Revolutions Unit 5

  • Apr 10, 1395

    Johannes Gutenberg

    Johannes Gutenberg
    Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, printer, and publisher. He invented the first printing press used in Europe. He used movable type and ink to print the words on paper.
  • Apr 10, 1450

    The Printing Press

    The Printing Press
    This was the first European printing press to be used. The first book it printed was The Bible. It was invented by Johannes Gutenberg.
  • Apr 10, 1454

    The Gutenberg Bible

    The Gutenberg Bible
    This was the first major book printed in the West. It started the age of printed books in Europe. It is called the Gutenberg Bible because of the machine it was printed on (which is Gutenberg's printing press).
  • Apr 10, 1500

    Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    This is the time when modern science made an emergence. There were developments in biology, astronomy, physics, mathematics, and chemistry. It began at the end of the Renaissance Era.
  • Apr 10, 1564

    William Shakespeare

    William Shakespeare
    Shakespeare is one of the most well-known authors in world history. In his career, he wrote 38 plays, 154 sonnets, and two long narrative poems. His work is still studied within schools to this day.
  • Apr 10, 1564


    Galileo was a well-known astronomer, engineer, philosopher, mathematician, and physicist. He made advances in the development of the telescope. He has been called the "Father of Modern Observational Astronomy".
  • Thomas Hobbes

    Thomas Hobbes
    Hobbes was and English thinker/philosopher. He was well known for his political philosophy. He wrote the book Leviathan.
  • King Charles I

    King Charles I
    KIng Charles was the king of England. He was seen as a more Catholic ruling King. He fought in the English Civil War and lost, so after he was executed and replaced with a different monarch.
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    Locke was an English philosopher and physician. He is regarded as one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers. His theories and views of government were used in the creation of the United States's Declaration of Independence.
  • English Civil War

    English Civil War
    It was a fight waged in England between the Parlimentarians and the Royalists. It was fought to determine the type of government that England should have. The Parlimentarians won and this resulted in a government in which the monarch couldn't rule without parliment's consent.
  • Sir Isaac Newton

    Sir Isaac Newton
    Newton was an English physicist and mathematician. He was a very famous scientist of the Scientific Revolution Era. He formulated the laws of motion and the universal gravitation.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    This was a cultural movements of intellectuals. It emphasized on individualism and reason rather than tradition. It reformed peoples' thinking and it gave way to new governments, revolutions, and human rights.
  • Leviathan

    Was written by Thomas Hobbes. The book concerns the structure of society and legitimate government. It is also regarded as one of the earliest works about the social contract theory.
  • Principia

    Was written by Isaac Newton. It is a work in three books written in Latin. It states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundations of classical mechanics, Newton's law of universal gravitation, and a version of Kepler's laws of plantetary motion
  • Two Treatises of Government

    Two Treatises of Government
    Was written by John Locke. It is a work of political philosophy literature. Originally it was published anonomously because of the content that could have gotten Locke in trouble with the government.
  • Baron de Montesquieu

    Baron de Montesquieu
    Montesquieu was a French social commentator and a political thinker. He was a famous Enlighten thinker. He is famous for his articulation of his theory of seperation of power with the government.
  • Voltaire

    Voltaire was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher. He is famous for his novel Candide. His real name was François-Marie Arouet.
  • Steam Engine

    Steam Engine
    Steam engines were used to transport goods, as well as people. They helped connect countries more, by making traveling distances go faster. They were key in the making of the United States.
  • Cottage Industry

    Cottage Industry
    This was where products and goods were made within the homes. This indutry was particularly lace work and sewing. This was producing goods before the Industrial Revolution and it was usually done part time.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Rousseau was a French writer, philosopher, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution. He is also credited with the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought.
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    Smith was a Scottish philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. He was a well-known Enlightenment thinker. He wrote the Wealth of Nations which is considered to be the first work of modern economics.
  • James Watt

    James Watt
    Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer. He made improvements on the Newcomen steam engine. His work on the steam engine brought about the start of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson
    Jefferson is one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. He was one of the primary authors of the Declaration of Independence. He also went on to become the third president of the United States.
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture

    Toussaint L'Ouverture
    L'Ouverture is nicknamed the Black Napoleon. He was the leader of the Haitian Revolution. He helped form the independent state of Haiti from a population made up of entirely almost all slaves.
  • The Spirit of Laws

    The Spirit of Laws
    Was written by Baron de Motesquieu. It is a treatise on political theory. It took twenty one years to reasearch and write and at first it was published anonymously.
  • Agricultural Revolution in Europe

    Agricultural Revolution in Europe
    The Agricultural Revolution in Europe started in England. It was a time when exsiting forms of agricultural technolgy was advanced further. It was a result of increase of labor and land productivity.
  • Capitalism

    Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and means of production are all privately owned. They have goals to make a profit in the economic market. It has existed under many forms of government.
  • Factory system

    Factory system
    It was first adopted by England at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The products were now made by machines powered by originally water or steam and later electricity as opposed to being made by individuals. It led to things like the use of unskilled labor and the divison of labor.
  • Electricity

    Electricity has been studied throughout history. It is the pressure and flow of electrical charges. Electricity was eventually harnassed and used to power things like machines in factories and light bulbs and electricity still plays a key role in normal life today.
  • Miguel Hidalgo

    Miguel Hidalgo
    Hidalgo was a Mexican priest and a leader in the Mexican War of Independence. When he was a priest, he tried to help the poor by trying to teach them how to farm olives and grapes, however at this time this was discouraged by authorities. Hidalgo was eventually executed for rebeling against the Spanish Peninsulares.
  • KIng Louis XVI

    KIng Louis XVI
    KIng Louis was the king of France during the French Revolution. He was ruling when his power was taken and he was executed by the revolutionaires. He was maried to Marie Antoinette.
  • Marie Antoinette

    Marie Antoinette
    Antoinette was born into being an Archduchess of Austria. She eventually maried Louis-Auguste who became King Louis XVI after his grandfather died, so this made her Queen of France. She was intially like by the French people, but after a while of her lavish spendings she was started to be hated and eventually she was executed eight months after her husband.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    It was a time when production of goods transitioned from being hand-made to machine-made. Textiles were a new dominant industry as a result of the Industrial Revolution. It was a major turning point in the world history and it affected most peoples' lives in some way
  • The Social Contract

    The Social Contract
    Was written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. It theorized the best way to set up a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society. This book inspired many political reforms or revolutions in Europe, espescially in France.
  • Jose Maria Morelos

    Jose Maria Morelos
    Morelos was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a revolutionary leader in the Mexican War of Independence. He assumed leadership of the revolution after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo. He was later captured by the Spanish and executed for treason.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte
    Bonaparte was a French military and political leader in the later years of the French Revolution. He went on to become the Emperor of France. He led a series of campaigns across Europe to try to expand the borders of France.
  • The American Revolution

    The American Revolution
    The American Revolution was when the thirteen colonies of England in North America rebelled against the English. The outcome was the forming of the begininning of the United States of America. The war brought out a lot of military generals who would later become major political figures like George Washington the first president.
  • The Wealth of Nations

    The Wealth of Nations
    Was written by Adam Smith. It contains and explains the world's first collected descriptions of what builds nations' wealth. Today it is considered a fundamental work in classical economics. It reflects over the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and touches upon subjects like divison of labor.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    This document announced that the thirteen colonies were breaking from the English Empire and forming their own country. It was published on July 4th, 1776 making that day be called Independence Day. It was composed primarily by Thomas Jefferson who was inspired by many Englightenment thinkers' ideas.
  • United States Independence

    United States Independence
    Independence from England.
  • Jose De San Martin

    Jose De San Martin
    Martin was a Argentine general and the head leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for Independence. He left Argentina at a young age to go study in Malaga, Spain. After returning from Spain he made plans to split South America from Spanish control and he organized troops. He was overall very successful.
  • Interchangeable parts

    Interchangeable parts
    Interchangeable parts were widely used with guns at first. Later it was a key part in the forming of the assembly line. They are parts that are for practical purposes exactly alike.
  • Simon Bolivar

    Simon Bolivar
    Bolivar was a military and political leader. He played a key role in Latin America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire. He is today considered an important historical figure in the history of the Americas.
  • American Constitution

    American Constitution
    The Constitution divided the American government into three branches and divided their power. It was adopted by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It has been amended 27 times to this date.
  • The French Revolution

    The French Revolution
    The French Revolution was brought about by the unbalanced power and wealth of the social classes and the unhappiness of the lower classes. Inspired by Enligthenment philossophers and their ideas and also the American Revolution, the lower classes began to resist the power from the upper classes. In the end the monarchy of France was thrown out and the lower classes were successful.
  • Declaration of the Rights on Man and Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights on Man and Citizen
    It was a fundamental document in the French Revolution and also in the history of human rights. It defines individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm. it was inspired by Englightenment thinkers and the idea of human's "natural rights".
  • Estates General

    Estates General
    It was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm. The First Estate were the clergy, the Second Estate were the nobles, and the Third Estate were the common people. It was summoned by King Louis XVI to come up with solutions to the country's economic issues.
  • First Estates

    First Estates
    The First Estates were made up of the clergys. The First Estates were in France. They were called to the Estates General by KIng Louis XVI to solve the country's economic issues.
  • Second Estates

    Second Estates
    The Second Estates was made up of nobles. The Second Estates were in France. They were called to the Estates General by King Louis XVI to discuss they country's economic issues.
  • Jacobins

    They were the most famous and influential political club within the French Revolution. They were founded after the Estates General. It was made up primarily of people from the Third Estate.
  • The National Assembly

    The National Assembly
    It was a revolutionary assembly made up of people from the Third Estate (the commoners). It only lasted a short period of time. The National Assembly drafted and institued the Declaration of the Rights on Men and Citizen.
  • Bastille Day

    Bastille Day
    Bastille Day was the name given to the day of the French National Day. It commerates the beginning of the French Revolution when the Storming of the Bastille took place. Celebrations are held all over France today to commerate this event in history.
  • Haitian Revolution

    Haitian Revolution
    This was when the slaves of Haiti revolted against the French control. This commerated the freeing of slaves in Haiti and the forming of the Republic of Haiti. The Haitian Revolution is the only revoultion in history where the revolting of slaves resulted in the forming of an independent state.
  • Guillotine

    It was a device invented and used to behead people in a fast and effective way. It was invented by Joseph-Ignace Guillotin. It was used as a primary way to kill prisoners or people accused of being a traitor in the French Revolution.
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Women

    A Vindication of the Rights of Women
    It was one of the first works of feminist philosophy. It was written by British feminist, Mary Wollstonecraft. It responds to the educational and political theorists in the 18th century who did not believe women should have an education.
  • Committee on Public Safety

    Committee on Public Safety
    It was created by the National Convention. It succeeded the Committee of General Defense. It protected the newly formed republic against attacks from other countries and internal rebellion.
  • Bank of France

    Bank of France
    The founders were Protestants that were invovled in the beginning of the French Revolution. The bankers helped Napoleon rise to power. As a result, Napoleon granted them power to help control the Bank of France.
  • Haiti Independence

    Haiti Independence
    Independence from France.
  • Napoleonic Code

    Napoleonic Code
    It was a French civil code established under Napoleon's rule. The code forbade privilages of people based on their birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified government jobs. It was not the first legal code implemented in the French Republic.
  • Ecuador Independence

    Ecuador Independence
    Independence from Spain.
  • Colombia Independence

    Colombia Independence
    Independence from Spain.
  • Mexico Independence

    Mexico Independence
    Independence from Spain.
  • Chile Independence

    Chile Independence
    Independence from Spain,
  • Paraguay Independence

    Paraguay Independence
    Independence from Spain.
  • Venezuela Independence

    Venezuela Independence
    Independence from Spain.
  • Argentina Independence

    Argentina Independence
    Independence from Spain.
  • Karl Marx

    Karl Marx
    Marx was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. He is creditied with thinking more towareds the communist side and even writing a book called The Communist Manifesto. His work laid the basis for the current uunderstanding of labor and its relation to capital.
  • Peru Independence

    Peru Independence
    Independence from Spain.
  • Brazil Independence

    Brazil Independence
    Independence from Portugal.
  • Bolivia Independence

    Bolivia Independence
    Independence from Spain.
  • Uruguay Independence

    Uruguay Independence
    Independence from Spain.
  • Communism

    The idea of communism was originally put together by Karl Marx. It is a socioeconomic system that is based on the idea of common ownership and no social classes. It was adopted by Vladimir Lenin to form the Soviet Union.
  • Petroleum

    It is a naturally occuring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations underground. It is commonly refined into different forms of fuel. It is a fossil fuel formed from many dead organisms.
  • The Communist Manifesto

    The Communist Manifesto
    Was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It shows their theories on politics and society and shows how they believe capitalism will turn into socialism and eventually that will turn into communism. It also states their believes on the problems with capitalism.
  • Bessemer process

    Bessemer process
    It was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel. The process is named after its inventor, Henry Bessemer. The key to the process is the removal of impurities from the iron by oxydation.
  • Vladmir Lenin

    Vladmir Lenin
    Lenin was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He was the leader of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Under his ruling, The Russian Empire ended and the Soviet Union began.
  • Mexican Revolution

    Mexican Revolution
    It was also known as the Mexican Civil War. It started as an uprising of against an autocrat Porfirio Díaz. After a long time of struggle and war, the representatives came up with the Mexican Constitution of 1917.
  • Russian Revolution

    Russian Revolution
    The Russian Revolution was brought about to get rid of the Tsar reign over the Russian Empire. Eventually, a communistic reign set in with the Bolshevik party which was led by Vladmir Lenin. The Revolution paved the way to the forming of the Soviet Union.