Liberalism and Expansion in the Industrial Society

  • Period: Jan 1, 1301 to

    Middle East

    Ottoman Empire 1301-1922
    Split of the Roman Empire = Constantinople 1453
    Absorbedother ghazi states, and established a firm power base as a regional Muslim power.
    Constantinople= Istanbul
    Powerfull army, power centralized, religion incorporated in the state structure.
    Crimea War 1853- against Russia
    Outbreak of WWI- British ocuppation of Baghdad and Jerusalem
    1918- Turkish resistane collapsed
    1920- Treaty of Sevres: cesion to the allies the Eastern Mediterranean
    Islam, Judaism and Christianity
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Scientific Revolution

    Between the XVI and XVII Century
    Renaissance thinkers believed that mathematics was the key to understanding the nature of things in the universe
    + Nicolaus Copernicus - Heliocentric Universe
    + Johannes Kepler - Elliptical Orbits of the Planets
    + Galileo Galilei - Heavenly Bodies made of Material Substance
    + Isaac Newton - Universal Law of Gravitation
    + Descartes - Father of Modern Rationalism
    + Bacon - Scientific Method
  • Period: to


    XVIII Century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievements of the Scientific Revolution
    -Voltaire= Author of "Lettres Philosophiques"
    -Rousseau= Author of the "Social Contract"
    -Diderot= Author of "L'Encyclopédie" or Encyclopedia
    -Locke= Author of "Two Treatises of Government"
    -Montesquieu= Author “Spirit of the Laws”
    -Hobbes= Author of the "Leviathan"
    -Adam Smith= Author of "The Wealth of the Nations", known as the father of the economy
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    Middle of XVIII Century – 13 Colonies
    December 16th, 1773 - Boston Tea Party
    Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson was approved on July 4th, 1776
    Seven years of fight against Great Britain 1777 - 1783
    Benjamin Franklin travels to Paris to ask King Louis XVI for his support
    1787 – Federal Democratic Republic under the Presidency of George Washington
  • Period: to

    1st Industrial Revolution

    Begins in Great Britain
    It expands to Europe: Belgium, France and latter to the USA
    Use of Coal and Iron
    "Spinning Jenny" ,Locomotive, Paddle-Wheel Steamboat
    New Social Classes: Industrial Middle Class and Industrial Working Class
    Socialism= rises because of the pitiful conditions created by the Industrial Revolution
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    Social conditions and Enlightenment ideas formed a background to the French Revolution
    July 14th, 1789–STORMING OF THE BASTILLE
    Constitution of 1791-set up a limited monarchy
    The royal family attempted to flee France-Louis XVI
    The Reign of Terror 1793-1799
    Maximilien Robespierre - Leader of the Committee of Public Safety
    January 21st, 1793 the King was beheaded on the guillotine
    New constitution was created: Constitution of 1795
    Executive power: Committee of five called The Directory
  • Haiti Independence

    Haiti Independence
    Saint Domingue – French Colony in the Hispaniola Island
    The night of 21 August 1791 - the slaves of Saint Domingue rose in revolt and plunged the colony into civil war
    1792, slave rebels controlled a third of the island
    August 1793 - freed the slaves in St. Domingue (4th of February 1794, Maximilien Robespierre abolished slavery by law in France and all its colonies )
    1 January 1804 - Jean-Jacques Dessalines officially declared the former colony's independence, renaming it "Haiti"
  • Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleonic Empire
    1799–Coup d'état to overthrew the Directory=The Consulate
    1804–Emperor Napoleon I
    Creation of the Civil Code or Napoleonic Code
    France in war with: Russia, GB and Austria
    1807-1812–Napoleon Master of Europe
    Napoleon’s downfall began in 1812-Invade Russia
    March 1814–Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba
    Monarchy restored-Louis XVIII
    Napoleon left the island of Elba and slipped back into France
    Waterloo–June 18th, 1815–Defeat Napoleon's Army
    Napoleon exiled to St. Helena Island
  • Period: to


    Domination of a country over other
    England, France, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, USA.
    Demographical, Economical, Ideological and Political Causes
    Colonies, Protectorates, Domanins and Spheres of Influence
  • Period: to

    Imperialism in Africa

    England=Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, Nigeria
    France=French West Africa
    Germany=Togo, Cameroon, German Southwest Africa, German East Africa
    England=Egypt(Suez Canal) Sudan
    France=Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco
    Italy=Lybia, Defeated in Ethiophia
    France=French Equatorial Africa
    Berlin Conference 1884-1885
    -Germany,Portugal,England-divide territory
    -Liberia, Ethiopia-Free
    First Netherlands then England
    Boers Wars(Boers-British)
  • Period: to

    Imperialism in China

    Opium Wars: Treaty of Nanjing= Hong Kong to Britain
    Tai Ping Rebellion: Hong Xiuquan, son of God
    Open Door Policy
    Boxer Rebellion: against foreign intervention
    REVOLUTION 1911-1913
    Henry Pu Yi - Last Emperor
    Sun Yat Sen - begins the revolutionary movement, co founded the Kuomintang
    Yuan Shigai - general that leaded the revolution and takes the control of China
    After the revolution began the Civil War
  • Period: to

    Imperialism in Japan

    Treaty of Kanagawa= Ends Japan Isolation
    Emperor Mutshuito= He called his reign the Meiji or ´´Enlightened Rule´´
    Meiji Constitution= was modeled after Germany's one
    Russo-Japanese War began in 1904 for the control of Korea
    US recognized the role of Japan in Korea. Japan recognized US control in Philippines
    A group of leading Taiwanese, defeated the Japanese and declared Taiwan a republic – Asia's first independent republic
  • Period: to

    Imperialism in India

    The Great Rebellion / Sepoy Mutiny / First War of Independence
    -Sepoys against East India Trade Company
    British Parliament, transferred the powers of the East India Company directly to the British Government
    -Queen Victoria (Empress of India)
    Lot of natural resources: tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, jute, and opium
    Indian people paid high price for peace and stability brought by british rule
    1885–Indian National Congress (INC)
    1915 – Gandhi comes back to India - leader of the National Movement
  • Period: to

    Imperialism in Southeast of Asia

    England= Singapore, Burma (Myanmar), Malaysia
    France= French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin and Laos)
    United States= in 1898 during the Spanish-American War, Americans pull of Philippines from Spanish people.
    Thailand= Formerly called Siam was the only remaining free state in Southeast Asia
  • Independencia de México

    Independencia de México
    INICIACIÓN 1810–1811
    Conspiración de Querétaro
    Grito de Dolores-Miguel Hidalgo
    Acatita de Baján-Traición a Hidalgo, Allende, Jiménez y Aldama
    ORGANIZACIÓN 1811–1815
    Junta de Zitácuaro
    Congreso de Chilpancingo-Sentimientos de la Nación-Morelos
    Constitución Apatzingán
    RESISTENCIA 1815–1820
    Vicente Guerrero y Francisco Javier Mina
    Abrazo de Acatempan-Iturbide y Guerrero
    Plan de Iguala
    Tratados de Córdova-Iturbide y O'Donojú
    Entrada del Ejército Trigarante a CDMX-21 Septiembre 1821
  • Chile Independence

    Chile Independence
    September 18, 1810 - Chile declared its independence
    They were theeoretically loyal to the king Ferdinand VII of Spain
    + Bernardo O'Higgins
    + José de San Martín - Argentina
    Royalist forces were defeated by José de San Martín in 1821
    February 12, 1818 - A declaration of independence was officially issued by Chile and formally recognized by Spain in 1844
  • Venezuela Independence

    Venezuela Independence
    The Congress declared Venezuela's independence on 5 July 1811, establishing the Republic of Venezuela
    Simón Bolívar led an campaign to retake Venezuela, establishing the Second Republic of Venezuela in 1813
    On 17 December 1819 the Congress of Angostura declared Gran Colombia an independent country.
    Colombia, Panama,Ecuador and Venezuela
    After two more years of war, the country achieved independence from Spain in 1821
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia
    Restore the Old Order and arrange a final peace settlement
    4 Principles: Legitimacy, Compensation, Stability and Balance of Power
    Holly Alliance: Russia, Austria, Prussia - Establish and guard the principles of Christianity
    Quadruple Alliance: Russia, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain - Military Alliance with the objective of warrantee the established limits
  • Primer Imperio Mexicano

    Primer Imperio Mexicano
    Agustín I de México
    Plan de Casa Mata - Santa Anna y Guerrero
    Reinstaurar el Congreso y crear una República
    Marzo 1823 - Agustín I Abdica
  • Brazil Independence

    Brazil Independence
    September 7, 1822 - Prince Pedro and his companions had spread the notice of the Brazilian independence from Portugal
    September 22, 1822 – Official separation
    October 12, 1822 – Prince Pedro was acclaimed Dom Pedro I, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil
    War between the Brazilians and Portuguese - February 1822 to November 1823
    Summer 1825 - Peace treaty recognizing Brazil's independence
  • Triunvirato

    Poder Ejecutivo en Tres Personas:
    Nicolás Bravo, Pedro Celestino Negrete y Guadalupe Victoria
  • Period: to

    Primera República Federal

    Promulgación Constitución 4 Octubre 1824
    Guadalupe Victoria - Primer Presidente de México
    Intento de Reconquista de España - 1829
    Ley 6 Abril 1830 - Restringir Inmigración Estadounidense a Texas
    Santa Anna Presidente por Primera Vez - Mayo 1833
  • 1830 Revolutions

    1830 Revolutions
    France – “July Revolution” “Trois Glorieuses
    - Charles X is overthrown, Louis-Philippe new King
    - Rebellion against Netherlands
    - Creation of an Independent State - Leopold I
    Germany, Poland and Italy
    - Didn’t Succeed
  • Period: to

    Primera República Centralista

    7 Leyes - Supremo Poder Conservado "4o Poder"
    Inicia Rebelión en Texas
    Independencia de Texas - Tratado de Velazco
    España Reconoce la Independencia de México - 28 Dic 1836
    Guerra de los Pasteles
  • Period: to

    Segunda República Centralista

    Bases Orgánicas
    Texas se Incorpora a EUA
    Inicia la Guerra con Estados Unidos - California y Nuevo México
  • Period: to

    Segunda República Federal

    Se retoma la Constitución de 1824
    Batalla de Chapultepec - Niños Héroes
    Fin de la Guerra con EUA - Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo - Pérdida de Nuevo México y California
    Plan del Hospicio - Regresar a Santa Anna al Poder
  • 1848 Revolutions

    1848 Revolutions
    - Louis-Philippe Abdicates
    - Constitution 4 November – Second Republic
    - Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (nephew of Napoleon I)
    - Second French Empire- Napoleon III
    Austrian Empire
    -Finish with the Liberal movements
    German Confederation - "Märzrevolution"
    -Frankfurt Parliament
    -Unified Germany
    -Constitutional Monarchy
    -Didn't Succeed
  • Dictadura de Santa Anna

    Dictadura de Santa Anna
    Venta de la Mesilla
    Creación del Himno Nacional
    Plan de Ayutla - Fin de la Dictadura
    Santa Anna sale del País el 12 de Agosto de 1855
  • Restauración de la República

    Restauración de la República
    -Suprimir los fueros del clero y del ejército
    -Matrimonio Religioso sin Validez Oficial
    -Se declararon los días festivos, prohibiendo la asistencia oficial a las festividades religiosas
    -Religión Católica deja de ser la única permitida
    Constitución 1857 - 5 Febrero
    GUERRA DE REFORMA 1857-1861
    Liberales- Benito Juarez, Veracruz
    Conservadores- Félix Zuloaga, CDMX
  • Italian Unification

    Italian Unification
    Victor Emmanuel II- Piedmont
    Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour– Prime Minister 1852
    Alliance con Napoleon III = Austria declares war in 1859
    - Nice and Savoy– to France
    - Lombardy– to Piedmont
    Giuseppe Garibaldi– Leader in the south - Redshirts Army
    September 1860– Kingdom of the Two Sicilies fall
    March 17th, 1861– Kingdom of Italy – King Victor Emmanuel II
    Austro-Prussian War 1866- Italy gets the control of Veneto
    Franco Purssian War1870- Annexation of Rome to Italy
    Rome Capital of Italy
  • Segundo Imperio Mexicano

    Segundo Imperio Mexicano
    Convenio de Londres (Inglaterra, España, Francia)
    Guerra contra Francia - Batalla 5 de Mayo
    Maximiliano de Habsburgo Y Carlota - 28 Mayo 1864
    -Apoyo de Francia
    Liberalismo de Maximiliano-Enemistad con el grupo Conservador
    Francia retiró apoyo a Maximiliano - Guerra Franco-Prusiana
    Maximiliano trata de Abdicar y de Salir del País - Alianza con Conservadores
    Maximiliano Capturado y condenado a muerte
  • American Civil War

    American Civil War
    Abraham Lincoln – President 1860
    December 1860 - United States Secession
    Confederate States of America - 1861
    -Southern States, Slavery States, Jefferson Davies
    United States of America
    -Northern States, Abolish Slavery, Abraham Lincoln
    January 1863 – Emancipation Proclamation
    Lincoln is murdered - April 1865
    December 1865 – 13th Amendment was ratified and slavery was officially abolished
  • Period: to

    2nd Industrial Revolution

    Industrialized and Non-Industrialized Nations
    The Middle Class Appeared
    Labor Reforms
    - Higher Wages
    - Better working conditions
    - Reduction of the weekly working days
    Syndicates= organizations of workers
    Socialist Parties based in the ideas of Marx
    Petroleum,Electricity, Steel replace Coal and Iron
    Transport and Communications Development - Era of Inventions
  • German Unification

    German Unification
    Failure of the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849
    William I–King of Prussia
    Otto Von Bismarck–Prime Minister (Realpolitik)
    Austro-Prussian War 1866
    - North German Confederation
    Southern German States
    - Military alliance with Prussia to protect from France
    Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871
    - Southern German States support Prussia
    - France is defeated
    Southern German States unify with North German Confederation + Alsace and Lorraine
    William I–Kaiser of the Second German Empire
  • Period: to


    Gobierno Centralista que se convierte en Dictadura
    Atracción de Inversión Extranjera
    Industrias= vidrio, hielo, fundición (Norte de México)
    Ferrocarril, Telégrafo, Alumbrado Público, Drenaje, etc.
    Científicos - Positivismo
    Élite Blanca - Clase apta para gobernar
    Rurales - Caminos
    Surge la Clase Media
    Se instauran las celebraciones cívicas
    Se adoptan costumbres francesas
    25 de mayo de 1911 - Porfirio Díaz deja la presidencia y sale del país rumbo a Francia
  • Cuba Independence

    Cuba Independence
    José Martí - nationalist leader
    Revolution in order to achieve independence from Spain.
    Against the U.S. annexation of Cuba
    The insurrection began on February 24, 1895, with uprisings all across the island
    Spain was fighting two wars: against Cuba and against Philippines
    Spain asked for peace on July 17, 1898
    December 10, 1898 - the United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris = Recognized Cuban independence