The Colonial History of the Philippines

By TSV'11
  • Mar 16, 1521

    Magellan arrived at the Philippines

    Magellan arrived at the Philippines
    On behalf of Spain, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived at 16th March 1521 at Homonhon (province of eastern Samar) eastern of the Samar Island (province of the Philippines) on his voyage to circumvent the globe. He called the islands "Islas de San Lázaro" (also called: "Archipelago of San Lazaro") because this was the day of the Festival of St. Lazarus. Magellan built up friendly contact to local chieftains and Rajah Humabon(king of Cebu). They swept some natives to christianity.
  • Period: Mar 16, 1521 to

    The colonial history of the Philippines

  • Apr 14, 1521

    Magellan made a gift

    Magellan made a gift
    Rajah Humabon was the ruler of Cebu. His wife, Juana was new baptized when Magellan gave her a statue of the Infant Jesus (Santo Nino), as a present.
    Until today, Philippines are respecting the statue on the third Sunday in January by celebrating.
  • Apr 27, 1521

    Magellan got killed

    Magellan got killed
    When Magellan tried to make a campaign on the Island Mactan(eastern from Cebu), he was killed by the chief Lapu-Lapu. Many others of Magellans men were also killed.
    Later, Lapu-Lapu was honoured as a Philippine national hero.
  • Nov 1, 1542

    Ruy López de Villalobos started expedition to the Philippines

    Ruy López de Villalobos started expedition to the Philippines
    Spain continued making another four expeditions to the Philippines for financial gain from 1525-1542. The fourth expedition started at November 1st, 1542, with Ruy López de Villalobos. In 1543, they reached the islands. Ruy López de Villalobos entitled the islands Samar and Leyte (both eastern fom Visayas (=one of the three islandgroups, which are forming the insular state of the philippines)) "Las Islas Filipinas" to dignify the Spanish king, Philipp II. The Philippines receive their name.
  • Apr 27, 1565

    Miguel López de Legazpi arrived at the Visayas and founded the first settlement

    Miguel López de Legazpi arrived at the Visayas and founded the first settlement
    At the end of 1564 Miguel Lopez de Legazpi (conquistador) sailed on behalf of the viceroy of Newspain (first of the 4 administrative regions in Latin America). In 1565, Miguel López de Legazpi, appointed governor general, started his expedition at the Philippines. At April 27, 1565, he arrived at the Visayas, founded many colonial settlements, allied with the chiefs and fought other tribes.
  • Jan 1, 1567

    Foundation of the spanish stronghold "Fuerza de San Pedro"

    Foundation of the spanish stronghold "Fuerza de San Pedro"
    In 1567 (exact date not known) the stronghold "Fuerza de San Pedro" was founded by Spanish and Mexican soldiers at Cebu. It was a military stronghold for protection of violent natives and Muslim pirates, on behalf of Miguel Lopez and the Spanish government built.
  • Jun 23, 1569

    Spanish took possession of the archipelago

    Spanish took possession of the archipelago
    At 23th of June 1569 the Spanish took officially possession of the archipelago (sea area with lots of islands).
  • Jun 24, 1571

    Miguel López de Legazpi established the capital of the Philippines, Manila

    Miguel López de Legazpi established the capital of the Philippines, Manila
    Miguel López de Legazpi's expedition continued northward. He sent Juan Salcedo and Martin de Goiti(founder of the city Manila, spanish conquistador). At June 24, 1571, he reached the Bay of Manila on the island of Luzon. At this time it was under the rule of the Muslim rulers Rajah Matanda and Rajah Sulayman (last native ruler of Manila). Spanish conquered the area fastly because of superior weaponry.
  • Jun 24, 1571

    Era of the Spanish colinial empire

    Era of the Spanish colinial empire
    There were now lots of new cultural elements, terms and definitions and techniques like printing, calendar, law code, infrastructure (streets, bridges and harbours for trade). Catholic missionaries swept the natives to christianity, which is until today the decisive religion at the Philippines.
  • Jun 24, 1571

    Miguel López de Legazpi established the capital of the Philippines, Manila

    Miguel López de Legazpi established the capital of the Philippines, Manila
    The establishment of the capital at the Bay of Manila was a signal for the start of the following era of Spanish colonization in the Philippines which lasted more than 3 centuries. Legazpi founded with the, enforced to convert to Christianity, native rulers a city council. At the same place like the old Muslim-stronghold was now the fixed historic center of Manila, Intramuros (completely surrounded by walls), which was just for Spanish approachable.It became the capital of the Philippine colony.
  • Jun 26, 1571

    Legazpi as a ruler in Manila

    Legazpi as a ruler in Manila
    Manila became the capital of the Philippine colony and the center of military,religious and economic activities, because of its good position, entry to Manily Bay and ressources in the surrounding area. Legazpi ruled as the first govener. He ruled the Spanish colony from 1565-1898. His leadership fastly expand all over the whole archipelago. Numerous of independant communities were subordinated, which hadn't known a cantral leadership before.
  • Foundation of the "Universidad de Santo Tomas" & Christanization

    Foundation of the "Universidad de Santo Tomas" & Christanization
    After lots of missionaries and friars came to the Philippines, which tried to sweep the Islamic and Animist population to Christendom, which couldn't happen with the help of violence, which has the consequence that Catholicism mixed with prespanish traditions, the oldest catholic university of Asia called "Universidad de Santo Tomas" was found at 28th of April, 1611.
  • Conflict between Christians and non-Christians

    Conflict between Christians and non-Christians
    Muslims in the south, mainly at Mindanao, called "Moros" (biggest non-christian group), never could be subordinated completely to colonial rulers. The Spanish military undertook periodical military campaign against the Muslim lordships until the middle of the 19th century, but without any big succes. Also hilltribes from the north of Luzon, called "Igorots", resisted the Christianization.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    From 1762-1764 the Brits were able to occupy parts of the Philippine archipelago and the capital Manila at the Seven Years' War (Fight of the european Great Power). At the 10th of February 1763 the Seven Years' War ended and it forced Great Britain in 1764 to distraction and renew the Spanish leadership over the Philippines.
  • Foundation of the Royal trading company

    Foundation of the Royal trading company
    After the British invasion the Filipinos entered the global trade by and by. There was tobacco-export, country was opened for private traders and inverstors. In 1785 the "Royal trading company" was founded. Now there was the crop growing of sugar, coffee, indigo and pepper.
  • Trade at the Philippines and connection to Mexico

    Trade at the Philippines and connection to Mexico
    Most important income source for Spain was using the Philippines as a trading station between China and Mexico. The Philippines were until the independence of Mexico on the 24th of August, 1821 administrated as province of Newspain. There was a closely connection between the Philippines and Mexico, also because of the trading of galeons. Chinese now came as traders to the Philippines. Galeons brought silver and coins from Mexico to China and backwards chinese silks and other textiles.
  • Creol-Revolt

    In Manila there was in 1822 (definite date not known) a revolt of creol-soldiers (descendants of emigrants) with Mexican extraction. They defended themselves against the command of an disarmament of the colonial government. They were the first, who called themselves Filipinos. The British occupation and the creol-revolt showed the weakness of Spain and the Mexican independence led to the hope of own independence.
  • Foundation of the "principalia"

    Foundation of the "principalia"
    During the prozelytization and the administration of the Philippine colony local chiefs were kind of indirectly involved in the rulership.The "principalia" was founded.It's a rural native ruling class with corresponding privileges.The spanish ruling class rather stayed in Manila and left the administration on land mainly to the principalia and spanish priests and friars on-site.There were few colonial officers which ruled the provinces with the help of the principalia.
  • Spanish leadership at the Philippines

    Spanish leadership at the Philippines
    Spanish clergymen were mostly the only Spanish, who were able to understand the native language. Acreage, called "Encomiendas", were given to Spanish soldiers and sailors. The native inhabitants were obligated to compulsory service for the Encomenderos. In return the natives were to protect and proselytized. Just the principalia could buy themselves off. Moreover they had to pay duties. The gains were collected by Spanish clergymen, the principalia or Spanish officers on-site.
  • Encomiendas

    Later there were the "Leyes de Burgos" (=laws which were formed in Burgos, a city in Spain), which said that the native inhabitants were basically free and not property of the Encomendores, which means they were no slaves. They could be forced to work, but had to be paid with money or natural produce. Martial submission was only possible, if the natives refused to be christened.
  • Revolution in Spain fom 1868-1871

    Revolution in Spain fom 1868-1871
    The revolution in Spain led to the assumption of the govenorship of the Philippines by Carlos Maria de la Torre (practiced the liberal and democratic principles for imposing liberal laws). There were new reforms and the annulment of the censorship of the press.
  • Suez-canal for trading

    Suez-canal for trading
    There was an increasing independence in the countries of Latinamerica. Now the old forms of a governmental organisated trading were invalid. Therefore there was since 1834 free trading, which means an international trading, no customs duties or import-quotas. On 17th of November 1869 the Suez-canal (shipping-canal in Egypt) was established. A new era of exchange of good began with connetions to the outside world. There were new politic ideas because of the economic growth.
  • Propaganda-movement

    Three Philippine priest were executed in public, known for their liberal ideas. This raised the resentment against the power of the Spanish ruled monastic order. Exililustradores (white people and members of the principalia) founded the propaganda-movement in Europe. Its aim wasn't the Philippine independence, but an autonomy of the Philippines and representative participation in the Spanish congress.
  • Foundation of the "Liga Filipina"

    Foundation of the "Liga Filipina"
    The "Liga Filipina" was founded by José Rizal (he criticized strongly churchly embossed Spanish leadership) and claimed for social reforms. He was arrested and sent to exil, which leds to the breakdown of the liga.
  • Protest movement "Katipunan"

    Protest movement "Katipunan"
    After the Liga Filipina there was in 1892 the nationalistic protest movement "Katipunan" (a nationalistic secret society to kick the habit of the Spanish leadership) founded by Andrés Bonifacio y de Castrol (former member of the Liga Filipina). The most of the members of Ketipunan were from lower classes.
  • Revolution of Katipunan

    Revolution of Katipunan
    First the revolution of Katipunan against the Spanish colonial power was very succesful, but it came to interior power struggles between the fraction of the Katipunan-founder Andrés Bonifavio and the fraction of Emilio Aguinaldo (a very succesful general of Katipunan).
  • Execution of José Rizal

    Execution of José Rizal
    José Rizal was also invited to join Katipunan, but he rejected, because of its too violent transfer of its aims. Spanish clergymen found out about Katipunan, which led to the war of liberation against the Spanish colonial power. José Rizal was arrested and executed, because he was accused of a participation in Katipunan. Until today he is a national hero. But Bonifacio is far more honoured by the Philippine Nationalists.
  • Bonifacio was killed

    Bonifacio was killed
    With the will of Aguinaldo Bonifacio was killed.
  • Armistice

    After lots of acrimonious fights it was an armistice with Spain agreed. Aguinaldo left voluntarily for exil after he and his men were payed out money and amnesty was permitted. Nevertheless, uprisings still continued in many provinces.