Spain in the 18th and 19th century

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    Charles II

    was the last Habsburg ruler of Spain. His realm included Southern Netherlands and Spain's overseas empire, stretching from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies. Known as "the Bewitched", he is noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and his consequent ineffectual rule.
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    Charles II (2)

    He died in 1700, childless and heirless. In his will, Charles named as his successor his grand-nephew, Philip, Duke of Anjou, grandson of Charles' half-sister Maria Theresa of Spain, the first wife of Louis XIV (and thus grandson of the reigning French king Louis XIV). Because the other European powers viewed the prospective dynastic relationship between France and Spain as disturbing the balance of power in Europe, the War of the Spanish Succession ensued shortly after his death.
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    Joseph I

    Was Holy Roman Emperor, he was crowned King of Hungary at the age of nine in 1687. He succeeded to the imperial throne and that of Bohemia when his father died. Joseph continued the War of the Spanish Succession, begun by his father, against Louis XIV of France, in an attempt to make his younger brother Charles VI, King of Spain; in the process won by his military commander, Prince Eugene of Savoy, he did succeed in establishing Austrian hegemony over Italy.
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    War of Spanish Succession

    Treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt, Baden: Austria, Great Britain and the Dutch Republic recognise Philip V as King of Spain but he renounces any claim to the throne of France. Spain cedes territories in Europe.
    -Spain cedes the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Milan and Sardinia to the Austrian Habsburgs; cedes the Kingdom of Sicily to the Duchy of Savoy; and cedes Gibraltar and Minorca to Britain.
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    War of Spanish Succession (2)

    -France recognises British sovereignty over Rupert's Land and Newfoundland; it also cedes Acadia and its half of Saint Kitts to Great Britain.
    -Spain's centralised government on the Spanish Crown
  • Decrees of New Plant

    Decrees of New Plant
    The Decrees of New Plant (1707-1716) were the main way to centralize the administration. Philip V took advantage of the "betrayal" of Aragon to abolish his fueros and his courts and applied the laws of Castile. Thus they cease to be kingdoms, to have their own laws and their own Cortes, Navarre and the Basque territories retained their privileges for having been allies of Philip V in the War of Succession.
  • Decress of the New Plant (2)

    The 29 of June of 1707 publishes the Decrees of Aragon and Valencia, having as a result the abolition of all the legislative and institutional system of both kingdoms. The 3 of April of 1711 dictates the second decree with which Aragon is granted a new plant to the Audiencia of Saragossa.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    Treaties of Utrecht, (April 1713–September 1714), it´s a set of treaties to balance power between France and other European powers (April 11, 1713 to Sept. 7, 1714) and another sets between Spain and other powers (July 13, 1713 to June 26, 1714), concluding the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14).
    France concluded treaties of peace at Utrecht with Britain, the Dutch republic, Prussia, Portugal, and Savoy; which took place in the Dutch city of Utrecht and the German city of Rastatt.
  • Treaty of Utrecht (2)

    The war (1701–14) resulted from a dispute over who should inherit Spain and its possessions after its Habsburg rulers became extinct in 1700. The last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II had left the throne to Philippe de France, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV
    The Utrecht treaties recognized Felipe V of Spain, but transferred the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands and Italy to Austria and to Savoy.
  • Treaty of Utrecht (3)

    To reach the goal of separating the crowns of France and Spain, the treaties required Felipe V to relinquish all claims to the French throne, and the remaining French princes to relinquish all claims to the Spanish throne.
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    Floridablanca (José Moñino y Redondo) (

    He was the reformist chief minister of King Charles III of Spain. He was arguably Spain's most effective statesman in the 18th century. His contacts as a lawyer with influential figures, like Duke of Alba or Diego de Rojas, facilitated his entry into the Council of Castile as prosecutor of the criminal in 1766. He acted forcefully against the instigators of the mutiny of Esquilache in Cuenca and supported the consequent expulsion of the Jesuits of Spain in 1767.
  • Family Compacts

    Family Compacts
    Several alliances between France and Spain in the form of agreements between the French and Spanish branches of the Bourbon family. The three compacts.Both England and France sought Spanish support in the Seven Years War, but England's attack on Spanish colonies and shipping alienated Charles III of Spain and the king rejected the English offer in favor of the proposal made by the French minister.
  • Family Compacts :Treaty of the Escorial

    France backed Spain´s right to recover possessions in Italy in return for Spain´s support in the War of the Polish succession.
    School book(bibliography)
  • Family Compacts: Second agreement

    Family Compacts: Second agreement
    In support of France´s involvement with the Austrian War of Succession, resulted in the installation of Charles´s younger brother Philip as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1748.
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    Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (

    Was a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain. His prose works, especially on political and legislative economy, constitute his real claim to literary fame. In them, depth of thought and clear-sighted sagacity are couched in a certain Ciceronian elegance and classical purity of style. Besides the Ley agraria, he wrote Elogios, and travel journals reflecting his trips across Northern Spain. -> Wikipedia
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    Charles III

    Carlos III was an unusual and unrepeatable ruler. Always trying to legislate in order to improve the life of your dreams instead of adding suffering to the respectable. He escaped quite often to the partridges of hunting in the environs of Madrid with his notebook in which he took good note of his reflections to construct a better kingdom.
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    Charles III (2)

    He generally culminated successfully through the enhancement of civil works, improvement of legislation, renewal of the Navy, agriculture, an advanced postal system, introduction of the lottery, an embryonic social security to care for widows and Orphans of war and other bets of draft, the rights of international politics and their mistaken alliance in the Family Pact with France would bring a series of upset troubles;
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    Charles III (3)

    In addition, as a corollary of all men, the Diktat in the seas were held by the English to change, and the colonies had their buttocks out in the open, given our endemic weakness in the seas and a weight of being an empire of enormous transoceanic proportions.
  • Family Compacts: Third agreement

    It was made by King Charles III of Spain and Louis XV in the Treaty of Paris. Charles III, son of Philip V, making him Louis's first cousin. At this time France was fighting the Seven Years' War against Great Britain. Charles's alliance reversed the policy of Ferdinand VI, who wished to keep Spain out of the war. When Spain became involved, Britain occupied the Philippines and Cuba. Charles III recovered these possessions in the Treaty of Paris (1763), but ceded Florida to the British.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    Occurred during the rule of Charles III of Spain. Caused mostly by the growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread and other staples, they were sparked off by a series of measures regarding Spaniards' apparel that had been enacted by Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marqués de Esquilache, a Neapolitan minister whom Charles favored.
  • Jesuists are expelled from Spain

    Jesuists are expelled from Spain
    The suppression of the Jesuits in the Spanish Empire is a highly controversial subject. It has been argued that it was a result of a series of localized political moves rather than a theological controversy. Monarchies attempting to centralize and secularize political power viewed the Jesuits as being too international, too strongly allied to the papacy, and too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territory they operated.
  • Jesuists are expelled from Spain(2)

    Jesuists are expelled from Spain(2)
    By the brief Dominus ac Redemptor Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits took refuge in non-Catholic nations, particularly in Prussia and Russia, where the order was either ignored or formally rejected. The Jesuits were allowed to return to many places starting in the late nineteenth century.
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    Charles IV (
    At age 40, he became king of Spain, a role that would prove to be far too large. With the French Revolution under way, Charles turned the government over to his wife and her lover, and Spain was soon pitted against the revolutionaries. Eventually forced to abdicate the Spanish throne to his son, Ferdinand VII, Charles and Ferdinand were both deposed by Napoleon. Ferdinand VII was reinstalled in 1813, and Charles died in Rome in 1819.
  • Salic law

    Salic law
    The Bourbons brought this law which excludes females from the line of succession. And at the end of Ferdinand VII proclaimed his pragmatic law: her daughter Isabella would be the queen after his death. His brother Carlos did not accept this and claimed for his rights. Liberals supported Isabella and supporters of old regime( clericalism and autocrazy) baked Carlos, a devout Catholic and reactionary. The dispute broght ¨Carlist Wars¨
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    It was a major event of the French Revolution. After events on the 10 August 1792, which saw the fall of the monarchy after the attack on the Tuileries by insurgents, Louis was arrested, interned in the Temple prison with his family, tried for high treason before the National Convention, convicted in a near-unanimous vote, and condemned to death by a slight majority. His execution made him the first victim of the Reign of Terror.
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    War of the Pyrenees

    First Coalition's war against the First French Republic. It pitted Revolutionary France against the kingdoms of Spain and Portugal during the French Revolutionary Wars.The war was fought in the eastern Pyrenees, the western Pyrenees, at the French port of Toulon, and at sea. By 1795, the French army controlled a portion of northeast Spain.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Treaty of San Ildefonso
    Manuel Godoy, in the name of Carlos IV of Spain, and General Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon, sent by the French Directory, adjusted the treaty on 18 August 1796 in the Royal Palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso. The main points agreed were as follows:
    -There would be an offensive and defensive military alliance between the two countries.
    -The maintenance of these forces is for the account of the country to which they belonged.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso (2)

    Treaty of San Ildefonso (2)
    -A request from any of the signatory parties, the other would help her within three months with a fleet of fifteen line ships, six frigates and four corvettes, all of them properly armed and supplied. To this armada are added ground forces of 18,000 infantry, 6000 cavalry and artillery in proportion.
    -In case of war of common accord, both powers would unite all their military forces and acted according to a joint policy.
  • Napoleon is crown as emperor

    Napoleon is crown as emperor
    Napoleon crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I at Notre Dame de Paris. During the coronation he snatched the crown from the hands of Pope Pius VII and crowned himself. As the nineteenth century progressed, Napoleon turned the armies of the French Empire against every major European power and came to be known as ‘the scourge of Europe.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    Was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars. Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under the French Admiral Villeneuve in the Atlantic off the southwest coast of Spain, just west of Cape Trafalgar, in Caños de Meca.
  • Battle of Trafalgar 2

     Battle of Trafalgar 2
    The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost. It was the most decisive naval battle of the war, conclusively ending French plans to invade England.
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    Peninsular War (

    It was a struggle which took, during the Napoleonic Wars. It pitted Spain, England, and Portugal against the French Army. The Peninsular War broke out, when the people of Madrid rose up against the French troops, under the command of Joachim Murat, who attempted to move the daughter and youngest son of Charles IV of Spain to the French city of Bayonne, where the Spanish King and his son Ferdinand, heir to the throne, had already been taken prisioners.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau(

    Treaty of Fontainebleau(
    Was signed between Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon I of France by France and Spain regarding the occupation of Portugal.
    Under this treaty Portugal was divided into three regions- the Entre-Douro-e-Minho Province for the King of the Etrúria, the Principality of the Algarves under Spanish minister D. Manuel Godoy and the remaining provinces and overseas territories were to be distributed under a later agreement.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    Is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to the Guerra de la Independencia Española, which overlaps with the Peninsular War. The failed El Escorial Conspiracy forced King Charles IV to abdicate the throne to his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 by order of the Spanish Royal Council.Napoleon's designation of his brother, Joseph, as King of Spain was resisted by the Spanish people and led to the Peninsular War.
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    Ferdinand VII: Restoration of absolutism

    Following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand ascended the throne and turned to Napoleon for support. He abdicated on 6 May 1808. Napoleon kept Ferdinand under guard in France for six years at the Chateau of Valençay.
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    Peninsular War (2)

    That day the Spanish rebels killed 200 French soldiers in the streets of Madrid. Although the uprising was brutally quelled by the French forces, the news of the rebellion spread throughout Spain, and on May 25 the small province of Asturias rose up in arms, too, ousted its French governor and declared war on Napoleon, who had already replaced the Spanish King with his brother Joseph on the throne of Spain.
    and wikipedia
  • First Spanish Constitution

    First Spanish Constitution
    The constitution was drawn up in Cadiz, which has three initial main points: to confirm the legitimacy of the monarch; to enshrine the inviolability of the deputies; and to establish national sovereignty. It’s a clear statement to Napoleon: this is still Spain, and we are still Spanish.
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    Ferdinand VII: The liberal period

    In 1820 Riego made a pronunciamiento. As a result the King restored the Constitution.
  • Riego´s pronunciamiento

    Riego´s pronunciamiento
    Was a coup d'etat of the progressive military, realized by the commander Irrigation the 1 of January of 1820 in Heads of San Juan. In the Plaza de Cabezas de San Juan, Riego issues a side that promotes the repealed Spanish Liberal Constitution of 1812
    With this coup d'etat, the absolutist government developed by Fernando VII during the first stage of his reign, and a liberal government is established, is called the Liberal Triennium 1820-1823.
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    Ferdinand VII: The victory of absolutism

    In May the revolutionary party carried Ferdinand to Cádiz, he continued to make promises of amendment until he was free.
    When Ferdinand was freed after the Battle of Trocadero and the fall of Cádiz, reprisals followed.
    During his last years Ferdinand's political appointments became more stable.The last ten years of reign saw the restoration of absolutism, the suppression of Liberal Party and the reactionary revolt which broke out in 1827 in Catalonia and other regions.
  • Cien mil Hijos de San Luis

    Cien mil Hijos de San Luis
    It was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII to help the Spanish Royalists restore King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power of which he had been deprived during the Liberal Triennium. The actual number of troops was around 60,000. The force comprised some five army corps and was led by the Duke of Angoulême, the son of the future King Charles X of France.
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    Isabella II, Queen of Spain

    Her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognize a female sovereign, leading to the Carlist Wars. Isabella had a troubled reign for the political instability and the rule of military politicians. Her failure to respond to growing demands for a more progressive regime, her questionable private life, and her political irresponsibility contributed to the decline in monarchical strength and prestige that led to her deposition in the Revolution of 1868.
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    First Carlists Wars

    The main conflict centered on the Basque Country and Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia. It was fought over the succession to the throne and the nature of the Spanish monarchy. It was fought between Isabella(supporters of the regent, Maria Christina) II of Spain, and those of the late king's brother, Carlos de Borbón. The Carlists supported return to an absolute monarchy. The victory was of the liberal party & the consequences were:
    -Lord Eliot Convention
    -Convention of Vergara
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    Second Carlists Wars

    Was a short civil war fought primarily in Catalonia by the Carlists under General Ramón Cabrera against the forces of the government of Isabella II. The war caused between 3,000 and 10,000 casualties. The victory was of the Liberal party.
  • Canal de Castilla

    Canal de Castilla
    Is a canal constructed between the last half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century, it runs 207 km through the provinces of Burgos, Palencia and Valladolid, in the Autonomous Community of Castile and León. The Spanish War of Independence, budgetary constraints and the difficult passage of the Cantabrian Mountains hampered and eventually reduced the initial plan of a 400 km so the canal never reached the Bay of Biscay as initially planned.
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution

    Spanish Glorious Revolution
    It took place in Spain in 1868, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II. Leaders of the revolution eventually recruited an Italian prince, Amadeo of Savoy, as king. His reign lasted two years, and he was replaced by the first Spanish Republic. That also lasted two years, until leaders in 1875 proclaimed Isabella's son, as King Alfonso XII in the Bourbon Restoration.
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    Amadeus of Savoy (

    Was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known as the Duke of Aosta.
    He was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II. Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result.
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    Third Carlist War

    During this conflict, Carlist forces managed to occupy several towns in the interior of Spain, the most important ones being La Seu d'Urgell and Estella in Navarre. Isabella II had abdicated the throne, and Amadeo I, a younger son of the King of Italy who had been proclaimed King of Spain in 1870, was not very popular.
    The victory was of the liberal party. And the consecuences were:
    -Spanish Constitution of 1876
    -Basque Economic Agreement
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    First Republic

    Was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain the parliamentary proclamation when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. On 11 February the republic was declared by a parliamentary majority made up of radicals, republicans and democrats. However, they had many problems like the Carlist Wars,division of republicans and demand for greater autonomy in Andalucía, Levante and Cataliña
    ->History´s photocopies
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    Cuban War

    Nationalist uprising in Cuba against Spanish rule.It began with the unsuccessful Ten Years’ War and culminated in the U.S. intervention that ended the Spanish colonial presence in the Americas. Dissatisfied with the corrupt and inefficient Spanish administration, lack of political representation, and high taxes,Cubans in the eastern provinces united under the wealthy planter Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, whose declaration of independence in October 1868, the Grito de Yara.