Spain in 18th and 19th centuries

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    Charles II (1)

    Son of Philip IV and Mariana of Austria, inherited the throne when his father died in 1666 and with him all the possessions of the Spanish Habsburgs, including Sicily. Carlos II remained under the regency of his mother until he came of age in 1675. He received the throne in a turbulent situation, marked by struggles for power.
    He was nicknamed "The Bewitched" because, at birth was found to be weak, sickly, little physically gifted and mentally. (+)
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    Charles II (2)

    He married twice, with Maria Luisa of Orleans and Mariana of Neuburg, without offspring. The king was sterile.
    The monarchy was involved in four wars determined by the expansionism of the French King Louis XIV.
    After the death of Charles was a long War of Succession (1701-1714), with whom Philip of Anjou, supported by France, was able to prevail as king of Spain under the name of Philip V. He instituting the Spanish throne a branch of the House of Bourbon.
  • Marriage between Charles II and Marie Louise of Orleans

    Marriage between Charles II and Marie Louise of Orleans
    Marie Louise of Orleans was still a virgin a year of marriage. The queen confessed to his waitress that King suffered from "premature ejaculation preventing consummate the marriage."
  • Marriage between Charles II and Mariana of Neuburg

    Marriage between Charles II and Mariana of Neuburg
    The second marriage of Charles II was with Mariana of Neuburg, daughter of the Elector Palatine Philip William, Duke of Neuburg.
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    The Rococo in Spain

    The Rococo in Spain started during the reign of Philip V (1700-1746), favored by churrigueresque, which had led to the ornamental baroque recharging. His influence was limited because there were very few contacts that Spain remained with the European rococo and especially France and Germany.
    The earliest example of rococo architecture is the portal of the cathedral of Valencia, made ​​by the German Rudolf Conrad.
  • Charles II´s death

    Charles II´s death
    Charles II, byname Charles The Mad. He was the son of Philip IV by his second marriage with Maria
  • Philip of Anjou

    Philip of Anjou
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    Philip of Anjou (Philip V) (1)

    Philip V, king of Spain from 1700 (except for a brief period from January to August 1724) and founder of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. During his reign Spain regained much of its former influence in international affairs.
    Son of Louis XIV of France and of Marie Anne, daughter of Ferdinand, elector of Bavaria.In 1714, Philip married Elizabeth Farnese, who took complete control of her husband's policies and who was in turn dominated by the chief minister, Cardinal Alberoni. (+)
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    Spanish Succession War

    After Charles II´s death without any successor, cause a desire for the most powerfull countries in Europe to acced to he Spanish throne. There were to different dinasties, the Burbons with Philip of Anjou (French throne) and the Habsburg with the Archduke Charles os Austria (Austrian throne). The territories that support Philip V were France and Castile. And the ones that support the Austrian candidate were Austria, Prussia, Hannover, Great Britain, Kingdom of Portugal, Netherlands and Aragon.
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    Philip of Anjou, Philip V (2)

    The attempt by the queen and Alberoni to reconquer the former Spanish territories in Italy led to the formation of the Quadruple Alliance of 1718, to which Spain had to submit in 1720. In 1724, Philip abdicated the throne of Spain to his eldest son, Louis, but resumed it later that year after Louis died of smallpox.
  • First Decreto de Nueva Planta

    First Decreto de Nueva Planta
    It avolished the chartes of Aragon and Valencia
  • Treaty of Utrech

    Treaty of Utrech
    The treaty of Utrech, was the end of th Spanish Succession War. It is written there that Great Britain would get some territories in the Mediterranean Sea, and that Austria would be the ruler of the nothern Italian Peninsula. After all, Fance won the war with the british help and the king of Spain would be Philip de Anjou
  • Marriage between Philip V and Elizabeth Farnese

    Marriage between Philip V and Elizabeth Farnese
    After her marriage with Philip V she gained a strong influence over her weak husband and for some time, at first with Alberoni, virtually ruled Spain.
    Her ambition to recoup Spanish losses incurred at the Peace of Utrecht and to secure Italian thrones for her children plunged Spain into several wars.
  • Second Decreto de Nueva Planta

    Second Decreto de Nueva Planta
    it avolished the privileges of Mallorca and Pitusas
  • Third Decreto de Nueva Planta

    Third Decreto de Nueva Planta
    It avolished the especial rights andd laws of Catalonia
  • Cadiz Cathedral

    Cadiz Cathedral
    Cadiz Cathedral, designed in 1722 by Vicente Acero is the most representative work of the Spanish rococo.
  • Louis I, Philip V´s son

    Louis I, Philip V´s son
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    Louis I, Philip V´s son

    First Bourbon born in Spain. Son of King Philip V and Maria Luisa of Savoy.
    In 1709 he was proclaimed Prince of Asturias and in 1722 married Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans.
    He died seven months after taking the throne. His father, Philip V retook the crown influence of his second wife, Elizabeth Farnese.
  • The first Fmaily Compacts, the Treaty of the Escorial

    Several alliances were made between France and Spain in the form of agreement between the French and Spanish branches of the Bourbon family. The first of this alliances is the Treaty of the Escorial.France backed Spain´s right to recover possessions in Italy in return Spain´s support in the War of the Polish succession.
    In 1734, Spanish troops recovered Naples and Sicily and Isabel´s order son Charles was crowned King of Naples.
  • The Royal Palace

    The Royal Palace
    The origin of the palace dates from the ninth century in the Muslim kingdom of Toledo built a defense that was later used by the kings of Castile. This destroyed by fire on Christmas Eve 1734, Felipe V wanted the New Palace occupying the same site. The works were made between 1738 and 1755, Carlos III established residence there in 1764. It is located in Calle de Bailen, Madrid and Juvara, Sabatini and Sachetti took part in this work.
  • The Second Family Compact

    This time in support of France's involvement with the Austrian War of Succession, resulted in the installation of Charles's younger brother Philip as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1748. Spain uses these conflicts, and the resulting treaties, mainly to secure her possessions in Italy.
  • Isabel of Parma

    Isabel of Parma
    She was the second wife of Philip V. Since Philip’s two sons by his first wife were in line to succeed him, the ambitious Isabella sought to secure lands in Italy for the children, she bore the sovereign. With this she dominated her reign, and in the end Spanish imperialism in Italy achieved a great success. Isabella’s eldest son, Charles, and his brother Philip both gained titles to Italian domains.
  • Francisco de Goya

    Francisco de Goya
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    Francisco de Goya

  • Ferdinand VI

    Ferdinand VI
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    Ferdinand VI

    when Fernando VI reach the throne, he breaks all Italian influence. He had a pacifist policy. He was not involved in any new conflict, as the war of succession of the Austrian Empire or the Seven Years War. This allowed him to perform an inner economic reconstruction and huge savings on troops and artillery
  • The Canal de Castilla

    The Canal de Castilla
    The Canal de Castilla, is one of the most important civil engineering projects of Spain Illustrated, the main purpose of its construction was used as water way transport and communication that solve the problem by insulation that was under the Castile and Leon plateau.
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    Seven Years War

    The Seven Years' War essentially comprised two struggles. One centered on the maritime and colonial conflict between Britain and its Bourbon enemies, France and Spain. The second, on the conflict between Frederick II of Prussia and his opponents: Austria, France, Russia, and Sweden. Two other less prominent struggles were also worthy of note.
  • Charles III

    Charles III
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    Charles III

    King of Naples (1734-1759) and Spain (1759-1788), belonging to the House of Bourbon. He was the third son of Felipe V, first he had with his second wife, Elizabeth Farnese, so was his brother Ferdinand VI, who succeeded his father on the Spanish Throne.
    Carlos served family policy as a part in the struggle to regain the Spanish influence in Italy. The childless death of Fernando VI made ​​Carlos happen to occupy the Spanish Crown in 1759, leaving the throne of Naples to his third son.
  • The Third Family Compact

    This was the mpost important treati. Both England and France sought Spanish support in the Seven Years War, but England's attack on Spanish colonies and Charles III of Spain and the king rejected the English offer in favor of the proposal made by the French minister, the duc de Choiseul. Spain entered the war (1762) but was of small use to France; the economic and political provisions of the pact proved more enduring than the military ones. The Seven Years War proves a costly disaster.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Treaty that officially ended the French and Indian War. France ceded many of its colonial possessions to Great Britain in North America, Sengal, India, Menorca and Portugal. Spain received western Louisiana, Florida and cash compensation from France.
  • Marriage between Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma.

    Marriage between Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma.
    Charles IV married his first cousin Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Parma (daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma) in 1765. They had 14 children of the twenty-four times that Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Parma was pregnant. Seven of them reached adulthood
  • The Post Office

    The Post Office
    Built by the French architect Maquet between 1766 and 1768. Highlights include a beautiful facade and the twin courtyards inside, now the headquarters of the Community of Madrid. It is located in the Puerta del Sol
  • Esquilache Ricts

    Esquilache Ricts
    Esquilache was appointed Secretary of the Treasury and later he became Secretary of War and Navy and finally Secretary of State, during the reign of Charles III.
    The most unpopular decision was the one related to clothes and public order: Esquilache ordered replacing long cloaks and broad- brimmed hats for short cloaks and three-cornered hats, because many criminals took advantage of the usual Spanish clothes to hide their faces and escape justice.
  • Jesuits

    The Jesuits or Society of Jesus, is a Christian male religious congregation of the Roman Catholic Church.
    The Jesuits were distrusted by the Enlightened Despots because they opposed growing state control of religion and supported the pope. The kings of Portugal, France, Spain and Naples, urged on by advisors who were disciples of the philosophes, first drove the Jesuits from their own lands (1767) and then forced the pope to suppress the Order around the world in 1773.
  • Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
    Jovellanos is considered one of the best Spanish enlightenment prose writers. His best works are in the form of essays, but always from the point of view of Enlightened Despotism. In 1787, he published "El delincuente honrado"thatr was wrote in 1773, and in the same date a poetry book called "Jovino a sus amigos de Salamanca"
  • Royal tapestry

    Royal tapestry
    Goya activity for the Royal Tapestry Factory lasted for twelve years, from 1775-1780 in the first five years of work and 1786-1792 (seven years), when a serious illness, which caused his deafness, definitely stepped him away from this work. In total he made ​​four series of cards.
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    Royal tapestry

    Goya activity for the Royal Tapestry Factory lasted for twelve years, from 1775-1780 in the first five years of work and 1786-1792 (seven years), when a serious illness, which caused his deafness, definitely stepped him away from this work. In total he made ​​four series of cards.
  • Count of Floridablanca

    Count of Floridablanca
    Spanish poitician that was sent as ambassor in rome, so he dilled with Carlos III and the Papal States. He is better known because the laws he prepared.
  • Fountain of Neptune

    Fountain of Neptune
    It is a neoclassical monument that is at the center of the Plaza de Canovas del Castillo, in the Paseo de la Castellana. Design Ventura Rodriguez. It was designed in 1777 and construction was completed in 1786.
  • Puerta de Alcalá

    Puerta de Alcalá
    In the Plaza de la Independencia. This beautiful triumphal arch surrounded by a traffic hub of Madrid, was built by Francisco Sabatini in 1778, commemorating the entry of Carlos III in Madrid.
  • Apollo Fountain

    Apollo Fountain
    In the Paseo de la Castellana. Design Ventura Rodriguez. The Apollo Fountain is also called the Four Seasons
  • The Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid

    The Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid
    The Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid is a research center of the Higher Council for Scientific Research. Founded in 1755 by King Ferdinand VI in Soto de Migas Calientes, near the river Manzanares, Carlos III ordered the move to its current location in 1781, the Paseo del Prado, next to the Natural History Museum being built (now Museum Prado) in Madrid, Spain. This botanical garden on three terraced houses, plants in America and the Pacific, in addition to European plants.
  • Cibeles Fountain

    Cibeles Fountain
    In the Paseo del Prado. Drawings carved on Ventura Rodríguez, made ​​today one of the most characteristic symbols of Madrid.
  • The Prado Museum

    The Prado Museum
    In the Paseo del Prado. It is perhaps the best neoclassical building in Madrid. It was built in 1785 to house the museum of natural science, he served as an arsenal during the Revolutionary War, and in 1819 was opened as a museum of paintings.
  • Charles IV

    Charles IV
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    Charles IV (1)

    Son of Charles III and Maria Amalia of Saxony.
    In 1765 was held in Parma powers your wedding with Maria Luisa of Parma, with whom he will have fourteen children.
    King forty years during his early reign, the government of the Count of Floridablanca, tried a enlightened reformism. The following year Manuel Godoy dominated the Spanish political landscape.
    Death of Louis XVI in France, led to long years of disastrous war. (+)
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    Charles IV (2)

    Death of Louis XVI in France, led to long years of disastrous war. Godoy was in the difficult position of having an alliance with France, brought the war alliance, and this disaster of Trafalgar, which was a hard blow for the Spanish navy. In 1806 his abdication occurs in Bayonne, forced both by the presence of French troops in Spain.
    Exiled for eleven years, Carlos IV at seventy years of age died in Naples.
  • Painting of Charles III

    Painting of Charles III
  • Goya got deaf

  • Manuel Godoy

    Manuel Godoy
    Prime Minister in November 1792. He signed the Treaty of Amiens, by which Spain won Britain the island of Menorca. His downfall came in the wake of the mutiny of Aranjuez. He died in Paris in 1851. Godoy involved Spain in the French Revolutionary Wars. As a result of this alliance, Spain was put in a situation of dependence Francia.autorizó the Napoleonic troops went from Spanish territory by the Portuguese government to demand the implementation of the continental blockade against England.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
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    War of Pyrenees

    It pitted Revolutionary France against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal
  • Los Caprichos

    Los Caprichos
    Goya's Caprichos exemplify a world in crisis, understood this idea in the sense of change. Conceptuallym, it reveals fissures in a sociopolitical structure based on a stratified stagnant stratification, and a value system based on the immobility of the customs and tyrannical religious oppression of conscience.
  • Painting of the family of Charles IV

    Painting of the family of Charles IV
  • Spanish defeat at Trafalgar

    Spanish defeat at Trafalgar
    A naval battle in 1805 off the southwest coast of Spain; the French and Spanish fleets were defeated by the English under Nelson
  • Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII
  • Painting Los Fusilamientos del tres de mayo

    Painting Los Fusilamientos del tres de mayo
  • Napoleonic troops in Spain

    Napoleonic troops in Spain
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    Ferdinand VII (1)

    Third son of Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma .
    He led the mutiny of Aranjuez, which seized the throne Carlos IV and Godoy toppled from power. Ferdinand, who had been in contact with Napoleon over their plots , it was found in that same year the emperor invaded Spain and made ​​him catch and drive to Bayonne , there forced him to return the crown to Charles IV , only to force it abdicated the Spanish throne in the emperor's own brother , Joseph I. (+)
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    Ferdinadn VII (2)

    Was the Spanish people who took their own resistance against the French occupation and the revolutionary process that was to lead to the Cortes of Cadiz to develop the first Spanish Constitution in 1812 , during the ensuing War of Independence (1808-14) the captive King became a symbol of the Spanish national aspirations , why should that he received the nickname of the Desire.
    The return of Ferdinand VII of Spain, ended the War ofIndependence. (+)
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    Ferdinand VII (3)

    The attempt by the privileged groups and traditional monarchy, back again to the old regime , overturning the liberal principles that were established in the Courts of Cadiz.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Napoleon after dining with kings parents and Godoy, quoted Fernando VII, and his parents supported Napoleon threatened to abdicate in favor of Charles IV the next day.
  • 2 May 1808

    2 May 1808
    Song of the two of mayFrench troops occupied a large part of Spain in early 1808. They gained control of Madrid on March 23, 1808. The people of Madrid rebelled against the occupation on May 2, 1808.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    It was agreed that Portugal and all Portuguese dominions were to be divided between the signatories; by this accord Napoleon wanted to secure and ensure the Continental Blockade he had imposed on Britain in 1806 by capturing the Portuguese ports. The Spanish prime minister Manuel de Godoy was also present when the treaty was signed. The Treaty of Fontainebleau was one of the causes that triggered the Peninsular War.
  • Constitution of 1812 (Cadiz)

    Constitution of 1812 (Cadiz)
    Popularly known as "La Pepa" this statute was the first liberal constitution.The liberal deputies Agustín Argüelles, Diego Muñoz Pérez de Castro Torrero, the most prominent figures in its development.
    Its main characteristrics were:
    · National Sovereignty.
    · Division of Powers.
    · Right to representation.
    · Universal male suffrage indirect.
    · Equality of citizens before the law.
    · Any reference to territories with privileges is ignored.
    · Individual Rights.
    · Catholicism is the only religion.
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    Absolutist period for Ferdinand VII

    A period characterized by a return to the old regime and absolutism began. Spain was excluded from the benefits that the victorious powers of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Our country, torn by war of Independence, was relegated to a secondary role in the international arena. Over twelve thousand "Frenchified" They were exiled from the country and a severe persecution began against the Liberals.
  • Plaza de Oriente

    Plaza de Oriente
    In front of the eastern facade of the Royal Palace. In the project that should reach King Avenue to the Plaza de la Cibeles. In this convents and palaces of great artistic value were destroyed. The project was not completed by the French defeat in the War of Independence. Isabel II would be the conclusion of the current path with the construction of the Royal Theatre and gardens.
  • Puerta de Toledo

    Puerta de Toledo
    In the Glorieta Puerta de Toledo. It was built in 1817 in commemoration of the return of Fernando VII Madrid, after the victory against Napoleon's troops.
  • Saturn devouring his son

    Saturn devouring his son
  • Riego's pronunciamiento

    Riego's pronunciamiento
    Riego's pronunciamento, was a "coup d'etat", conducted by Major Rafael de Riego on January 1, 1820 in Cabezas de San Juan (Sevilla). The ruling arose among the officers of the troops destined to fight American uprising against.
    With this survey, complete the first stage of the reign of Ferdinand VII. 1820-1823: and liberal government, the so-called Liberal Triennium set.
  • Tomas de Zumalacarregui

    Tomas de Zumalacarregui
    He was a Spanish soldier, and later on a general, who participated in the Independence War and in the First Carlist War
  • Teatro Real

    Teatro Real
    In the Plaza de Oriente and Plaza de Isabel II. Immense theater designed by López Aguado and built by Custodio Moreno in 1818 to house the opera house. At the beautiful facade is added the interest to own one of the largest stages in the world. Your current reform has been undertaken in order to restore the function of City Opera.
  • Pragmatic sanction

    Pragmatic sanction
    Pragmatic Sanction of King Ferdinand VII, decree of Ferdinand VII of Spain, which promulgated his predecessor Charles IV’s unpublished decision of 1789 revoking the Salic law of succession, which had denied royal succession to females. The Pragmatic Sanction was intended to permit his unborn child to succeed to the throne, even if it were female.
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    First Carlist War

    Ferdinand VII cost him having descendants, but one day one of his wifes was pregnant, the baby was a girl. Then the king disavowed the Salic Law to reign her daughter, Isabella II. The Infant Carlos did not recognize his niece as queen of Spain. The opposition established him as king and that started the war.
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    Regencies for Isabella II

    Maria Cristina became regent on 29 September 1833, when her three-year old daughter Isabella was proclaimed queen regnant on the death of the king.
    After the Carlist war, the queen-regent, Maria Cristina, resigned to make way for Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara, the most successful and most popular Isabelline general. Espartero, a Progressive, remained regent for only two years.
  • Bank of Spain

    Bank of Spain
    In Alcalá, 48 and Paseo del Prado. Built by Adaro and Sainz de la Lastra between 1842 and 1891, is one of the best eclectic buildings of Madrid.
  • Isabel II

    Isabel II
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    Isabel II (1)

    Daughter of Ferdinand VII and his fourth wife, María Cristina de Borbón.
    His birth brought dynastic problems, because until then the heir was the brother of Fernando VII, Carlos María Isidro, who did not accept the appointment of Elizabeth and Princess of Asturias and heir to the throne.
    When he was three years old, succeeded to the throne of Spain to his father Fernando VII. In his minority were her mother Maria Cristina regents until 1840. (+)
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    Isabel II (2)

    Which was supported by liberals trying to defend Carlist (first Carlist War, 1833-1839) and General Baldomero Espartero until 1843.
    At 16, married, against his will, with his cousin Francis and had nine children.
    The last stage of the reign of Isabel II was clearly political decay. The Revolution of 1868 marked the final dethronement of Isabel II, who abdicated in his son Alfonso XII to favor the return of the Bourbon monarchy in Spain.
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    Second Carlist War

    When Isabella II was the official queen of Spain, many divisions still thinking that their king were Carlos V. There werer a plan to marry Carlos's son (Carlos VI) and Isabella II. In this way Carlos could influenciate in the throne. Finally the governemt didn't admit that marriage and support the marriage of the queen ad Francisco de Asis. This caused another war
  • Teatro de la Zarzuela

    Teatro de la Zarzuela
    In Jovellanos Street. It was built in 1856 by Jerome of Gandara following the model of the Scala of Milan.
  • Ortegada

    It was a plot of the generals Jaime Ortega and Olleta tu put down Isabel II. And establish as king Charles Luis de Borbon.
  • National Library and National Archaeological Museum

    National Library and National Archaeological Museum
    In the streets Jorge Juan, Serrano and Villanueva. Designed by Jareño Francisco in 1865 and completed by Antonio Ruiz de Salces in 1896. The library has the added attraction of being one of the largest libraries bibliographic world.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution is a revolution started by the Spanish liberal movement as an answer to the increasingly conservative and dictatorial monarchy of Isabel II.
  • Amadeo I

    Amadeo I
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    Amadeo I

    Amadeo I of Spain was the second son of Vittorio Emanuele II, the first king of Italy. After the death of Isabella II, General Prim, the head of government, ought to find a successor to the throne. I found in the house of Savoy, Italy, since the treaty of Utrecht dictated Amadeo I as king of Spain in these circumstances. General Prim is murdered. At the end no one is satisfied with this king. Abdicated and returned to Italy.
  • Juan Prim

    Juan Prim
    Juan Prim was a spanish military leader and poliytical figure who played an important role in the Revolution of 1868 that resulted in the dethronement of Isabella II, the Bourbon spanish queen.
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    Third Carlist War

    The third Carlist war took place when the Carlist forces rejected the proclamation of Amadeus of Savoy as king, the first non-Bourbon monarch, who ascended as Amadeus I. The carlist pact with the republicans. In 1872 several carlist troops enter Spain through France as the pretenders entourage. But the insurrection ended two days later when General Moriones attacked taking the carlist forces by surprise. They signed the Amorobieta Covenant on the same day
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    Estanislao Figueras, first president of the I Republic

    He was the first president of the first republic in Spain. in 1873 was elected president of the republic, a position he occupied until June of that year due to an economic crisis and a division caused in his own political party. He went to France and in his last years of life he returned to Spain and founded a new political party, with little repercussion, with Ruiz Zorrilla.
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    Francisco Pi y Margall, second presindent of the I Republic.

    He was a politician that initially played an important role in the Partido Democratico Republicano Federal. Later in the Ministry of the Interior of the First Republic he tried to re-establish local councils. Then he would assume the post of second president of the First Republic. Resigned after a controversial decision wich involved the cantonalists.
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    Nicolás Salmerón, third resident of the I Republic

    Before facing the office of President of the Republic, was the Minister of Grace and Justice and President of the Congress. During his political life he attempted the separation of church and state, the tenure of public officials and prison reform, as the president he tried to restore the central authority, reorganizing the army and stifling cantonalista revolt. He resigned citing problems of conscience
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    Emilio Castelar, fourth president of the I Republic

    Traying to save the regime, he dissolved the Parliament and he acted with the diligence of a dictator, mobilizing resources and commissioning men and command military operations to professionals. When sessions resumed Cortes, Castelar resigned after losing a parliamentary vote, which determined the immediate intervention of General Pavia, which gave a coup d'etat by dissolving the Parliament and creating a power vacuum that takes advantage of General Serrano to proclaim himself President.
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    Francisco Serrano, fifth president of the I Republic

    When the coup d'etat of the General Pavia was dissolved the Republican Parliament, Serrano was named president of government and the executive branch, establishing a kind of republican dictatorship, his ambition was to be perpetuated as a dictator, but the destruction of the Republican forces had opened the way for the restoration of the Bourbons. He accepted the new king, Alfonso XII
  • Crystal Palace

    Crystal Palace
    In the Retiro Park. Beautiful iron and glass pavilion built in 1887 as a conservatory of exotic plants on the Philippines for an exhibition.