Spain in 18th and 19th centuries

  • Charles II of Spain, ''El hechizado''.

    Charles II of Spain, ''El hechizado''.
    Was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain (17 September 1665 - 1 November 1700). His domain included Southern Netherlands and stretching from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies.
    He is well known for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and his consequent ineffective rule.
    He died in 1700, heirless, with all potential Habsburg successors having died before him. In his will, Charles named as his successor his 16-year-old grand-nephew, Philip, Duke of Anjou.
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    Charles II of Spain

    (In a separated event)
  • Joseph I of Habsburg

    Joseph I of Habsburg
    Was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1705 until his death in 1711.
    Joseph continued the War of the Spanish Succession, begun by his father against Louis XIV of France, in a vain attempt to make his younger brother Charles King of Spain. In the process, however, due to the victories won by his military commander, Prince Eugene of Savoy, he succeeded in establishing Austrian dominion over Italy.
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    Joseph I of Hasburg

    (In a separated event)
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    War of Spanish Succession

    Was a major European conflict, that started with the death of Charles II which died without a heir. He gave his crown to the French prince Philip of Anjou.
    The war broke out because the Grand Alliance of England, Holand, Austria and Prussia, wanted Archduke Charles of Austria on the throne instead of Philip.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    The treaty of Utrecht, is a series of agreements signed by the states fighting in the Spanish war of succession.
  • Salic Law

    Rule of succession in certain royal and noble families of Europe, forbidding females and those descended in the female line to succeed to the titles or offices in the family. The rule was most prominently enforced by the house of Valois and the succeeding house of Bourbon in France.
    Later, at the end of the reign of Ferdinand VII proclaimed the pragmatic sanction because he wanted his daughter Isabella to be queen after his death
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain,Charles and Ferdinand, that led to the Guerra de la Independencia Española, which overlaps with the Peninsular War.
  • New Foundation Decrees

    New Foundation Decrees
    Were a number of decrees signed by Philip V, the first Bourbon King of Spain, during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht.
  • The Royal Tapestry Factory (Real Fábrica de Tapices de Santa Bárbara)

    The Royal Tapestry Factory (Real Fábrica de Tapices de Santa Bárbara)
    Is a manufacturing plant located in Madrid, Spain.
    The factory was founded by Philip V after Spain lost its Belgian territories, and their tapestry workshops, as a result of the Peace of Utrecht. The project was one of a number of mercantilist initiatives that supplied luxury goods.
  • Real Fábrica de Cristales de La Granja

    Real Fábrica de Cristales de La Granja
    Was a Spanish royal manufacturing factory built in San Ildefonso,located in Segovia.
  • Count of Floridablanca

    Count of Floridablanca
    Was a Spanish politician. He was the liberal minister of King Charles III, and also worked under Charles IV.
    He embarked on a thorough reform of the Spanish bureaucracy, establishing a true cabinet in 1787 (the Supreme Council of State). He established commercial freedom in the American colonies in 1778, founded the National Bank of San Carlos in 1782. He also improved press liberties, also established new schools all over Spain.
    (In a new event connection with French Rev. and Amer. War Indep.)
  • Count of Floridablanca (American War of Independence)

    Count of Floridablanca (American War of Independence)
    He concluded trade agreements with Morocco and the Ottoman Empire and believed that good relations with Great Britain were key to Spain to grow. In spite of this, he was drag into the American War of Independence on the side of France and the American rebels. The war generally went well for Spain.
    (continues in a new event. ''Count of Floridablanca (American War of Independence) Part.2'')
  • Count of Floridablanca (American War of Independence) Part.2

    Count of Floridablanca (American War of Independence) Part.2
    Later, Floridablanca succeeded in restoring much of Spain's status during the conflict and in 1782 Britain returned to Menorca and Florida to Spain. However attempts to capture Gibraltar, Jamaica and invade Britain failed. During the war Spain tried to have a separated peace with Britain, despite of its alliance with France. These discussions stopped, and Spain signed the Peace of Paris in 1783.
  • Count of Floridablanca (French Revolution)

    Count of Floridablanca (French Revolution)
    With the start of the French Revolution in 1789 the liberal movement in Spain stopped. Floridablanca was forced to react to the situation and supported the First Coalition against revolutionary France. The events in France blame the reformers at court and contributed to their destruction in the following years.
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    Count of Floridablanca

    (In a separated event)
  • Family Compacts (One)

    Family Compacts (One)
    Is one of three separate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings. In this alliance France supported Spain about taking possesion of Italy, in exchange of Spain's assistance in the War of the Polish succession.
    As a result, Spain gain controll over Sicily and Naples And Isabel's son, Charles was crowned as king of Naples.
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    Charles III

    pero más tarde, al reconquistar Felipe V el Reino de Nápoles y Sicilia en el curso de la Guerra de Sucesión de Polonia
  • Family Compacts (two)

    Family Compacts (two)
    The second Family Compact was again by King Philip V of Spain and King Louis XV of France in the Treaty of Fontainebleau.
    This pact was signed in the middle of the War of Austrian Succession, and most of its clauses had to do with the conduct of the war. The result was the expansion of Spanish influence in Italy when Philip V's fourth son Philip, became Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
  • Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
    Was a Spanish neoclassical politician, author, philosopher and a very important person for the Age of Enlightenment in Spain.
    In his work on the agrarian law, he claimed to the crown to eliminate the amount of land ownership, ownership of land by the Catholic Church, and the existence of common lands that cannot be private ownership.
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    Gaspar Melchor of Jovellanos

    (In a separated event)
  • Charles IV of Spain

    Charles IV of Spain
    was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.
    In 1788, Charles III died and Charles IV succeeded to the throne. He wanted to maintain the way of ruling of his father, and keep his prime minister, the Count of Floridablanca.
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    Charles IV of Spain

    (In a separated event)
  • Canal de Castilla

    Canal de Castilla
    Is a canal in the north of Spain, it runs 207 km through the provinces of Burgos, Palencia and Valladolid, in the Autonomous Community of Castile and León.
    This canal was the most important project during the period of the spanish enlightment. It's main objetive was to work as a way of communication and transport that solved the isolation problem of the spanish plateau.
  • Family Compacts (Three)

    Family Compacts (Three)
    The third Family Compact was made by King Charles III of Spain and Louis XV in the Treaty of Paris.
    Charles III was the son of Philip V, making him Louis's first cousin. France was fighting the Seven Years' War. Charles's maintained Ferdinand VI's system, who wanted to keep Spain out of the war. Spain was allied with Naples and Tuscany. When Spain got involved, the British took the Philippines and Cuba. Charles III took these possessions in the Treaty of Paris, but gave Florida to the British.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    It was a popular protestm, that occured during the reign of Charles III of Spain, led by Leopoldo De Gregorio and Marqués de Esquilache.
  • Jesuists are expelled from Spain

    Jesuists are expelled from Spain
    The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire, France, the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma and the Spanish Empire is a highly polemic subject. It has been argued that it was a result of a series of political moves rather than a theological disagreement. Monarchies attempting to secularize political power viewed the Jesuits as being too international, too strongly allied to the papacy, and too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territories they were.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso (First)

    The agreement was between Portugal and Spain
  • Museo del Prado

    Museo del Prado
    The building that is now the home of the Museo Nacional del Prado was designed by architect of the Enlightenment in Spain, Juan de Villanueva on the orders of Charles III. Although, the building's final function was not decided until the monarch's grandson, Ferdinand VII, encouraged by his wife, Queen María Isabel de Braganza, decided to use it as a new Royal Museum of Paintings and Sculptures.
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    War of the First Coalition (War of the pyrenees)

    Was the first attempt by the European monarchies to defeat the French First Republic. France declared war on the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria on 20 April 1792. In July 1792, an army under the Duke of Brunswick and composed mostly of Prussians joined the Austrian side and invaded France.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Execution of Louis XVI was one of the major events of the French Revolution.
  • War of Pyrenees

    War of Pyrenees
    It was a conflict which confront Carlos IV's monarchy of spain and the First French Republic. Was the Pyrenean front of the ''First Coalition's war'' (new timespan about ''First Coalition's war'').
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    War of the Pyrenees

    (In a separated event)
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso (second)

    This agreement was between Spain and France, allied the two nations.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso (third)

    This agreement was between Spain and France, in which Spain returned Louisiana to France.
  • Napoleon is crowned as emperor

    Napoleon is crowned as emperor
    The coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French Empire. This coronation took place in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
    Napoleon I crowned himself as emperor in the presence of the pope
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    It was a naval battle, which took place in Cape Trafalgar. In which the british defeated the french and spanish fleet. The british fleet led by Admiral Lord Nelson, and the spanish and french fleet led by Admiral Villeneuve.
  • Peninsular War

    Peninsular War
    Was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal.
    The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition when Napoleon was defeated and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla.
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    Peninsular War

    (In a separted event)
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    It was an agreement, signed by Charles IV and Napoleon I of Spain and France, respectively. This treaty consisted in trying to distribute Portugal.
    Portugal was devided into three regions Entre-Douro-e-Minho-Province for the king of the Etrúria, Algarve was for Manuel Godoy and the remaining provinces are going to be distributed on a later agreement.
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    It is known as ''La Pepa''. This constitution was approved during the spanish War of Independence and was passed in Cádiz.
    On the first place Ferdinand said he was going to approve it, but later on, he denied it.
    It's main principles are: A consitutional monarchy, national sovereignity, universal male suffrage, separation of powers and putted an end to the inquisition.
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    Ferdinand VII. Restoration of Absolutism (1st period)

    The king Ferdinand VII abolished the constitution of 1812 and became an absolute monarch.
  • Riego's Pronunciamiento

    Riego's Pronunciamiento
    Colonel del Riego led a pronunciamineto against Ferdinand VII for him to restore the 1812 liberal constitution.
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    Ferdinand VII. The liberal period (2nd period)

    In 1820 Colonel del Riego led a pronunciamiento against Ferdinand VII, which ended in the restoration of the constitution, being this a constitutional monarchy.
  • Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis

    Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis
    It was a french army which tried to help Ferdinand VII to restore his absolut reign.
    This was a phase between the Liberal period (Ferdinand VII's 2nd interval) and the Victory of absolutism (Ferdinand VII's 3rd interval).
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    Ferdinand VII. The Victory of absolutism (3rd period)

    The Victory of absolutism, also known as the Ominous Decade. In this period Ferdinand VII asked for help to the Holly Alliance in order to impose the absolutism again.
  • Isabella II of Spain. Part 1

    Isabella II of Spain. Part 1
    Isabel was the eldest daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain. Isabel succeeded to the throne because Ferdinand VII had induced the Cortes Generales to help him set to one side the Salic law, introduced by the Bourbons in the early 18th century, and to re-establish the older succession law of Spain.
    (continues in a new event: ''Isabela II of Spain. Part 2'')
  • Isabella II of Spain. Part 2

    Isabella II of Spain. Part 2
    Isabel was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868. She rise to the throne at a very early age, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognize a female queen, leading this to the Carlist Wars. After a really complicated reign, she was remove in the Glorious Revolution of 1868, and formally abdicated in 1870. Her son Alfonso XII became king in 1874.
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    Isabella II of Spain

    (In a separated event; part1 and part2)
  • 1st Carlist War

    1st Carlist War
    It was a fight between the supporters of Maria Cristina, Isabella II's mother and the supporters of Carlos V, because the Carlists wanted to bring back the absolute monarchy.
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    Three Carlists Wars

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TMhhCsNN6w0 (Carlist song) Por Dios, por la patria y el Rey
    Carlistas con banderas.
    Por Dios, por la patria y el Rey
    Carlistas aurrerá. Lucharemos todos juntos
    Todos juntos en unión
    Defendiendo la bandera
    De la Santa Tradición. Cueste lo que cueste
    Se ha de conseguir
    Venga el rey de España
    A la corte de Madrid. Por Dios, por la patria y el Rey
    Lucharon nuestros padres.
    Por Dios, por la patria y el Rey
    Lucharemos nosotros también.
  • Estatuto Real (2nd constitution)

    This led to the institutional changes to the liberal regime, although it consisted of a incomplete constitutional document, some people thought it was a letter awarded (carta otorgada) or a simple summons of court.
  • 3rd Constitution

  • 4th Constitution

  • 2nd Carlists War

    2nd Carlists War
    This war was made to to speed up the marriage of Isabella II and Carlos VI, which was supported by the Carlists, he was pretending Isabella II, but they never got married because she was engaged to Francisco the Bourbon.
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution

    Spanish Glorious Revolution
    It was a rebellion against Isabella II, led by the military leaders: Juan Prim and Francisco Serrano. This rebellion's main objective was to dethrone Isabella II, which succeded and she was exiled from France.
  • Ten Years' War

    Ten Years' War
    The Ten years War was a fragment of the Cuban fight to get the independent of Spain
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    Cuban 10 Years War

    (In a separated event)
  • 3rd Carlist War

    3rd Carlist War
    The third Carlist War started when the Carlists rejected the announcment of Amadeus of Savoy as king.
    At this time the Carlists troops entered Spain through France and they began with the risings of the Vasc country and Navarra.
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    After Isabella II was exiled from France, Amadeus of Savoy became king, but then he abdicated because of the rejection he felt by the republicans and Carlists
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    First Republic

    It was a period in which Spain had for the first time a republican government. It brought a bunch of problems: The separation of the republicans and the third Carlist War.
  • 7th Constitution

  • 8th Constitution

    8th Constitution
    This constitution main principles are: The right of privacy and freedom of the citizens, congress of diputies, universal suffrege (this one also included women), the right for regions to be autonomous and secular country.