La maja


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    (1)Charles II

    Charles II was the King of Spain, Naples and Sicily, son of Philip IV and the last Hapsburg ruler. In the mid-seventeenth centruy, Spain was the major power in western Europe. The reign of Charles II is perhaps known for the decline of this empire.
    The lack of intellegence and his sickness made his reign much more difficult as in every stage of it, he had to depend on someone to make any decision, one of the most important indvidual was his half brother Juan José of Austria.
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    (2) Charles II

    Moreover, Charle´s ultimate failure was not to leave a heir. Anticipating this,the other Europeans powers, France and Austria, spent much of his reign designing the partition of Spain and finally his death in 1700 resulted in The Twelve Years War.
  • War of Spanish Succession Photo

    War of Spanish Succession Photo
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    (1)War of Spanish Succession

    Charles II, died without a heir. The succession belonged to the French Prince, Philip of Anjou.
    Philip´s grandfather, Louis XIV proclaimed Philip the King of Spain, and declared that France and Spain would be united.
    But, The Grand Alliance of Holland, Prussia, England and Austria aimed to put the Archduke Charles of Austria in the Spanish throneinstead of Philip. War broke out and the french were defeated several times.
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    (2) War of Spanish Succession

    In 1711, Joseph I of Austria died and his heir was the Archduke Charles of Austria. Inmediatly he became the Emperor as it would have been very unbalanced that Austria and Spain were only one.
  • (1)Treaty of Utrecht

    (1)Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrecht established the Peace of Utrecht rather than a single document. This Treaty helped the War of the Spanish Succesion and it also stated that the French and the Spanish Crowns should never be united. One of its main purposes, was to avoid France from uniting and dominating Europe.
  • (2)Treaty of Utrecht

    (2)Treaty of Utrecht
    Moreover, Philip V, Duke of Anjou, was made King of Spain, meanwhile Britain took Gibraltar, Minorca, Hudson Bay, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. Britain was also awarded with the right of importaing black slaves into America for 30 years.
    The treaties were done between the representatives of Louis XIV of France and Philip V of Spain and on the other side the represantives from the Dutch Republic, Queen Anne of Great Britain and finally the Duke of Savoy. (The same link as in the other)
  • (1)New Foundations Decrees

    (1)New Foundations Decrees
    Also known as Decretos de Nueva Planta, these were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V, who was angered by what he saw, so he suppressed the institutions, privileges and the ancient charters (fueros) of almost all the areas that were forming the Crown of Aragon.
    The purpose of those decrees were to rule all the territories in the Crown of Aragon under the laws or rules of Castille except the Aran Valley, so that all Spain will be united and uniformly administered.
  • (2)New Foundations Decrees

    (2)New Foundations Decrees
    Navarre and the other Basque territory put down PhilipV in his intention of abolishing the home rules.
    Finally, the acts abolishing the charters were promulgates in 1707 in Valencia and Aragon and in Catalonia on the 16 January 1716.
    These decrees effectively created an united Spain, except for the Basque territory.
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    José Moñino was a Spanish sateman and minister of to Charles III and Charles IV of Spain. His skill as a lawye attracted the attention of Charles´s III minister, Leopoldo di Grigorio, The Marques of Esquilache. In 1764, Charles III made Moñino a ministerial official, o the Council of Castile. As a fiscal of the Council Moñino took an active role in eliminating the Jesuists, as he convinced the papal to suppres the whole order.
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    (2) Floridablanca

    In 1777, he became the first secretary of the state and became the principal minister of Charles III. He secured imporatant alliances with Prussia and Russia and also improved the relationship with Portugal.
    Floridablanca was a champion of enlightenment and reform, yet he was also an adamant defender of absolute monarchy. Because his thoughts he was imprissoned.
    Floridablanca briefly emerged as a politician during the crisis of the 1808, finally he died in Seville on December, 1808.
  • (1)The First Family Compact

    (1)The First Family Compact
    The first family compact, also known as The Treaty of the Escorial, was an agreement in which Spain(Philip V) backed the interests of France(Louis XV of France). (in most cases)
    Broadly speaking, France backed Spain´s right to recover the Italian possesions in return for the Spanish support in the Polish succesion. The obsession of controlling Italy was also a strong interest for the wife of Philip V, Isabel Farnese of Parma.
  • (2) The First Family Compact

    (2) The First Family Compact
    Since her husband’s children by his first wife were first in line for the Spanish throne, she schemed to obtain Italian kingdoms for her two sons. Finally, Spain troops recovered Naples and Sicily and Isabel´s older son Charles was crowned the 25th King of Naples.
  • The Second Family Compact

    The Second Family Compact
    The Second Family Compact, led this time in the support of France´s involvement with the Austrian War of Succession, resulted in the installation of Charles's younger brother Philip as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1748. The recovery of the possesion for Spain wasn´t enough, so that it caused irritations and outbreaks of hostilities between France, Spain and Britain.
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    (2) Jovellanos

    Later he joined a patriotic party and became a member of the Supreme Central Junta and contriuted to reorganize the Cortes.
    Finalyy he died in Asturias on November, 1811.
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    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos became a criminal judge at Seville in 1767. But his abilities were rewarded in 1778 in a judgersip at Madrid, and after in 1780 when he was appointed by the council of military orders. Moreover he was comissioned by The Society Of Friends Of The Country to write his most famous booK:"Informe en el expediente de ley agraria".
    His most importante stage was when Joseph I became the King , who made him the most brilliant officer.
  • (1)Canal de Castilla

    (1)Canal de Castilla
    The Canal de Castilla is considered to be one of the most advanced civil engineering in Spain. It was planned during the Enlightenment in the 18th Century, in which Jovellanos said:“it will ensure the renown of those who begin it, continue it and conclude it".
    Initially, it was planned to secure the eonomy of Tierra de Campos, which at that moment was the poorest region in Spain.
    When the work was concluded in 1849, almost 400 barges connected the center of Castile with Alar del Rey (Pamplona).
  • (2)Canal de Castilla

    (2)Canal de Castilla
    This waterway was used succesfuly until railroads were built in 1860, which usurped the primary use of the Canal for transporting goods.
  • Charles II Photo

    Charles II Photo
  • Charles III Photo

    Charles III Photo
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    (1)Charles III

    When he arrived to Spain he was excellently assisted by the Count of Arenda and the Count of Floridablanca, with who he introduced some reforms thaat strenghtened the Crown.He asserted the power of The Church by expelling the Jesuits form Spain. He also brought economical expansion, he improved the educational system and reformed the military forces.
    Charles signed the Family Compact in 1761, which led to the involvement of Spain in The Seven Years War.
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    (2) Charles III

    In the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Spain lost Florida but was ceded Louisiana. In 1779 Charles III was involved in war with England in The American Revolution.
    Charles´s reforms benefited greatly Spain. When he died, his son Charles IV succeeded him.
  • (1)The Third Family Compact

    (1)The Third Family Compact
    The Third Fmily compact is the most important one. Both, France and Britain asked for the help of Spain in the Seven Years War(1756-1763). Britain supported Prussia and France supported Austria. But, the England´s attacks to the Spanish colonies made Charles III to reject the proposal of England and decided to support the French First Minister, the Duc of Choiseul. Finally, the hostilities finished by signing the Treaty of Paris in February 1763.
  • (2) The Third Family Compact

    (2) The Third Family Compact
    Britain was the winner and France the looser, loosing Quebec to England and Lousiana to Spain. Moreover, Britain also gained Havana and Manila, which was captured during the War. However, Englang logged its rights in the Yucatan Peninsula due to the fish monopoly.
  • (1)Esquilache Riots

    (1)Esquilache Riots
    Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marques de Esquilache, was named the Minister of War and Finance when Charles III was in the throne. Leopoldo tried to introduce reforms, especifically in finances, to support the bourgeoisie.
    Naturally, people revolt. This revolt was in form that madrileño´s men were wearing long capes and broad-brimmed hats.
    Long capes helped them to have weapons, meanwhile the hats hide their face so that the people wont know who they were.
  • (2)Esquilache Riots

    (2)Esquilache Riots
    On March 10, 1766 placards appeared in Madrid prohibiting the wearing of those items.
    When the rioted started the Jesuits were expelled from Spain, but these didn´t work.
    Finally, Leopoldo went to Naples were he was safer and was made the Ambassador of Venice.
  • (1)Jesuits are expelled from Spain

    (1)Jesuits are expelled from Spain
    The Jesuiits were driven out of Spain in 1767. Spain believed that the Jesuits society was acquiring too much wealth and power over the Spanish affairs, so that Charles III expelled the Jesuits and turned over the possesions controlled by the Jesuits to other Religious orders. The expulsion of the Jesuits left a vacuum in Spanish America that Dominicans and Franciscans wont fill.
  • (2) Jesuists are exelled from Spain

    (2) Jesuists are exelled from Spain
    With the Jesuists of the way, the Franciscans aimed to control Alta California from where the Jesuists were aso expelled.
  • (1)The Indepence Of The United States

    (1)The Indepence Of The United States
    Britain and the United States began to break down their relationships. In 1767, the Parliament passed the Townshed acts, which increased the tensions among the Americans. Moreover, the americans revolted, leading to some acts called the Intolerable Acts. Which the British punished them by sending troops over there. Finally the Americans declared the revolution against the troops of the King George.
  • (2) The Independence of the United States

    (2) The Independence of the United States
    On July 4, 1776, The Second Continental Congress officially declared the Independence of the United States. -
  • Floridablanca Photo

    Floridablanca Photo
  • Charles IV Photo

    Charles IV Photo
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    (1)Charles IV

    When Charles IV became the King, the French Revolution was about to explode and Spain needed a strong leader, that they won´t find in Charles.
    Maria Luisa of Parma, Charles´s wife, completely controlled him and so the throne. While Charles was hunting, Maria Luisa and her lover Manuel de Godoy, directed the state. By 1792, Godoy has fully control.
    The control by Godoy was known as sided. This would led to a French invasion in Spain in 1794.
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    (2) Charles IV

    The treaty of San Ildefonso stopped the French invasion in Spain, this treaty also created an alliance between France and Spain agains England. In 1807 Napoleon entered again in Spain, making both father( Charles IV) and son( Ferdinand) refusing to the Spanish throne in the Abdications of Bayonne. Instead, he brought his brother Joseph I, into the Spanish throne. -
  • (1)Execution of Louis XVI

    (1)Execution of Louis XVI
    People were not happy with Louis XVI as they knew his wife Marie Antoinette spend their money in luxury things, so they accused Marie to be their prime source of problems.
    In 1788, Louis was forced to reinstatted the French´s National Assembly. The following year the Paris mobs in the prision of Bastille forced the imprisonement of Louis XVI and his family.
    In an intend to escape they were caught and finally in 1792 Louis was behaded in front of a mass of people claiming for his head.
  • (2) Execution of Louis XVI

    (2) Execution of Louis XVI
  • War of The Pyrenees Map

    War of The Pyrenees Map
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    War of The Pyrenees

    Also known as the War of Rousillon or War of the Convention. This war invoved the First French Republic against the Pyrenean front. The war was fought in the eastern Pyrenees, the western Pyrenees, at the French port of Toulon, and at sea. After February 1795, the war in the eastern Pyrenees became a stalemate. In the western Pyrenees, the French began to win in 1794. By 1795, the French army controlled a bit of northeast Spain.
  • (1)Treaty of San Ildefonso

    (1)Treaty of San Ildefonso
    By the Treaty of San Ildefonso, ( not to be confused with the one of 1796, in which Spain signed an alliance with France against Britain) and the Treaty of Madrid 21March, 1801 Spain returned to France the territory of Lousiana which France had ceded to Spain in 1763.
    But, Spain was compesated with the creation of thr Kingdom of Etruria, given to the Duke of Parma, son-in-law of Charles IV of Spain.
  • (2) Treaty of San Ildefonso

    (2) Treaty of San Ildefonso
    Although Napoleon Bonaparte disagreed on giving Louisiana to a third, he also disregarded the Treaty and sold Louisiana to the United States, and Spain claimed because France couln´t do anything without their permission, because of the union of the Bourbons. Eventhough, Spain had no power so finally it was rejected.
  • (1)Napoleon crown as Emperor

    (1)Napoleon crown as Emperor
    Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Napoleon I in the Cathedral of Notre Dame in France,. Was the first Frenchman to obtain the tittle of emperor in a thousand years. Pope Pius VII handed the crown to Napoleon, who placed on his own head.
    After returning from his Egyptian campaign Napoleon decided to tke the reign of France in order to avoid France from collapsing. In 1800 he became the First Consul, establishing the Napoleonic Code, a new system of French Law.
  • (2)Napoleon is crown as emperor

    (2)Napoleon is crown as emperor
    In 1804, he established the French Empire. By 1807, Napoleon´s Empire streched from the River Elbe in the north and down in the south through Italy.
  • (1)Battle of Trafalgar

    (1)Battle of Trafalgar
    The Battle of Trafalgar aimed two principal things: the defeat of Napoleon´s Bonaparte plans to invade England and the death of the Admiral Lord Nelson( he was a British Naval Commander and national hero, famous for his naval vistories against The French during the Napoleonic Wars). During the engagement at Trafalgar, Brithid ships defeated the mixed navy from Spain and France, but they also lost Lord Nelson.
  • (3) Map of the Battle of Trafalgar

    (3) Map of the Battle of Trafalgar
  • (2)Battle of Trafalgar

    (2)Battle of Trafalgar
    The victory at Trafalgar ensured that Napoleon would never invade Britain. A column was built in the named Trafalgar Squarein honour to the national hero Lord Nelson, and a lot of streets renamed in his honour.
  • (1)Treaty of Fontainebleau

    (1)Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a secret agreement between Spain and France regarding the partition of Portugal. In this treaty, Napoleon I and Charles IV accord conquesting Portugal, so that Napoleon could isolate Britain. The treaty concisted in 21 articles from which 7 were secret. Moreover, the treaty divided Portugal into three parts. The north would go to the King of Etruria, Charle´s IV´s grandson, the central to Napoleon and the south to Manuel Godoy, Charles´s first minister.
  • (2) Treaty of Fontainebleau

    (2) Treaty of Fontainebleau
    Although this treaty permitted the French soldiers to cross Spain legally, the Treaty of Fontainebleau fianlly led to the Napoleonic occupation in Spain, the capture of Charles IV and the designation of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain.
  • (1)Abdications of Bayonne

    (1)Abdications of Bayonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of forced abdications to the Kingd of Spain, which led to what we know as the Spanish War of Indepedence.
    Napolen made both Charles IV and Ferdinand to abdicate their rights to the throne.
    Npoleon appointed his brothe Joseph Bonaparte as the King of Spain , wich caused resistance from the Spanish people , and finally led to the Peninsular War which is overlaped with the Succession one.
  • Joseph I Photo

    Joseph I Photo
  • (2)Abdications of Bayonne

    (2)Abdications of Bayonne
    Napoleon was eventually forced to release Ferdinand, and finally in December 11, 1813 Ferdinand was the King of Spain.
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    (1)Joseph I

    In 1808, Napoleon invaded Spain, appointing Joseph as the King of Spain. Joseph redundantly accepted and did everything to get the support of Spanish; learning the language, disciplining his troops with the Catholic religion. He even attended bullfights. Eventhough the Spanish didn´t accept him, and on August 1808 he was driven out of the capital. Napoleon sent the French army to reinstate the throne, even when his brother Joseph has pledged him for coming back to Naples.
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    (2) Joseph I

    His control there was almost nonexistent. In 1810, Venezuela declared its independence, the first Spanish possession to do so. Over the next two years , Joseph would abdicate the throne on four separate ocassions.
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    (1)Peninsular War

    The rise of Joseph I in the throne and the invasion of the French troops in Spain led to to aperiod of violence.
    The Penisular War took plane in the Iberian Peninsula in which England, Spain and Portugal were against the French army. It started on May 2, 1808 when the people in Madrid rose up against the French troops. That day, the Sapnish rebels killed more than 200 French soldiers. Consequently, in Asturias threrewere upsrisings although Joseph I was already in the throne.
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    (2) Pensular War

    In August 1808, a British expetionary force, landed in Spain under Arthur Wellesley. The Battle of Vateiro was the first defeat of the French troops against Arthur. In 1812, Wellesley took Madrid. Fianlly they could push the French to the Pyreenes were the Spanish Guerrilleros would fight them.
  • Peninsular War Photo

    Peninsular War Photo
  • (1)First Spanish Constitution

    (1)First Spanish Constitution
    The first Spanish Constitution was drawn up in Cádiz, representing thre rights of Spanish citizens and limiting the power of the monarchy. Although it was inactive some years, it influenced considerably, even around the world.
    The Cortes Generales, Spain Natinal´s assembly, has taken refuge from the French in Cadiz. A group of liberals who didn´t support Joseph I. In 1812, French troops are trying to enter Cadiz.
  • (2) First Spanish Constitution

    (2) First Spanish Constitution
    Gaditanos are feared because they don´t how much they are going to resist. Finally, the deputies decided to proclaim a democratic parliamentary monarchy.
  • Ferdinand VII Photo

    Ferdinand VII Photo
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    (2) Ferdinand VII

    In 1808, Godoy told Charles that his son was plotting against him, so that Ferdinand was imprisoned. Ferdiand was free and Escoiquiz was exiled to Toledo. Ferdinand thought that the French troops that were inavading Spain were for helping him. Finally, Gody was imprisoned and Charles abdicated in favor of his son Ferdinand.
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    (3) Ferdinand VII

    1. FERDINAND AND THE LIBERALS: He was not going to accept the Constitution made by the liberals. When he was sure that the army would support him, he suspended the Constitution an restored the Absolute Monarch. In 1820 , an uprising in Spain made Ferdinand to establish the Constitution again as he also promised general amnesty. But he didn´tkeep his promise and Liberal found themselves in exile. With his fourth wife, he had finally a heir, called Isabella II.
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    (4) Ferdinand VII

    Installing the Pragmatic Sanction, allowed her daughter to be the Queen, therefore Ferdinand was afraid of his brother Don Carlos as he also wanted the Spanish Throne. Finally, he died the 29 of September,1833.
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    (1)Ferdinand VII

    Charles and Ferdiand VII were forced to refuse to their Spanish throne in which Napoleon´s brother took place instead. After the abdication of Joseph I, Ferdinand came back to Spain. There were three different stages in the reign of Ferdinand:
    1.PLOTAS AGAINST GODOY: Escoiquiz joined Maria Antonieta(Ferdinand´s mother) with the desire of overcoming Godoy, so doing a plot against him and includin the figure of Ferdinand he was able to appart him for a period of time.
  • Riego´s Pronunciamiento

    Riego´s Pronunciamiento
    The Pronunciamiento de Riego was also kwon as a military coup d´etat, leadered by Rafael de Riego at Cabezas de San Juan. The Pronunciamiento was sparked from the officials in charge of stopping the sublebation of the Americans.
    This pronunciamiento supposed the imposition of the liberalism with Ferdinand VII. The liberals ruled in accordance to the Cortes de Cadiz, so that was the first time that they were applying the Constitution.
  • (1)Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis

    (1)Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis
    The 28 of January in 1823, Louis XVIII gave a speech in which he announced that they were going to enter Spain. In France a lot of people rejected the idea, but the government decided to ignore them, An military intrusion would led to the control of Spanish policies and so pt it in the way of the France restoration. Moreover, there were also economic and market issues . France entered in Spain until arriving to Cadiz, were Ferdiand was.
  • (2)Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis

    (2)Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis
    Nevertheless, Ferdinand cousin was Louis XVIII and so they left Spain and Ferdiand restored his reign.
  • (1)Pragmatic Sanction (Salic Law)

    (1)Pragmatic Sanction (Salic Law)
    King Ferdinand VII wife´s pregnancy(Maria Cristina daughter of the King from the the Two Sicilies) announcement, made the liberal reformers saw an opportunity. Taking in advantage the King´s brother strangement, they purposed to recover the decree of Charles IV, which had replaced the Salic law established by Philip V. The King then wrote the Pragmatic Sanction in March 29, 1830.
  • (2) Pragmatic Sanction (Salic Law)

    (2) Pragmatic Sanction (Salic Law)
    In his decree he stated that: "In default of Don Ferdinand VII de Borbón, his legitimate male and female descendants would succeed to the Crown, and in default of these his brothers and sisters, or his uncles and aunts, brothers and sisters of his father, and their legitimate descendants, according to the order announced and always following the right of preference of the nearest branch before the other branches". Finaly his daughter Isabella II became the Queen of Spain in 1833.
  • Bibliography of The Pragmatic Sanction.

  • Isabella II Photo

    Isabella II Photo
  • Carlist Wars

    Carlist Wars
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    (1)Isabella II

    Queen of Spain at the age of three, Isabella abdicated for 36 year, she spent her exile in France. Her ascension to the throne with three caused seven years of civil war with the Carlists (the supporters of her uncle, Don Carlos). Her first regent was her mother, who weakened her position at every moment. In 1840, there was an upsrising made by General Baldomero Espartero. On her sixteenth birthday, she was married to her Bourbon cousin, Prince Francisco de Asis and inmediant failure.
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    First Carlist War

    Infant Carlos, Count of Molina had not recognized Isabella as the princess. Instead he was recognized the King by the opposition, the First Carlist War starts. There were also some political affairs, Carlos wanted to restore the Inquisition and wanted to restore back the absolutism.
    In 1839, the liberalists signed the Treaty of Vergara, in which the Baque Country and Navarre would keep the liberals. Finally, Don Carlos´s troops were defeated and was forced to return to France.
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    (2) Isabella II

    Isabella, felt in love with a young general called Francisco Serrano. This caused the sedon carlist war, as the saw the opportunity of dethroning her.
    Reports spreaded the queen´s numerous lovers. In 1868, she decided not to continue in the throne and gave it to his son Don Alfonso, who refused the throne,. Years later, this would led to the first anarchic republic. -
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    First Carlist War Bibliography

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    Second Carlist War

    There was a plan in which The son of Carlos V would marry Isabella, so that Carlos V would ascend to the throne. But the commite refused him, and they married with her cousin, Francisco the Asis. The Second Carlist War broke out. During this war, the Carlists acted more like bandits.
    Fianlly, by May of 1849, Carlists troops were defeated and exiled by Isalines troops. Moths later, the government published a decree in which they pardoned the Carlists, but most of them stayed in France.
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    Second Carlist War Bibliography

  • (1)Spanish Glorious Revolution

    (1)Spanish Glorious Revolution
    Isabella II was in France to sign an alliance with the Emperor Napoleon III, when Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo made a revolutionary proclamation in Cadiz. Seeing the opportunity, Madrid and other cities made uprisings.
    The Queen was forced to return and decided to send the royal army to fight the rebels. At the Battle of Alcolea, near Cordoba, rebel forces led by Francisco Serrano defeated the royal army. The next day , Isabella was fleding to France.
  • (2) Spanish Glorious Revolution

    (2) Spanish Glorious Revolution
    Meanwhile Spain boiled in disorder, and a provisional government leadered by Serrano and Prim, established reactionary laws, abolished the Jesuits and other religions and ensured universal suffrage and freedom of the press. Finalyy, a votation in the Cortes declared a monarchical government.
  • Amadeus of Savoy Photo

    Amadeus of Savoy Photo
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    He was the First King o Spain coming from the House of Savoy. He was elected by the Spanish Cortes in 1870, after the deposition of Isabella II. The reign of Amadeo was a fraught with the growmg of republicanism. Carlists rebellions in the north and the Cuban Independence movement, made him to abdicate and return to Italy.
    Finally in 1873, the First Republic broke out. -
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    Third Carlist War

    The third Carlist War took place because of the procalamtion of Amadeus of Savoy, the first non-bourbon king of Spain. When King Amdeus I addicated aRepublic was set up.The Carlists forces took several cities in Catalonia , but they were defeated in 1875 by Martinez Campós' forces. On December 1874, Alfonso XII, Isabella's son, was proclaimed king, but carlists continue to hold the Basque Country and Navarre.
    Finally in 1876, Carlos was forced to fleed to Paris.
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    Third Carlist War Bibliography

  • First Republic Photo

    First Republic Photo
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    (1)First Republic

    The First Republic followed the abdication of Amadeo of Savoy, but only lasted 11 months Brigadier Martínez Campos, pronounced for Alfonso, Queen Isabella II´s son. The army refused to act against him, and so the government collapsed leading to the end of the First Reoulic and restoring the Bourbons in Spain.
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    (2) First Republic

    The first Republic was characterized by profound political instability and violence. The First Spanish Republic was governned by four presidents: Estanislao Figueras, Pi i Margall, Nicolás Salmerón, Emilio Castelar. -
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    (1)Cuban War

    The Cuban War of the Independence started due to the philosopher and writer José Martí who is considered by all the cubans the faher ohf the Homeland. He gace the order of starting the revolution in four different parts of Cuba: in Bayate, in Baire, in Ibarra and in Guantánamo.
    Unfortunately, José Martí was killed in May, 1895 by spanish soldiers under Colonel Sandoval. In September of 1893, an assembly formed by the five revolutuonary squads which reorganized the government.
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    (2) Cuban War

    the Spanish government replaced the General Martínez Campos by General Vleriano Weyler. Weyler made the inhabitants of the rural areas go to the cities and the ones that stay would be killed.
    Finally, as there were tensions with the United States , Sapin decided to retire Weyler form Cuba, giving them the Independence. -