebleau

    It was signed between Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon I of France in Fountainebleau (France). Napoleon's proposal was to make a division of the Kingdom of Portugal between the signatories.
  • Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII
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    Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII, also known as Ferdinand the Desired. He was born October 14, 1784, and died September 29, 1833. Between 1808 and 1813, during the Napoleonic Wars, Ferdinand was imprisoned in France by Napoleon.
  • Napoleonic troops in Spain

    The city of Madrid had been under the occupation of Napoleon's army since 23 March of the same year. The people of Madrid rebelled against the French troops (Dos de Mayo uprising), which led to the Peninsular War
  • Independence War

    Independence War
    Also called the Peninsular War, was a military conflict between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The conflict arose from growing tensions between residents of Great Britain's 13 North American colonies and the colonial government, which represented the British crown.
  • Events of 2 May 1808

    Events of 2 May 1808
    Dos de Mayo uprising was a rebellion by the people of Madrid against the occupation of the city by French troops, provoking a brutal repression by the French Imperial forces and triggering the Peninsular War.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    They took place in the French city of Bayonne. Charles IV, and later his son Ferdinand VII abdicated the Spanish throne in favour of Napoleon Bonaparte, and he gave the power to Joseph I (Napoleon's brother)
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    Joseph I

    He was the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808), and later King of Spain as Joseph I. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.
  • Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII
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    Ferdinand VII

    He was king of Spain this latter period in dispute with Joseph Bonaparte.
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    Absolutist Restoration of Ferdinand VII

    The Absolutist Restoration happened with the return of Ferdinand VII in March 1814, after the signature of th Treaty of Valençay with Napoleon who moved away his troops from Spain. This lead to the end of the Independence War.
    Ferdinand VII appreciatet the supports of the Spanish Interior to take back the absolutism. He went to Madrid where he abolished the Constitution of Cadiz followed by a very hard depression.
  • goya's black paintings

    goya's black paintings
    In this painting Goya represents titan Saturn devouring his son. The work is one of the 14 Black Paintings that Goya painted directly onto the walls of his house sometime between 1819 and 1823.
  • Riego's pronunciamiento

    Riego's pronunciamiento
    The Riego's pronunciamiento was a military coup by the commander Rafael de Riego, in Cabezas de San Juan (Seville). He proclaimed the 1812 Constitution. With him ends the absolutist government developed by Ferdinand VII during the first stage of his reign, establishing a liberal government.
  • Goya's death

    Goya's death
    Francisco de Goya died at the age of 82. He had a very delicate health after a tumor process and also after of a recent fall down the stairs that obliged him to lie in bed.
  • Pragmatic Sanction

    It was a decree of Ferdinand VII, which promulgated his predecessor Charles IV's unpublished decision of 1789 revoking the Salic law of succession, which had denied royal succession to females. The Pragmatic Sanction was created to allow Isabella, Ferdinand VII's daughter, to become Queen after his death, returning to traditional rules of Spanish succession.
  • The First Carlist War

    The First Carlist War
    The First Carlist War was a civil war in Spain from 1833 to 1839, fought between factions over the succession to the throne and the nature of the Spanish monarchy. It was fought between supporters of the regent, Maria Christina, acting for Isabella II of Spain, and those of the late king's brother, Charles V. The Carlists supported the return of an absolute monarchy.
  • Isabella II

    Isabella II
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    Isabella II

    She was queen regnant of Spain from 1843 until 1868. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognise a female sovereign, leading to the Carlist Wars. After a troubled reign, she was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1868, and formally abdicated in 1870. Her son Alfonso XII became king in 1874.
  • The Second Carlist War

    The Second Carlist War
    The Second Carlist War, or the War of the Matiners, was a short civil war fought primarily in Catalonia by the Carlists under General Ramón Cabrera in September 1846 against the forces of the government of Isabella II. This war was fought to facilitate the marriage of Isabella II with the Carlist pretender, Carlos de Borbón. (this marriage never took place as Isabella wed with Francisco de Borbon. The War finally ended spreading to Galicia in 1849.
  • Glorious revolution

    The Glorious Revolution took place in Spain in 1868. A rebellion led by General Juan Prim and a revolt of the sergeants at San Gil barracks, in Madrid, sent a signal to Spanish liberals and republicans. Liberals and republicans made an agreement, not merely to replace the Prime Minister with a Liberal, but to overthrow Queen Isabella, whom Spanish liberals and republicans began to see as the source of Spain's difficulties.
  • Amadeus I

    Amadeus I
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    Amadeo I

    Amadeo I was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but reigned briefly as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873.
  • Juan Prim's death

    Juan Prim's death
    His carriage was blocked in the street by two other conveyances, and four men armed with rifles shot Prim. Prim was taken, severely wounded to a hospital. The bullets were removed, but was found dead in the bed 3 days later.The official version of his death was that he had died of bullet wounds, but years later forensic surgeons found marks of strangulation on his throat. Most historians agree that Prim had been killed by persons he assumed were friends visiting the bed side.
  • The Third Carlist War

    The Third Carlist War
    The third Carlist war took place when the Carlist forces rejected the proclamation of Amadeus of Savoy as king, the first non-Bourbon monarch, who ascended as Amadeus I. In 1872 several carlist troops enter Spain through France as the pretenders entourage and began uprisings in the Basque Country and Navarre. But the insurrection ended two days later when General Moriones attacked taking the carlist forces by surprise. They signed the Amorobieta Covenant on the same day. The war ended in 1876.
  • 1st Republic

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    1st Republic

    It was the political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and ended on 29 December 1874, when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The Republic's founding started with the abdication as King on 10 February 1873 of Amadeo I
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    Estanislao Figueras

    He led the Republican Party after Queen Isabella II was overthrown in 1868. He briefly became President after King Amadeo abdicated. He was succeeded as President by Francisco Pi y Margall. After the 1875 restoration of the monarchy he withdrew from public life.
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    Francisco Pi y Margall

    He was a liberal Catalan statesman and romanticist writer. Pi presented to the Cortes an ambitious plan of reform, including a law formalizing a stricter separation of church and state, the reorganization of the army, reduction of the working day to eight hours, regulation of child labor, enhancements to the relationship between business and labor, new laws regarding the autonomy of the regions of Spain, and a program of universal education.
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    Nicolas Salmeron

    When Salmerón was president, he was compelled to use the troops to restore order. When, however, he found that the generals insisted on executing rebels taken in arms, he resigned (September 6) on the ground that he was opposed to capital punishment.
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    Emilio Castelar

  • Restoration of the Monarchy

    The Restoration was the name given to the period that began after the First Spanish Republic (29 Dec 1874) ended with the restoration of the monarchy under Alfonso XII after a coup d'état by Martinez Campos, and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. The aim of the Restoration was to create a new political system, which ensured no sector of the bourgeoisie felt isolated, and excluded all other parties from the system. This was achieved by electoral fraud.