Spain in 18th & 19th centuries

  • Charles II's death

    Charles  II's death
    Charles II, king of Spain, found death the 1st of November 1700 without a heir. In his lastest will he gave the crown to Philip of Anjou, France's prince.
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    Philipe V

    Philip's accession in Spain provoked the 14-year War of the Spanish Succession, which continued until the Treaty of Utrecht which forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish thrones.
    Philip was the first member of the House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. Philip V was King of Spain from 1 of November 1700 till 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis because he exhibited many elements of mental instability.
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    War of Spanish Succession

    The War of the Spanish Succession resulted from a dispute over who should inherit Spain and its possessions after the last Habsburg king of Spain, Charles II died and left the throne to his closest relative in female line: Philippe de France, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV (Felipe V of Spain. The closest relatives in male line, the Habsburgs of Austria, disputed this claim, and many European nations did not want to see French princes reigning over both kingdoms.
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    Louis I of Spain

    Louis I was King of Spain from 15 January 1724 until his death in August the same year. His reign is one of the shortest in history.On 20 January 1722, he married Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, a daughter of Philippe d'Orléans the Regent of France. Louis ruled for a short period between the time his father Philip V abdicated in his favour and his death just over seven months later. On his death, his father returned to the throne, and rened until his ownn death in 1746.
  • Treaty of Utrecht

    Treaty of Utrecht
    The renewed threat of the Habsburg world power enabled Louis XIV to obtain favourable Peace terms in The Treaty of Utrecht. The Treaties of Utrecht, signed in 1713, put an end to the War of Spanish Succession. The Utrecht treaties recognized Felipe V of Spain, but transferred the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands and Italy to Austria and to Savoy.
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    Charles III

    Charles III was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain. In 1731 he became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza. He conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, and was crowned king on 1735, reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily.Considered as one of the “enlightened despots” of the 18th century, who helped lead Spain to a brief cultural and economic revival.
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    Louis I

    Louis I was king until his death in August of 1724. His reign is one of the shortest in history, lasting for just over seven months. Louis ruled for a short period between the time his father Philip V abdicated in his favour (14 January 1724) and his death from smallpox, just over seven months later. On his death, his father returned to the throne, and reigned until his own death in 1746.
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    Philip V's Second Reign

    After abdicating and leaving the throne to his son Louis XV, Philip was forced to return to the Spanish throne beacuse of Louis death on 31 August 1724, who only reigned seven months and also as his younger son, the later Ferdinand VI, was not yet of age to reign.
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    The Family Compacts

    The struggle for power betweeen Britain and France during the 18th century frequently placed Spain in an awkward situation. The Bourbon connection between France and Spain, and Spanish concerns over Bitain's strenght in the Atlantic certainly gave France a decide edge where Spanish support was concerned.Still, as a general rule Spain found itself as France's partner. Indicative of the French-Spanish alliance are the Three Family Compacts, signed between the two countries.
  • First Family Compact

    First Family Compact
    The First Family Compact was signed by Philip V of Spain and Louis XV of France in El Escorial. Philip V was recognized as King, provided Spain’s and France’s thrones were never unified. They allied against Austria and Philip restored the presence of Spanish power in Italy.
  • Second Family Compact

    Second Family Compact
    In the Second Family Compact Louis XV of France supported the Spanish aspirations in the North of Italy, taking advantage of the Austrian Succession War.
  • Ferdinand VI

    Ferdinand VI
    Ferdinand VI of Spain was king from 9 of July 1746 until his death in the 10th of August in 1759. He was Philip V's son and his first wife was Maria Luisa of Savoy. He was the third Bourbon to rule Spain and he died childless leading to his half brother Charles becoming king.
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    Ferdinand VI

    Ferdinand VI was a King of Spain until his death in 1759 aged 49. He was the fourth son of the previous monarch Philip V. As king he followed a firm policy of neutrality in the war between France and Britain, and refused to be tempted to join the war by the offers of either. The most important tasks during the reign of Ferdinand VI were carried out by the Marquis of Ensenada, the Secretary of the Treasury and Navy Indies. He suggested that the state help modernise the country.
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    Charles IV

    Charles IV became king of Spain. With the French Revolution under way, Charles surrendered the government to Godoyhis, her wife´s lover and Spain was soon pitted against the revolutionaries.Eventually forced to abdicate the Spanish throne to his son, Ferdinand VII, Charles and Ferdinand were both deposed by Napoleon. Ferdinand VII was reinstalled in1813, and Charles died in Rome in 1819.
  • Third Family Compact

    Third Family Compact
    This last compact was signed during the reign of Charles III to defend the French-spanish colonial interests in America, against Britain’s intentions. Spain and France supported the north American colonies in their fight against England, who finally recognized E.E.U.U’s Independence.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Treaty that officially ended the French and Indian War. The British gained control over the area west of the 13 British Colonies to the Mississippi River. Since Spain had joined the war on the side of the French, the Spanish were also forced to give up their claim to Florida. The area of North America to the north and east of the Mississippi River was now under British rule. But the Spanish still held their territory west of the Mississippi River and in Central and South America.
  • Esquilache Riots

    Esquilache Riots
    SummaryThe Esquilache Riots (Motín de Esquilache) occurred during the rule of Charles III of Spain. Caused mostly by the growing discontent in Madrid about the rising costs of bread and other staples, they were sparked off by a series of measures regarding Spaniards' apparel that had been enacted by Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marquis of Esquilache, a Neapolitan minister whom Charles favored.
  • Jesuits expelled by bourbons

    Jesuits expelled by bourbons
    The Society of Jesus is expelled from Spain by order of Carlos III and his prime minister , Count of Aranda , through Pragmatic Sanction .
    It was founded in 1540 in Rome by Ignacio de Loyola.They were a male religious order that belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, and they were expelled from Spain by King Carlos III on charges of being the promoters of the Motin de Esquilache
  • American Declaration of Independence

    American Declaration of Independence
    <a href='http://'. When armed conflict between bands of American colonists and British soldiers began in April 1775, the Americans were fighting only for their rights as subjects of the British crown.In mid-June 1776, a five-man committee including Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin drafted a formal statement of the colonies’ requests.The Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence the 4th of July.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso

    Treaty of San Ildefonso
    any of several treaties signed at the royal residence of San Ildefonso, Spain. 1 The Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1796 was an alliance of France with Spain against Great Britain in the French Revolutionary Wars. 2 The secret Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800 was actually a draft confirmed by two later treaties in which Spain retroceded Louisiana to France and was compensated by the creation in Tuscany of the kingdom of Etruria, which was given to the duke of Parma.
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    French Revolution

    French Revolution Summary It is known as the French Revolution to the political, social , economic and military movement that emerged in France in 1789. the same that brought about the collapse of the absolutist monarchy , which until then had ruled in France , while giving rise to the establishment of a democratic republican government and also the beginning of a new era known as the contemporary era.
  • French Revolution - Storming of Batille

    French Revolution - Storming of Batille
    href='' >Storming of Batille</a> The Paris mob, hungry because of the lack of food from poor harvests, took the law into their own hands. On July 14th,1789, the mob rioted and attacked the royal fortress prision called the Bastille. They saw the Bastille as a Symbol of everything that was wrong with France. It was a symbol of the king and his government and the Paris mob wanted it destroyed.
  • Louis XVI's Execution

    Louis XVI's Execution
    Louis ascended to the French throne with severe financial problems that he had inherited and he did not reign with maestry the country. Opposition to the royal family became so fierce that they had to flee to Austria but they were apprehended. Afterwards, evidence of Louis XVI’s counterrevolutionary intrigues was discovered and he was condemned to death, meeting the guillotine on January 21 of 1793.
  • War of Pyrenees

    War of Pyrenees
    7 March 1793 – 22 July 1795
  • Napoleon Firts Consul

    Napoleon Firts Consul
    During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul, established himself as the head of a more conservative, authoritarian, autocratic, and centralized republican government in France while not declaring himself head of state. Due to the long-lasting institutions established during these years, Robert B. Holtman has called the Consulate "one of the most important periods of all French history.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    SummaryThe Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars.
    The battle was the most decisive naval victory of the war. Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard HMS Victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under French Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve in the Atlantic off the southwest coast of Spain
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    It was a political agreement that was signed in Fontainebleau between Napoleon Bonaparte of France and Charles IV of Spain.
    It was agreed that Portugal and all Portuguese dominions were to be divided between the signatories.
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    Peninsular War

    Peninsular War SummaryThe Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. Peninsular War lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation.This War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls: Guerra de la Indepencencia.
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    Joseph I (reign)

    Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte was the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily, and later King of Spain. Joseph came under heavy fire from his opponents in Spain. His arrival sparked the legitimate Spanish revolt against French rule, and the beginning of the Peninsular War. Joseph and his supporters never established complete control over the country.During his reign, he ended the Spanish Inquisition. During Joseph's rule of Spain, Venezuela declared independence.
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The Abdications of Bayonne were a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to the Spanish War of Independence. The failed El Escorial Conspiracy preceded the Mutiny of Aranjuez, which forced King Charles IV to abdicate the throne to his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 by order of the Spanish Royal Council.
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    Ferdinand VII

    He was twice King of Spain. In 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as "the Desired" and to his detractors as the "Felon King" . After being overthrown by Napoleon in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. Spain entered into civil war on his death.
    1st reign: 19 March 1808 – 6 May
    2nd reign: 11 December 1813 – 29 September 1833
  • First Constitution

    First Constitution
    La Pepa The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was established on 19 March 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes in Cádiz during the Peninsular War. It was done with the objective of enshrining the rights of Spanish citizens and limiting the power of the monarchy. The Constitution never entered fully into effect as much of Spain was ruled by the French, while the rest of the country was in the hands of interim junta governments focused on resistance to the Bonapartes. The Spaniards nicknamed the Constitution La Pepa.
  • Regio´s Pronunciamiento

    Regio´s Pronunciamiento
    The delivery of irrigation, was a "coup" military, conducted by Major Rafael de Riego, The ruling arose among the officers of the troops to combat the American revolt, due to the existence of a major upset in the army in late 1819, by the exclusion of liberal government, together with the Irrigation affiliation to Freemasonry, which contributed to his later success. Upon issuance of a proclamation came the restoration of constitutional authorities.
  • Cien mil hijos de San Louis

    Cien mil hijos de San Louis
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis (known in France as "the issuing of Spain") was a French contingent Spanish volunteers who fought in Spain in 1823 in defense of the old regime by advocating Fernando VII of Spain, ending Realistic War and the Liberal Triennium.
  • Pragmatic Sanction

    Pragmatic Sanction
    Decree of Ferdinand VII of Spain, which promulgated his predecessor Charles IV’s unpublished decision of 1789 revoking the Salic law of succession, which had denied royal succession to females. The Pragmatic Sanction was intended to permit his unborn child to succeed to the throne, even if it were female.
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    Three Carlist Civil Wars

    SummaryThe Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century. The contenders fought to establish their claim to the throne, although some political differences also existed. Indeed, several times during the period from 1833 to 1876 the Carlists.Carlism was a significant force in Spanish politics from 1833 until the end of the Francoist regime in 1975.
    First Carlist War (1833-1840)
    Second Carlist War (1846-1849)
    Third Carlist War (1872-1876)
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    Isabella II

    Summaryin October 1833, when he was only three years old, he succeeded to the throne of Spain to his father Fernando VII. In his minority his mother Maria Cristina was regent until 1840, which was supported by the Liberals trying to defend Carlists (first Carlist War), and General Baldomero Espartero until 1843.At 16, she married, against his will, with his cousin Francis of Assisi.
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    Regency of Mª Cristina

    SummaryFourth wife of Ferdinand VII, to his death in 1833 was named regent of Spain, given the minority of their daughter, Isabel II. His government was marked by the fight between Carlists and liberals who supported him, he remained in that position until a progressive uprising led by General Espartero forced her to resign and go into exile (1840).
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    Regency of Espartero

    SummaryIt was a Spanish general who held the titles of Prince of Vergara, Duke of Victory, Duke of Morella, Count of Luchana and Vicomte de Banderas, all of them in return for their work in the field, especially in the First Carlist War where the address or cristino Elizabethan army was crucial for the final victory. In addition, he served as viceroy of Navarra (1836).
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    Spanish Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution (Spanish La Gloriosa) took place in Spain in 1868, deposing Queen Isabella II. An rebellion led by General Juan Prim and a revolt of the sergeants at San Gil barracks (Madrid) sent a signal to Spanish liberals and republicans that there was serious unrest with the state of affairs in Spain that could be harnessed if it were properly led. Liberals and republican exiles abroad made agreements at Ostend in 1866 and Brussels in 1867.
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    Amadeus of Sovay

    Summarywas the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but reigned briefly as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873.
    He was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II, and sworn in the following year. Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated
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    First Republic

    SummaryThe First Spanish Republic was the political regime in Spain since its proclamation by the courts, the February 11, 1873, until December 29, 1874, when the pronouncement of General Martinez-Campos began the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The first Republican attempt in the history of Spain was a short experience, characterized by political. In its first eleven months four presidents of the executive branch were followed, all from the same Federal Republican Party, until the coup of General Pavia.