History of Spain during the 19th century

  • Dos de Mayo Uprising

    Dos de Mayo Uprising
    It was a rebellion by the citizens of Madrid against the French occupation, provoking a brutal repression by the French troops and starting the Independence War.
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    Spanish War of Independence

    The Spanish War of Independence, or Peninsular War, was a military conflict between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom and Portugal, caused by the French occupation in Spain. It began with the 2 de Mayo Uprising and finishedwith the promulgation of the Constitution.
  • Battle of Bailén

    Battle of Bailén
    It was the first open conflict between the French Army and the Spanish army, who were in inferiority. France was defeated and, because of this, Napoleon took it as an insult and decided to come personally to finish the conflict in Spain.
  • Promulgation of the First Constitution

    Promulgation of the First Constitution
    The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was established the Cortes Generales in Cádiz. It established the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty and constitutional monarchy between others.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    This treaty returned the throne of Spain to Fernando VII and it forced Spain to kick out the British troops and to maintain neutral during the war in exchange of their liberation from France.
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    Reign of Fernando VII

    During this period, Spain was divided between those who supported the absolute monarchy and those who supported the constitution.
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    Liberal rule

    Ferdinand was forced to accept the liberal Constitution of 1812, by the revolutionaries. This was the start of the second bourgeois revolution in Spain.
  • Invasion of the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Invasion of the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    It was an invasion by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII, to restore the absolute monarchy of Ferdinand VII. Despite of the name, the army was composed by 60,000 soldiers.
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    The Omnious Decade

    It was the third and last reign of Fernando VII. Most of the enlightened people emigrates to London and this decade was marked by the supression of his enemies.
  • Battle of Trocadero

    Battle of Trocadero
    This battle was a French besiege to the fort of Trocadero, which controlled the acces of Cádiz. The French troops launched a surprise attack from the seaside and took the fort.
  • Surrender of Cádiz

    Surrender of Cádiz
    After three weeks of constant bombing and siege, the Spanish forces in Cádiz were forced to surrender and King Ferdinand was handed over to the French.
  • Battle of Ayacucho

    Battle of Ayacucho
    It was a decisive military encounter during the Peruvian War of Independence. In this battle, where the Spanish army was defeated, Peru won his independence, leaving Cuba and Puerto Rico as the last colonies under Spanish control.
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    I Carlist War

    This conflifc originated after the death of Fernando VII, between the followers of Infante Carlos (Fernando VII's brother) and the followers of Isabel II (Fernando VII's daughter). The main conflict centered on the Basque Country, Aragon and Catalonia. The victory was for Isabel II.
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    Reign of Maria Cristina

    Maria Cristina, Isabella's mother, acted as a Queen Regent during Isabella's childhood. She introduced the first changes to institute a Liberal system.
  • Battle of Luchana

    Battle of Luchana
    It occurred at Bilbao during the night. The Carlists were besieging Bilbao and were defeated at this battle, causing the retire of the army.
  • II Spanish Constitution

    II Spanish Constitution
    It recognised national sovereignty; the Parliament was divided into two Chambers, the Senate and the Congress.
  • The Convention of Vergara

    The Convention of Vergara
    It was a treaty successfully ending the First Carlist War, signed by Rafael Maroto for the Carlisists and Baldomero Espartero for the Isabelines. This writting acknowledged Isabella as queen of Spain.
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    Regency of Espartero

    Espartero governed until Isabel II turned 13 and is considered an adult, able to govern.
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    Reign of Isabel II

    Two parties appeared with the new system: the Moderate party, that believed that power should be shared by the Cortes and the Crown, and the Progressivists, who though that sovereignty should only be controlled by the Cortes.
  • III Spanish Constitution

    III Spanish Constitution
    Sovereignity was shared between the crown and the Parliament; suffrage was extremely limited.
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    II Carlist War

    It was a short civil conflict between the Carlists and the Liberals. the war was fought to facilitate the marriage of Isabella II with the Carlist pretender, Carlos de Borbón. The marriage never took place, as Isabella II was wed to Francisco de Borbón.
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    The Progressive Biennium

    During this period, General Espartero was named Head of the State. The most important objective was to establish the spirit of the 1837 Constitution.
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    Government of the Unión Liberal

    It was a political party in Spain It was founded by Leopoldo O'Donnell in 1858 with the intent of forging a compromise and taking a centrist position between the two forces that had hitherto dominated Spanish politics during the reign of Isabella II.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    An 1866 rebellion led by General Juan Prim took place in Spain in 1868, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II. Leaders of the revolution eventually recruited an Italian prince, Amadeus of Savoy, as king.
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    Serrano's Provisional Governemnt

    After Isabelle's dethronement, a provisional governemnt ruled by Serrano was established. His main objective was to promulgate a new constitution.
  • IV Spanish Constitution

    IV Spanish Constitution
    The was divided: the Cortes had the legislative power, the king had the executive power and the tribunals had the juridical power.
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    Reign of Amadus of Savoy

    He was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II, and sworn in the following year. Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result.
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    III Carlist War

    It was the last war between the Carlists and the Liberals. During this conflict, Carlist forces managed to occupy several towns in the interior of Spain. The Carlists were defeated in the battle of Estella.Government forces, in a final offensive to put an end to the Carlist uprising under General Primo de Rivera advanced to capture Estella on February 1876.
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    I Spanish Republic

    The main problems faced during this government were the Third Carlist War and the revolts in Cuba.
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    The Restoration

    After almost a whole century of political instability and many civil wars, the aim of the Restoration was to create a new political system, which ensured stability by the practice of turnismo. This was the deliberate rotation of the Liberal and Conservative parties in the government, so no sector of the bourgeoisie felt isolated, and excluded all other parties. from the system.
  • Alfonso XII is proclaimed king of Spain

    Alfonso XII is proclaimed king of Spain
    General Martínez Campos proclaimed Alfonso XIII, Isabella's son, king of Spain.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    Alfonso XII entrusted the government to the Liberals but especially the Conservatives. He succeeded in controlling a revolt in Cuba and put end to the Carlist wars.
  • V Spanish Constitution

    V Spanish Constitution
    It was elaborated to please both the Moderates and the Progressives, to avoid constant constitutional change. Sovereignity was shared between the king and the Cortes.
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    Reign of María Cristina of Habsburg

    María Cristina was pregnant wen the king died so she ruled while his son grew up. During her reign ther was a sistem based in pacific turn changing the power between Liberalists and Conservatives
  • Treaty of París

    Treaty of París
    The teatry puts an end to the war between the United States of America and Spain. Spain has to give the independence to Cuba, Puerto Rico and Filipinas. This event marked the end of the Spanish Empire.