Spain in 18th and 19th century

  • Charles II of Spain

    Charles II of Spain
    Charles II of Spain (6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700)
    Image: Carlos II de España - Juan Carreño de Miranda
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    Charles II of Spain

    Charles II of Spain (6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700) was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. His realm included Southern Netherlands and Spain's overseas empire, stretching from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies. Known as "the Bewitched" (el Hechizado).
    He died in 1700, childless and heirless, with all potential Habsburg successors having predeceased him, his successor was Philip V.
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    War of Spanish Succession

    Was a conflict that arose out of the disputed succession to the throne of Spain following the death of the childless Charles II.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    Was a series of treaties that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession, and it put an end to French expansion and signaled the rise of the British Empire.
  • Peace of Rastatt

    Peace of Rastatt
    It was a peace treaty between France and Austria, in the Baden city of Rastatt, to put an end to state of war between them from the War of the Spanish Succession. The treaty followed the earlier Treaty of Utrecht of 11 April 1713.
    Image: Europe after the treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt and Bade
  • New Foundation Decrees

    New Foundation Decrees
    Were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V, during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht.
    The decrees ruled that all the territories in the Crown of Aragon except the Aran Valley were to be ruled by the laws of Castile embedding these regions in a new, and nearly uniformly administered, centralized Spain.
  • The First Family Compact

    The First Family Compact
    The first Family Pact was signed by Philip V and Louis XV of France. Philip V was recognized as king on the condition that Spain and France were never united. Philip did it with the intention of recovering the old possessions, this coinced with the aims of Philip V´s second wife.
    Finally Isabel´s older son Charles was crowned King of Naples.
    Image: Ensign of Spanish Navy established by: Philip V of Spain in 1701 until 1760.
  • The Second Family Compact

    The Second Family Compact
    In support of France´s involvement with the Austrian War of Succession, resulted in the installation of Charles´s younger brother Philip as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1748.
    This pact is broken by Philip VI of Spain denying his support to France in the wars when he carried out a policy of active neutrality between England and France.
    Image: Ensign of Spanish Navy established by: Philip V of Spain in 1701 until 1760.
  • Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (5 de enero de 1744- 27 de noviembre de 1811)
    Image: Portrait of Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos - Francisco Goya
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    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

    He was a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain.
    In his work on agrarian law, he called on the crown to eliminate the concentration of land ownership in the entailment of landed estates, ownership of land by the Catholic Church, and the existence of common lands unavailable to private ownership.
    He also became a member of the Supreme Central Junta and contributed to reorganize the Cortes Generales.
  • Canal de Castilla

    Canal de Castilla
    Is one of the most relevant civil engineering projects made between the middle of the eighteenth century and the first third of the nineteenth in Spain, the main objective of its construction was to serve as a communication and transport waterway that solved the problem of isolation to which the Castilian and Leon plateau was subjected.
    Photo:Vista del Canal de Castilla junto a Medina de Rioseco (Valladolid, España), by Rubén Ojeda
  • Charles III

    Charles III
    Charles III (1716-1788)
    Image: Charles III of Spain - Anton Raphael Mengs
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    Charles III

    Charles III, (known as The Citizen King) was the King of Spain and of the Spanish Indies. While he was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, he was the eldest son of Philip's second wife.
    As king of Spain Charles III tried to rescue his empire from decay through far-reaching reforms such as weakening the influence of the Church and its monasteries, promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce, modernising agriculture and avoiding wars.
  • The Third Family Compact

    The Third Family Compact
    It was a military cooperation that was exclusive to other powers that were not Bourbon, and in the preservation of the commercial interests of the subjects of both countries before the other European powers. What was intended with this political and military alliance was to curb English colonial expansion.
    Image: Ensign of Spanish Navy established by: Philip V of Spain in 1701 until 1760.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    It occurred during the rule of Charles III of Spain. Caused mostly by the growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread and other staples, they were sparked off by a series of measures regarding Spaniards' apparel that had been enacted by Leopoldo de Gregorio.
    Esquilache's plan was to terminate the wearing of long capes and broad-brimmed hats.
    Image: El Motín de Esquilache. Episodio... - José Martí y Monsó
  • The Jesuits are Expelled from Spain

    The Jesuits are Expelled from Spain
    The Bourbons expelled the Jesuits in order to eliminate their power in education, it was a result of a series of localized political moves rather than a theological controversy.
    Image: Unknown
  • American Declaration of Independence

    American Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia, which announced that the thirteen American colonies regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer under British rule. Instead they formed a new nation, the United States of America.
    Image: Declaration of Independence - John Trumbull
  • The Count of Floridablanca

    The Count of Floridablanca
    Image: José Moñino y Redondo, conde de Floridablanca - Francisco Goya
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    Count of Floridablanca

    José Moñino y Redondo (October 21, 1728 – December 30, 1808) was a Spanish statesman. He was the reformist chief minister (1777–1792) of King Charles III of Spain, and also served briefly under Charles IV. He was arguably Spain's most effective statesman in the eighteenth century. In Spain, he is simply known as Conde de Floridablanca.
  • Charles IV of Spain

    Charles IV of Spain
    Charles IV of Spain (1748-1819)
    Image: Carlos IV, rey de España - Francisco Goya
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    Charles IV of Spain

    Charles IV (1748-1819). At age 40, he became king of Spain. With the French Revolution under way, Charles essentially turned the government over to his wife and her lover, and Spain was soon pitted against the revolutionaries.
    At the death of Charles III, the worsening of the economy and the disarray of the administration reveal the limits of reformism, while the French Revolution puts on the table an alternative to the Old Regime.
  • The Execution of Louis XVI

    The Execution of Louis XVI
    It was a major event of the French Revolution. He was executed by the guillotine in the Revolution Square (Paris), so Bourbon France was no more.
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    War of the Pyrenees

    Also known as the War of Roussillon or the War of the Convention, it was a important campaign of the French Revolutionary wars.
    They were the revolutionary France, against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal during the French revolutionary wars.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Treaty of San Ildefonso
    Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a treaty between France and Spain in which Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France.
    The terms of the treaty did not specify the boundaries of the territory being returned, which later became a point of contention between Spain and the United States after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
    Image: Territory of Louisiana in the early 19th century (in green).
  • Napoleon is Crowned as Emperor

    Napoleon is Crowned as Emperor
    In Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned as Napoleon I, the first Frenchman to hold the title of emperor in a thousand years. Pope Pius VII handed Napoleon the crown that the 35-year-old conqueror of Europe placed on his own head.
    Image: Coronation of Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of the Empress Josephine in the Notre-Dame de Paris - Jacques–Louis David
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    It was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars.
    Image: The Battle of Trafalgar - Joseph Mallord William Turner
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed between Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon I of France by France and Spain regarding the occupation of Portugal.
    Under this treaty Portugal was divided into three regions- the Entre-Douro-e-Minho Province for the King of the Etrúria, the Principality of the Algarves under Spanish minister D. Manuel Godoy and the remaining provinces and overseas territories were to be distributed under a later agreement.
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    The Peninsular War

    It was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807 and lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Charles IV and his son Ferdinand VII were forced to abdicate their rights to the Spanish throne in favor of Napoleon Bonaparte, who later ceded them to his brother under the name of Joseph I. This happened in the midst of the French occupation in Spain, it was the detonating of the War of the Spanish Independence.
    Left: Fernando VII de España - Vicente López y Portaña
    Right: Carlos IV, rey de España - Francisco Goya
  • Joseph I

    Joseph I
    Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844)
    Image: Portrait of King Joseph I - Josée Flaugier
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    Joseph I

    Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as Joseph I). After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.
    In Spain, his proclamation as a monarch was precipitated by the increase of violence that followed the episode of the Uprising of May 2.
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    Spain’s first constitution was drawn up in Cadiz,during the Peninsular War. It established the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy, the separation of powers and the right to privacy, freedom of press and prohibition of torture.
    It is called "La Pepa" because the 19th of March is the Saint Joseph's Day, (the father day).
    Image: La promulgación de la Constitución de 1812 - Salvador Viniegra
  • Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII
    Ferdinand VII (October 1784 – September 1833)
    Image: Portrait of Ferdinand VII of Spain in his robes of state - Francisco Goya
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    Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as "the Desired" (el Deseado) and to his detractors as the "Felon King" (el Rey Felón).
    The reign of Ferdiand VII can be divided into three periods:
    1. Restoration of absolutism
    2. The liberal period
    3. The victory of absolutism
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    Ferdinand VII - Restoration of absolutism

    The restoration of Fernando VII brings with it the return of the Old absolutist Regime, with the abolition of the Constitution of 1812, the restitution of privileges (Nobility, Clergy and Mesta), also the ruled as an absolute monarch and the restoration of the Old Regime.
  • Riego's Pronunciamiento

    Riego's Pronunciamiento
    Was carried out by the Commander Rafael de Riego, this arose due to the existence of a great discomfort in the army in late 1819.
    This pronunciamiento supposed the imposition of the Spanish liberalism to the absolutist regime imposed by Fernando VII. The liberals exercised the power as established in the liberal constitution of 1812.
    Image: Portrait of Rafael de Riego - Unknown
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    Ferdinand VII - The liberal period (Trienio Liberal)

    The six years of absolutism of Ferdinand VII had made to put into force the Constitution.
    On January 1, 1820, Rafael del Riego made a pronunciamiento to proclaimed the Constitution in Cabezas de San Juan, so finally Ferdinand VII accepted the Constitution.
  • Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis

    Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis
    Was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII in order to support Ferdinand, against the liberals and restore absolutism. The army was in charge of Duke of Angoulême, son of the soon to be Charles X of France. Despite the name, the actual number of troops was around 60,000.
    Image: Episode of the French intervention in Spain 1823 -
    Hippolyte Lecomte
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    Ferdinand VII - The victory of absolutism (Década Ominosa)

    In 1823 Ferdinand asked the Holy Alliance to assit hum in re-establishing the absolutism, it lasted ten yeras of repression and persecution.
    This period is characterized by the persecution of liberalism and the approach of the question of succession.
  • The Pragmatic Sanction

    The Pragmatic Sanction
    Was a decree of Ferdinand VII of Spain, which promulgated his predecessor Charles IV’s unpublished decision of 1789 revoking the Salic law of succession, which had denied royal succession to females. The Pragmatic Sanction was intended to permit his unborn child to succeed to the throne, even if it were female, so that his oldest daughter would inherit the throne and be declared queen upon his death.
  • Isabel II

    Isabel II
    Isabel II (1830-1904)
    Photo: Queen Isabella II of Spain - Unknown
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    The Three Carlist Wars

    The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. The Carlists followers and his descendants fought for the cause of Spanish tradition (Legitimism and Catholicism) against liberalism, and later the republicanism, of the Spanish governments of the day.
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    First Carlist War

    It the first of the three calist war, it was a civil war in Spain between factions over the succession to the throne and the nature of the Spanish monarchy. It was fought between supporters of the regent, Maria Christina, acting for Isabella II of Spain, and those of the late king's brother, Carlos de Borbón. The Carlists supported return to an absolute monarchy.
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    Isabel II

    Isabel II was the Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognize a female sovereign, leading to the Carlist Wars. After a troubled reign, she was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1868, and formally abdicated in 1870. Her son Alfonso XII became king in 1874.
  • Battle of Villar de los Navarros

    Battle of Villar de los Navarros
    Was a confrontation between Carlists and liberals during the First Carlist War framed in the Royal Expedition. The triumph allowed the Carlists to advance over Madrid. The battle led the faction to believe in the chances of success of the Royal Expedition, and therefore, victory in the war.
    Image: Calderote - Ferrer Dalmau
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    Second Carlist War

    The Second Carlist War or Matiners War (from the harassing action that took place at the earliest hours of the morning).
    Theoretically, the war was fought to facilitate the marriage of Isabella II with the Carlist pretender, Carlos de Borbón, which was supported by the moderate party and by the Carlists.
    Nevertheless, Isabel II ended up marrying with its cousin Francisco de Asís de Bourbon.
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution

    Spanish Glorious Revolution
    The Revolution of 1868, called the Glorious Revolution, also known as la Septembrina, was a military uprising with civil elements that took place in Spain in September of 1868 and supposed the dethronement and exile of the queen Isabel II and the beginning of the Period called Sexenio Democrático.
    Image: Caricature on the stages of the Democratic Sexeniofrom the revolution of 1868 - Tomás Padró for "La Flaca" (Titled at that time La Madeja)
  • Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeus of Savoy
    Amadeo I of Spain (30 May 1845 – 18 January 1890)
    Image: Portrait of Amadeo I of Spain - Vicente Palmaroli
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    He was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy, he reigned briefly as King of Spain from.
    He was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II.
    Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence.
    He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result.
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    Third Carlist War

    It is very often referred to as the "Second Carlist War", because the 'second' had been small in scale and almost trivial in political consequence.
    During this conflict, Carlist forces managed to occupy several towns in the interior of Spain, the most important ones being La Seu d'Urgell and Estella in Navarre. Isabella II had abdicated the throne, and Amadeo I, was not very popular.
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    First Republic

    Was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874, when the General Arsenio Martínez-Campos marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain.
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    The Cuban War

    The Cuban War of Independence (1895–1898) was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War (1868–1878) and the Little War (1879–1880). The final three months of the conflict escalated to become the Spanish–American War, with United States forces being deployed in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands against Spain.