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Spain in 18th and 19th centuries

  • Charles II 's death

    Charles II 's death
    As Charles II was ill, he couldn't have children. He had mental and physical problems so finally he died. He had no heritage so a war was proclaimed in order to look for the new king of Spain. This war was the War of Spanish Succession and the main candidates for the crown were Duke of Anjou and Archduke Charles.
    Source: Wikipedia
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    Philip V

    Philip held the title of duc d’Anjou until 1700, when he emerged as a person of political importance. In that year Charles II, the last Habsburg king of Spain died and left Philip all his possessions. The refusal of Louis XIV to exclude Philip from the line of succession to the French throne resulted in the War of the Spanish Succession.During the first years of Philip’s reign France had a dominant influence on the Spanish court, and the French ambassador had a place on the council of state.
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    War of Spanish Succesion

    Charles II, king of Spain, died in 1700 without an heir.
    In his will he gave the crown to the French prince Philip of Anjou.
    Philip's grandfather, Louis XIV of France, then proclaimed him king of Spain, and declared that France and Spain would be united. France power was already feared in Europe, and Austria aimed to put the Archduke of Austria in the throne of Spain instead of Philip.
  • New Foundation Laws

    New Foundation Laws
    New Foundation Laws are a set of decrees issued by King Philip V of Bourbon , who won the War of Spanish Succession, by which were abolished the laws and institutions of the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Aragon , the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Mallorca , all members of the Crown of Aragon who had opted for the Archduke Charles , putting an end to the composite structure of the Spanish monarchy of the Habsburgs.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrecht also called the peace of Ultrecht, were a series of treaties France and other European powers like Britain, the Dutch Republic ,Prussia, Portugal and Savoy.And another treaties between Spain and other powers concluding the War of Succession. This treaty marked the end of the War of Spanish Succession.
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    Louis I

    Louis I was king of Spain. His reign is one of the shortest in history, lasting for just over seven months. Louis ruled for a short period between the time his father Philip V abdicated in his favour until his death. On his death, his father returned to the throne, and reigned until his own death in 1746.
  • The three family compacts

    The three family compacts
    The family compacts were several alliances (agreements) between the French and Spanish branches of the Bourbon family. There were three compacts: The Treaty of Escorial, that was the first one in 1733, the second agreement was in 1743, and finally the third one in 1761. England and France searched for Spanish support in the Seven Years War but the attack from England to the Spanish colonies made the King rejected the English offer that was in favour of the proposal made by the duc de Choiseul.
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    Ferdinand VI

    Third king of Spain of the house of Bourbon, he pursued a policy of neutrality and gradual reform.Was the second son of Philip V.When he succeeded to the throne he decided to avoid entanglements and was able to elude conflicts throughout his reign. Ferdinand was a patron of the arts and learning, founding the Academy of San Fernando for the fine arts, as well as botanical gardens and an observatory.
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    Charles III

    Charles III was the king of Spain. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain.In 1734, as Duke of Parma, he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, and was crowned king on 3 July 1735, reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily. He married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony in 1738. As king of Spain Charles III tried to rescue his empire from decay through reforms such as weakening the Church, promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and avoiding wars.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris or The Treaty of 1763 was signed by Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War. This treaty ended the Seven Years’ War between Great Britain and France.It marked the end of that phase of European conflict in North America, and created the basis for the modern country of Canada.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    The Esquilache Riots were caused mostly by the growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread and other staples, they were sparked off by some measures regarding Spaniards' apparel that had been enacted Marquis of Esquilache. He was a Neaopolitan minister whom Charles favored.
  • Jesuits expelled by the Bourbons

    Jesuits expelled by the Bourbons
    Jesuits were expelled from the Spanish Empire by the cause of the Bourbon Reforms, including the changes in the overseas empire, rethinking economic policies and establishing a military. Jesuits promised vote royalty to the Pope. The King Charles III of Spain used popular regime in order to get rid of the Jesuits. The aim of the reforms was to curb the increasing autonomy and self-confidence of American-born Spaniards and reassert the crown control.
  • American Declaration of Independence

    American Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies,then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer a part of the British Empire.
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    Charles IV

    In 1788, Charles III died and Charles IV succeeded to the throne.He kept up the appearance of an absolute, powerful monarch,Charles never took more than a passive part in his own government.However, in the wake of the war against Republican France, Count of Aranda was himself replaced by Manuel de Godoy.Economic troubles, rumours about a sexual relationship between the Queen and Godoy,caused the monarchy to decline in prestige among the population.
  • French Revolution- Storming of Bastille

    French Revolution- Storming of Bastille
    The Bastille was a fortress and prison that used to be a symbol of the abuse of the monarchy and it represented the king and his goverment. The Bastille was the beggining of the revolution against the monarch Louis XVI.
    (source:photocopies in class)
  • War of Pyrenees

    War of Pyrenees
    Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's. Revolutionary France against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal during the French Revolutionary Wars.The war was fought in the eastern Pyrenees, the western Pyrenees, at the French port of Toulon at sea. In 1793,a Spanish army invaded Roussillon in the eastern Pyrenees and maintained itself on French soil. The French army drove the Spanish back into Catalonia.In the Pyrenees, the French began to win and finally controlled a northern part of Spain.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis was executed by the guillotine in Paris. It was an event of the French Revolution. After the fall of the monarchy after the attack by insurgents in Tuileries, he was arrested and interned in the Temple prison with his family. His execution,made him the first victim of the Reign of Terror, ruled by the Jacobins. Marie Antoinette, his wife, was guillotined the same year.
  • Napoleon First Consul

    Napoleon First Consul
    When The Directory was failing, they invited a successful young man called Napoleon Bonaparte to take power throw a coup d'etat.He became part of three consuls.Napoleon assumed the position of First Consul and obtained near dictatorial powers. The Consulate made the government more efficient and abolished most of the remnants of class and privilege.He made advancing men in public service according to their ability, not on their birth. The feudal system was dead.
  • Treaty of St. Ildefonso

    Treaty of St. Ildefonso
    It was a treaty between France and Spain in where Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France. Mariano Luis de Urquijo, representing Charles IV of Spain, and Louis Alexandre Berthier, representing the French Republic, adjusted a preliminary agreement on 1st October 1800.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies.Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under French Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve in the Atlantic off the southwest coast of Spain, just near Cape Trafalgar.The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the 18th century.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleu

    Treaty of Fontainebleu
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a political agreement that was signed between Napoleon Bonaparte of France and Charles IV of Spain on October 27, 1807, in Fontainebleau, France. It was agreed that Portugal and all Portuguese dominions were to be divided between the signatories; by this accord Napoleon wanted to secure and ensure the Continental Blockade he had imposed on Britain in 1806 by capturing the Portuguese ports. The Spanish prime minister Manuel de Godoy was also present in the treaty.
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    Peninsular War

    The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its ally until then. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to the Spanish War of Independence. This were the successive resignations of King Charles IV and his son Ferdinand VII to the throne of Spain in favor of Napoleon Bonaparte.The French Emperor, soon after, gave these rights to his brother Joseph Bonaparte , who reigned under the name of Joseph I.
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    Joseph I Reign

    Napoleonic Spain was the part of Spain loyal to Joseph I during the Peninsular War (1808–1813) after the country was partially occupied by French forces. The country was considered a client state of the First French Empire. That part of Spain which continued to resist French occupation remained loyal to Ferdinand VII and allied with Britain and Portugal to expel Napoleon's armies from Spain. Finally, this meant the defeat of Joseph´s reign and Ferdinand VII was recognized king of Spain.
  • First Constitution

    First Constitution
    On 19 March 1812, Spain’s first constitution was drawn up in Cadiz, enshrining the rights of Spanish citizens and limiting the power of the monarchy. Although it was not enacted for some years, its influence was considerable, both within peninsular Spain and its territories around the world.The First Constitution was also called "La Pepa".
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    Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand´s reign is divided into three periods. The first period (1814-1820), the second (1820-1823) and the third (1823-1833). He ruled in Spain during this years. Excluded from a role in the government, he became the center of intrigues against the chief minister Godoy and attempted to win the support of Napoleon I. He was arrested by his father because he accused him of plotting his overthrow and of killing his mother and Godoy.
  • Riego's pronunciamiento

    Riego's pronunciamiento
    It was a military coup d´etat conducted by Major Rafael de Riego in Seville. The ruling arose among the officers of the troops to combat the American revolt , due to the existence of a major upset in the army at the end of 1819, by the exclusion of liberal government, together with the irrigated affiliation to Freemasonry, which contributed to his later success. Upon the issuance of a new proclamation came the restoration of Constitutional Authorities.
  • Cien mil Hijos de San Luis

    Cien mil Hijos de San Luis
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII to help the Spanish Royalists restore King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power of which he had been deprived during the Liberal Triennium. Despite the name, the actual number of troops was around 60,000.The force comprised some five army corps that was led by Duke of Angouteme.
  • Pragmatic Sanction

    Pragmatic Sanction
    The Pragmatic Sanction issued by King Ferdinand VII of Spain, ratified a Decree of 1789 by Charles IV of Spain, which had replaced the semi-Salic system established by Philip V of Spain with the mixed succession system that predated the Bourbon monarchy. This Sanction was made in order to abolish the semi-salic law that remained the basis of Frankish law throughout the early Medieval period, influencing the future European legal systems.
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    Isabella II

    The reign of Isabella II of Spain is the period of the modern history of Spain between the death of Ferdinand VII of Spain in 1833 and the triumph of the Glorious Revolution of 1868, which forced the queen into exile. she had two reigns: her minority reign during the regency of Spain was assumed by her motherand her true reign, which began with the declaration of the Cortes Generales in 1843 that her majority reign was to begin when she was only thirteen years old.
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    Regency of Mª Cristina

    When Ferdinand died on 29 September 1833, Maria Cristina became regent for their daughter Isabella. Isabella's claim to the throne was disputed by her uncle, the Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, who claimed that his brother Ferdinand had unlawfully changed the succession law to permit females to inherit the crown . Some supporters of Don Carlos went so far as to claim that Ferdinand had actually bequeathed the crown to his brother but that Maria Christina had suppressed that fact.
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    Regency of Espartero

    Baldomero Espartero was a spanish general and political figure. He was associated with the radical wing of Spanish liberalism and would become their symbol and lider after taking credit for the victory over the Carlists in 1839.The title Prince of Vergara was granted to him by King Amadeo of Spain in 1870. He ruled Spain in accordance with his radical and conciliatory dispositions, giving special attention to the reorganization of the administration, taxation and finances etc..
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    Spanish Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution took place in Spain in 1868, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II. Leaders of the revolution eventually recruited an Italian prince, Amadeo of Savoy, as king. His reign lasted two years, and he was replaced by the first Spanish Republic. That also lasted two years, until leaders in 1875 proclaimed Isabella's son, as King Alfonso XII in the Bourbon Restoration.
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    Amadeus I was the only king of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was known as the Duke of Aosta, but reigned briefly as king of Spain. He was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870.Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, the Cuban independence movement and Carlist rebellions in the north.He abdicated and the First Spanish Republic was the result.
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    Third Carlist Civil War

    The Third Carlist Civil War was the last Carlist War in Spain. During this conflict, Carlist forces managed to occupy several towns in the interior of Spain. The Carlist pretender "Charles VII" tried to get the support of those areas with region specific customs and laws. on of "Carlos V" tried to earn the support of those areas with more region-specific customs and former laws. The Carlists proclaimed the restoration of Catalonian, Valencian and Aragonese fueros, that then were abolished.
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    The First Republic

    The First Spanish Republic was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The Republic's founding started with the abdication of Amadeo I, following the Hidalgo Affair, when he had been required by the radical government to sign a decree against the artillery officers.11 February the republic was declared by a parliamentary majority.