Spain in the 18th and 19th centuries

  • Charles II's death

    Charles II's death
    He was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. His realm included Southern Netherlands and Spain's overseas empire. Known as "the Bewitched".
    He died in 1700, childless and heirless, with all potential Habsburg successors having predeceased him.
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    Joseph I

    He was the son of Emperor Leopold I and his third wife Leonor Palatinate. Archduke of Austria since birth, king of Hungary from 1687, King of the Romans from the January 6, 1690 and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1705 until his death.
    He was educated strictly by Prince Dietrich Otto von Salm, being a good linguist.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession.
  • New Foundation Laws (Decretos de nueva Planta)

    New Foundation Laws (Decretos de nueva Planta)
    Were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V the first Bourbon king of Spain during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht.
  • Louis I

    Louis I
    25 August 1707 – 31 August 1724. Was King of Spain from 15 January 1724 until his death in August the same year. His reign is one of the shortest in history, lasting for just over seven months.
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    Louis I

  • Philip V

    Philip V
    19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746. Was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he assumed the throne again upon his son's death, to his own death 9 July 1746.
    Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King Louis XIV.
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    Philip V

    He was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he assumed the throne again upon his son's death, to his own death 9 July 1746.
  • The First Family Compact

    The First Family Compact
    The Family Compact is the epithet applied by their opponents to a small closed group of men who exercised most of the political, economic and judicial power in Upper Canada (modern Ontario) from the 1810s to the 1840s. It was the Upper Canadian equivalent of the Château Clique in Lower Canada. It was noted for its conservatism and opposition to democracy.
    The term Family Compact first appeared in a letter written by Marshall Spring Bidwell to William Warren Baldwin in 1828.
  • The Second Family Compact

    The Second Family Compact
    The second Family Compact was made on October 25, 1743 again by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of Fontainebleau.
    This pact was signed in the middle of the War of Austrian Succession, and most of its clauses had to do with the conduct of the war. The result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy when Philip V's fourth son Philip, became in 1748 Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
  • Ferdinand VI

    Ferdinand VI
    23 September 1713 – 10 August 1759. Called the Learned, was King of Spain from 9 July 1746 until his death. He was the fourth son of the previous monarch Philip V and his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy. Ferdinand, the third member of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty,
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    Ferdinand VI

    He was called the Learned, was King of Spain from 9 July 1746 until his death. He was the fourth son of the previous monarch Philip V and his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy. Ferdinand, the third member of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty, was born in Madrid on 23 September 1713.
  • Charles III

    Charles III
    20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788. Was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, but eldest by his second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, on the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese.
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    Charles III

    He was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, but eldest by his second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, on the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese.
    In 1734, as Duke of Parma, he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, and was crowned king on 3 July 1735
  • The Third Family Compact

    The Third Family Compact
    The third Family Compact was made on 15 August 1761 by King Charles III of Spain and Louis XV in the Treaty of Paris.The Family Compact, which was signed on August 15, was directed against Great Britain. Under a secret agreement concluded at the same time, France transferred to Spain the island of Menorca, which had been seized from the English, and Spain pledged to declare war on Great Britain if the latter failed to conclude a peace with France before May 1, 1762.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War. This treaty, along with the separate peace treaties between Great Britain and the nations that supported the American cause—France, Spain and the Dutch Republic—are known collectively as the Peace of Paris.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    This occurred in March 1766 during the rule of Charles III of Spain. Caused mostly by the growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread and other staples, they were sparked off by a series of measures regarding Spaniards' apparel that had been enacted by Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marquis of Esquilache, a Neapolitan minister whom Charles favored.
  • Jesuits Expelled by bourbons

    Jesuits Expelled by bourbons
    As a result of a series of political moves in each polity rather than a theological controversy. Monarchies attempting to centralize and secularize political power viewed the Jesuits as being too international, too strongly allied to the papacy, and too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territory they operated. By the brief, Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits took refuge in non-Catholic nations, particularly in Prussia and Russia.
  • American Declaration of Independence

    American Declaration of Independence
    It advances a theoretical case for revolution, discusses human rights and the nature of national sovereignty.
    It sets out a precise list of the specific complaints which the American colonists had against the actions of the British government over the last decade and a half.
    It declares the 13 British colonies on the east coast of North America independent on 4 July 1776.
  • Charles IV

    Charles IV
    Was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.
    He intended to maintain the policies of his father, and retained his prime minister, the Count of Floridablanca,
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    Charles IV

    He was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808. He was born in Naples (11 November 1748). He was called El Cazador, due to his preference for sport and hunting, rather than dealing with affairs of the state. Charles was considered by many to have been amiable, but simple-minded.
  • Storming of Bastille

    Storming of Bastille
    Occurred in Paris, France, on the morning of 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. The prison contained just seven inmates at the time of its storming but was a symbol of the abuse of the monarchy: its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. It was a major event of the French Revolution. After events on the 10 August 1792, which saw the fall of the monarchy after the attack on the Tuileries by insurgents, Louis was arrested, interned in the Temple prison with his family, tried for high treason before the National Convention, and condemned to death.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Treaty of San Ildefonso
    The Second Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed on 19 August 1796 between Spain and the First French Republic. Based on the terms of the agreement, France and Spain would become allies and combine their forces against the British Empire.
  • Napoleon First Consul

    Napoleon First Consul
    The Consulate was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in 1804. Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul, established himself as the head of a more conservative, authoritarian, autocratic, and centralized republican government in France while not declaring himself head of state.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic War.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    Between Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon I of France. The accord proposed the division of the Kingdom of Portugal and all Portuguese dominions between the signatories. Individuals such as M. Izquierdo, councilor of Charles IV, and Don Manuel de Godoy were also present during the conclusion of the treaty. Based on the first article of the agreement, the King of Etruria would be granted.
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    Ferdinand VII 1º Period

    Predecessor: Charles IV
    Ferdinand VII was King of Spain between March and May 1808 and, after the expulsion of the "intruder King" Joseph Bonaparte
    Successor: Joseph I
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    Peninsulan War

    The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its ally until then.
  • First Constitution

    First Constitution
    The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was established on 19 March 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, the Cortes Generales in refuge in Cádiz during the Peninsular War. It established the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press, and supported land reform and free enterprise. This constitution, one of the most liberal of its time.
  • War of Pyrenees

    War of Pyrenees
    Was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war against the First French Republic. It pitted Revolutionary France against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal from March 1793 to July 1795 during the French Revolutionary Wars.
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    Ferdinand VII 2º Period

    Predecessor: Joseph I
    Again, he ruled from December 1813 until his death, except for a brief interval in 1823, when he was dismissed by the Council of Regency.
    Successor: Isabella II
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to the Spanish War of Independence which must not be confused with the Peninsular War. The failed El Escorial Conspiracy preceded the Mutiny of Aranjuez, which forced King Charles IV to abdicate the throne to his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 by order of the Spanish Royal Council.
  • Riego's Pronunciamiento

    Riego's Pronunciamiento
    the called Statement of Irrigation, was a coup of the progressive military commander Riego by the January 1, 1820 in Cabezas de San Juan. In a solemn ceremony shiny military parade in the Plaza de Cabezas de San Juan, Irrigation issued an edict promulgated by the hitherto repealed Liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812.
  • Cien mil hijos de San Luis ( Holy Alliance)

    Cien mil hijos de San Luis ( Holy Alliance)
    Was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII to help the Spanish Royalists restore King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power of which he had been deprived during the Liberal Triennium. Despite the name, the actual number of troops was around 60,000. The force comprised some five army corps and was led by Duke of Angoulême, the son of the future King Charles X of France.
  • Pragmatic Sanction

    Pragmatic Sanction
    was an edict issued by Charles VI on 19 April 1713, to ensure that the Habsburg hereditary possessions could be inherited by a daughter. The Head of the House of Habsburg ruled the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Italian territories awarded to Austria by the Treaty of Utrecht (Duchy of Milan, Kingdom of Naples and Kingdom of Sicily), and the Austrian Netherlands.
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    First Carlist War

    The First Carlist War was a civil war in Spain from 1833 to 1839, fought between factions over the succession to the throne and the nature of the Spanish monarchy. It was fought between supporters of the regent, Maria Christina, acting for Isabella II of Spain, and those of the late king's brother, Carlos de Borbón. The Carlists supported return to an absolute monarchy.
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    Isabella II

    Isabella II was queen regnant of Spain from 1833 until 1868. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognise a female sovereign, leading to the Carlist Wars. After a troubled reign, she was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1868, and formally abdicated in 1870. Her son Alfonso XII became king in 1874.
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    Regency of Espartero

    Don Joaquín Baldomero Fernández-Espartero y Alvarez de Toro, 1st Prince of Vergara, 1st Duke of la Victoria, 1st Duke of Morella, 1st Count of Luchana, 1st Viscount of Banderas was a Spanish general and political figure. He was associated with the radical (or progressive) wing of Spanish liberalism and would become their symbol and champion after taking credit for the victory over the Carlists in 1839. His noble titles, Duke of La Victoria were granted by Isabella II to him as a result.
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    Second Carlist War

    Was a short civil war fought primarily in Catalonia by the Carlists under General Ramón Cabrera against the forces of the government of Isabella II. The uprising began in September 1846 and continued until May 1849, spreading to Galicia.
    Theoretically, the war was fought to facilitate the marriage of Isabella II with the Carlist pretender, Carlos de Borbón
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    Spanish Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution took place in Spain in 1868, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II. Leaders of the revolution eventually recruited an Italian prince, Amadeo of Savoy, as king. His reign lasted two years, and he was replaced by the first Spanish Republic. That also lasted two years, until leaders in 1875 proclaimed Isabella's son, as King Alfonso XII in the Bourbon Restoration.
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    Though he started under a regency, he showed himself to be a forceful leader, continuing Savoy's emergence as a power in Europe politically and militarily. He participated in a crusade against the Turks who were moving into Europe.
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    Third Carlist War

    During this conflict, Carlist forces managed to occupy several towns in the interior of Spain, the most important ones being La Seu d'Urgell and Estella in Navarre. Isabella II had abdicated the throne, and Amadeo I, a younger son of the King of Italy who had been proclaimed King of Spain in 1870, was not very popular.
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    First Republic

    was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The Republic's founding started with the abdication as King on 10 February 1873 of Amadeo I.
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    Regency of Mª Cristina

    She was Queen of Spain as the second wife of King Alfonso XII. She was regent during the minority of their son, Alfonso XIII, and the vacancy of the throne between her husband's death and her son's birth.