Independencia

Spain in 18th-19th century

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    Charles II

    Charles II was born the 6th of November of 1661. No one imagined he would be one of the worst Spanish kings.Thanks to the powerful influence of the Spanish Inquisition during this era, he became known as "El Hechizado". Being easily influenced by his religious advisers and his powerful mother, Charles himself came to believe that he was the pillar of witch issues and often accused friends of working magic against him.
    http://drvitelli.typepad.com/providentia/2011/09/the-bewitched-king.html
  • War of Spanish Succession II

    War of Spanish Succession II
    The end of this war came thanks to the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht between Britain's monarchy and the French Monarchy. After this agreement, there was a second Treaty between the Spanish and the British monarchy.Both stated the division of States that had had their power under the Spanish monarchy.The Kingdom of Spain had to give the Kingdom of Naples, Sardinia, The Duchy of Milan, etc.
    http://defensacentral.com/ustedpregunta/categoria/historia/quien-gano-la-guerra-de-sucesion-espanola/
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    War of Spanish Succession

    Charles II was childless and had no cousins in the immediate Spanish Hapsburg line. The question was who will inherit the vast Spanish territories and domains. The two most powerful European nations, France and Austria made equal claims for their descendants. On one side of the alliance were: England, the United Provinces, the Habsburg Empire and the German states and on the other side were France and the Spanish Empire, also known as the two crowns.
    http://www.spanishsuccession.nl/timeline.html
  • New Foundation Decrees (1707-16)

    They were the primary means to centralise the spanish administration. Philip V took advantage of the 'betrayal' of Aragon and abolished their fueros and their courts by applying the laws of Castile. Navarre and the Basque territories retained their fueros because they had been allies of Philip V in the War of Spanish Succession. Link text
  • Treaty of Utrech (March and April,1713)

    Treaty of Utrech (March and April,1713)
    Was signed by several European states, and it helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. The treaty stated that the Spanish and French crowns should never be united. This as well established a balance of power and prevented France from uniting and dominating the continent. Thanks to this treaty Philip V, Louis XIV's grandson, was made king of Spain. The treaty stated that Britain should have Gibraltar, Minorca, Hudson Bay, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland; (...)
  • Treaty of Utrech II

    Treaty of Utrech II
    Austria acquired Milan, Naples, and the Spanish Netherlands. The treaty was concluded on the one hand between the representatives of Louis XIV of France and Philip V of Spain, and on the other between the representatives of Queen Anne of Great Britain, the Duke of Savoy, and the Dutch Republic. The treaty brought a period of peace in what is sometimes called the Second Hundred Years War (1689-1815) between France and Britain. The Triple Alliance (1717) was formed to uphold the Treaty of Utrecht.
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    Floridablanca

    José Moñino Redondo was the count of Floridablanca (1727-1808). He was a Spanish politician. His contacts as a lawyer with influential figures, like the Duke of Alba, facilitated him the entry into the Council of Castile as a criminal prosecutor in 1766. There, he met Campomanes and both fought in the defence of the privileges of the Crown against the Church. Later on, he supported the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain in 1767.
    http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/f/floridablanca.html
  • Treaty of the Escorial (1733)

    Treaty of the Escorial (1733)
    Philip V and Louis XV allied themselves in the first family compact, making a front against Austria. Philip did so with the intention of recovering old possessions in Italy and finally regained Naples and Sicily. The results of this compact were the recognition of Don Carlos, son of Isabel de Farnesio, as King of Naples and Sicily. However they had to give up their States of Parma, Piacenza and Toscana. (...)
  • Treaty of the Escorial II

    Treaty of the Escorial II
    The negative result of the treaty was the negotiation of peace by France that produced mistrust and unrest in Spain.
    http://javiercotrina.blogspot.com.es/2012/11/pactos-de-familia.html
  • Treaty of the Escorial, 2nd Agreement (1743)

    Treaty of the Escorial, 2nd Agreement (1743)
    The second Pact was signed at Fontainebleau and was agreed by the same monarchs, during the war of succession of Austria. This pact was broken by Ferdinand VI of Spain denying its support to France in the wars, when he carried out a policy of active neutrality between England and France. Thanks to the alliance between England and Spain, Spain won Milan and the duchies of Parma, Plasencia and Guastalla. (...)
  • Treaty of the Escorial, 2nd agreement II

    Treaty of the Escorial, 2nd agreement II
    The positive result of this Treaty was the confirmation of Don Carlos as King of the two Scillies and Parma; as well Guastalla and Plasencia would be assigned to the infant Don Felipe. The negative result was that it was not fulfilled all of the things that were signed at Fontainebleau. In addition France, breach the family compact by negotiating with Austria behind Spain's and Great Britain's back. http://javiercotrina.blogspot.com.es/2012/11/pactos-de-familia.html
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    Jovellanos

    Jovellanos (1744-1811). In 1778 the King appointed him mayor of court, and he moved to Madrid. After the death of Carlos III he was expelled from the Court and later on, Godoy named him Minister of Justice(1797). However, the reactionary forces opposed and succeeded. In 1801 he was arrested in Mallorca because he was accused of heretic. Finally Jose Bonaparte released him from prison and offered him another position, but he denied it.
    http://www.rinconcastellano.com/ilustracion/jovellanos.html
  • Charles III (II)

    Charles III (II)
    As king of Spain Charles III tried to rescue his empire from decay through far-reaching reforms such as weakening the influence of the Church and its monasteries, promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce.
    http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/c/carlos_iii.htm
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    Charles III

    King of Naples (1734-1759) and of Spain (1759-1788).He was called the major of Madrid and was the third son of Felipe V and Isabel of Farnese. He inherited from his mother the duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Tuscany. In 1734, as Duke of Parma, he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, and was crowned King on 3rd of July, 1735, reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony (...)
  • Treaty of the Escorial, 3rd Agreement (1761)

    Treaty of the Escorial, 3rd Agreement (1761)
    What was intended with this political and military alliance was to stop the English colonial expansion, which was the fundamental concern of the French and Spanish Crowns. Charles III was involved in a war against Great Britain Link text which had as a consequence: The peace of Paris (1763), in this treaty was determined that the English kept Gibraltar and recover Minorca. (...)
  • Treaty of the Escorial, 3rd Agreement II

    Treaty of the Escorial, 3rd Agreement II
    In addition with the aim that the Havana and Manila were returned from the English, Spain had to return Sacramento, give them Florida and let the Mississippi for free navigation. This family compact was renewed in the Treaty of Aranjuez with France; Spain took the rematch against England in the War of the Independence of the United States (1775-1783), in which it enters in the year 1779, recovering Minorca and the two Floridas.
    http://javiercotrina.blogspot.com.es/2012/11/pactos-de-familia.html
  • The Esquilache Riot (1760 to 1766)

    The Esquilache Riot (1760 to 1766)
    Leopoldo de Gregorio, Marqués de Esquilache. He became a Spanish politician, and was made Minister for War and Finance when Charles III was on the throne. At that time Naples was a part of Spain and Leopoldo was sent there to be Minister of Finance by 1759. He returned to Spain where he tried to introduce reforms, especially in the Spanish fiscal system. The opposition tried to block the reforms, as the opposition in Spain only opposed to every move or opinion, blankly and without remorse.(...)
  • The Esquilache Riot II

    The Esquilache Riot II
    From 1760 to 1766 a series of bad harvests frustrated Leopoldo’s attempted reforms of the agriculture laws, and the result was unrest and rioting in several major cities. The Esquilache Riot took place in Madrid. When the riot was put down Leopoldo was fired. It was said that the disturbances were provoked by Esquilache's insistence on proper dress Link text. (...)
  • The Esquilache Riot III

    The Esquilache Riot III
    When the rioting started again there was no Esquilache to blame so all the Jesuits in the city were expelled. Leopoldo returned to Naples where he was made Ambassador in Venice. Link text http://general-history.com/esquilache-attempts-reform-18th-century-spain/
  • Jesuits are expelled from Spain (1767)

    Jesuits are expelled from Spain (1767)
    During the eighteenth century, and influenced by the secularist Enlightenment movement, Portugal, Spain, France and Austria were rejecting papal influence. The Jesuits were seen to represent all that these states disliked about papal interference in temporal affairs. They became popularised as secretive, deceptive, manipulative, and with the intent on world domination either for themselves or for the pope. Because of this (and more) Spain expelled the Jesuits in 1767.
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    Ferdinand VII (first period)

    He was the son of Charles IV and María Luisa de Parma, was born in El Escorial in 1784. He became the Prince of Asturias and as such was sworn by the courts on September 1789. Excluded from a role in the government, he became the center of intrigues against Godoy and tried to win the support of Napoleon I. In 1807 he was arrested by his father, who accused him of the murder of his mother and Godoy. He was soon forgiven.
    http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/people/ferdinand-vii-king-spain.html
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    Charles IV

    Charles IV was born on November 11 of 1748 (Italy).He became king of Spain in 1788. With the French Revolution under way, Charles turned the government over to his wife and her lover, and Spain was soon pitted by revolutionaries. Eventually forced to abdicate the Spanish throne to his son, Ferdinand VII, Charles and Ferdinand were both deposed by Napoleon. Ferdinand VII was reinstalled in 1813, and Charles died in Rome in 1819.
    https://global.britannica.com/biography/Charles-III-king-of-Spain
  • Canal de Castilla (August,1791)

    Canal de Castilla (August,1791)
    The main objective of its construction was to serve as via of communication and transport that would repair the problem of isolation to which was subject the Castilian and Leonese plateau, due to a complicated terrain and a poor and badly preserved network of transportation, that made difficult and almost impossible the transport of those agrarian surplus of the region, mostly cereals.
    http://www.canaldecastilla.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=34&Itemid=52
  • Execution of Louis XVI (1793)

    Execution of Louis XVI (1793)
    In November 1792, evidence of Louis XVI’s counterrevolutionary intrigues with Austria and other foreign nations was discovered, and he was put on trial for treason by the National Convention. Next January (1793), Louis was convicted and condemned to death by a narrow majority. Therefore on January 21, he walked steadfastly to the guillotine and was executed.
    http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/king-louis-xvi-executed
  • War of the Pyrenees II

    War of the Pyrenees II
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    War of the Pyrenees

    In 1793, French people executed King Louis XVI of France, and angered European monarchs. This war was fought in the eastern and western Pyrenees and at the French port of Toulon. In 1793 a Spanish army invaded Roussillon and kept itself on French soil through April 1794. Later on, the French sent Spanish back to Catalonia. In 1795, the war in the eastern Pyrenees became a stalemate. In the western Pyrenees, the French began to win.By 1795, the French army controlled a portion of northeast Spain.
  • Treaty of San Ildefonso (1800)

    Treaty of San Ildefonso (1800)
    It was a secret treaty between the French Republic and the King of Spain. Spain returned back Louisiana to France and was compensated by the creation in Tuscany of the kingdom of Etruria, which was given to the duke of Parma, son-in-law of Charles IV of Spain. Napoleon Bonaparte disregarded the treaty and sold Louisiana to the United States three years later.
    http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/ildefens.asp
    http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/history/san-ildefonso-treaty-of.html
  • Napoleon is crowned as emperor (1804)

    Napoleon is crowned as emperor (1804)
    After becoming first consul in February 1800, he reorganised his armies and defeated Austria. In 1802, he established the Napoleonic Code, a new system of French law, and in 1804 he established the French empire. By 1807, Napoleon’s empire stretched from the River Elbe in the north, down through Italy in the south, and from the Pyrenees to the Dalmatian coast. Link text
  • Napoleon is crowned as emperor II

    Napoleon is crowned as emperor II
  • Battle of Trafalgar (1805)

    Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
    A British fleet under Admiral Lord Nelson defeated a combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, fought off the coast of Spain. On October 21, Nelson divided his 27 ships into two divisions and in five hours of fighting, the British devastated the enemy fleet destroying 19 enemy ships. 30 minutes before the end of the battle he died.Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar ensured that Napoleon would never invade Britain. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/battle-of-trafalgar
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau (1807)

    Treaty of Fontainebleau (1807)
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau stated that Spain and France pledged to attack and take over Portugal, which in turn would be divided into three separate parts. As a result of this Treaty, a French army, commanded by the Duke and French general Junot, penetrated in Spain under the pretext of taking part in the war of Portugal. Shortly after they crossed the Pyrenees, five Army Corps remained at the border, leaving Spain practically under the Napoleon's control.
  • Abdications of Bayonne (1808-1814)

    Abdications of Bayonne (1808-1814)
    On March 5, Charles IV and his son Ferdinand VII were forced to abdicate his rights to the Spanish throne in favor of Napoleón Bonaparte, who then gave them to his brother Joseph Bonaparte under the name of Joseph I. This was a trigger of the War of the Spanish Independence. http://www.lhistoria.com/espana/abdicaciones-de-bayona
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    Peninsular War

    The Peninsular War (Spanish War of Independence)(1808–14) It began with the uprisings 2nd may. Napoleonic armies fought in the Iberian Peninsula, where the French were opposed by British, Spanish, and Portuguese forces. Napoleon’s peninsula struggle contributed considerably to his eventual downfall. The war in the Peninsula did interest the British, because their army made no other important contribution to the war on the continent between 1793-95.
    http://www.peninsularwar.org/penwar_e.html
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    Joseph I

    Joseph Bonaparte, 1768-1844. During the Napoleonic wars, Joseph I acted as an envoy of his brother and signed treaties with the United States, Austria, etc. After the proclamation of Napoleon as emperor, he awarded to his brother the Naples throne in 1806, where he ruled until 1808. When, after the abdications of Bayonne, Napoleon installed him at the front of the Spanish crown as the King of Naples.
    http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/portales/reyes_y_reinas_espana_contemporanea/jose_i_biografia/
  • First Spanish Constitution (1812)

    First Spanish Constitution (1812)
    Was published by the Cortes of Cádiz, with the country in the midst of the Spanish War of Independence. It had 384 separate articles under 10 titles. It established sovereignty as residing in the nation, the division of powers, and a limited suffrage. A new administrative system was set up based on districts and provinces, and individual rights to freedom, the press, education, and property were recognised. http://www.typicallyspanish.com/news-spain/history/The_1812_Spanish_Constitution.shtml
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    Ferdinand VII (second period)

    The emperor gave the Spanish throne to Joseph Bonaparte during the Peninsular War (1808–14) He was imprisoned in France. When Ferdinand was restored to his throne, he abolished the liberal constitution of 1812. After several unsuccessful uprisings, the Spanish liberals staged a successful revolution in 1820 and forced the king to return the constitution of 1812. The Holy Alliance became alarmed, and the Congress of Troppau was summoned to deal with the situation.
    http://www.infoplease/ferdinand
  • Riego's Pronuciamento (1820)

    Riego's Pronuciamento (1820)
    Riego made a militar Pronunciamiento at Las Cabezas de San Juan, in the province of Seville. Together with other officers, such as Antonio Quiroga, he proclaimed the Constitution. On March 7, the King Fernando VII signed a decree in which he was subjected "to the will of the people" and swearing the Constitution of 1812.
    http://redhistoria.com/el-pronunciamiento-de-riego-fue-el-inicio-de-las-revoluciones-de-1820/#.WKCIqPnhDIU
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    Ferdinand VII (third period)

    The Holy Alliance became alarmed, and the Congress of Troppau was summoned to deal with the Spanish situation. The powers reached no decision, but in 1822 at Verona, France was delegated by the Holy Alliance to undertake military intervention in Spain and to restore Ferdinand to absolute power. Ferdinand, backed by French arms, put back the constitution in 1823. Ferdinand's death caused no less trouble than his reign.
    http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/people/ferdinand-vii-king-spain.html
  • Cien mil Hijos de San Luis (1823)

    Cien mil Hijos de San Luis (1823)
    They were a French military force sent to Spain in 1823 to end the Trienio Liberal and return the Spanish throne to Fernando VII. To request of Fernando VII, France, supported by Prussia, Austria and Russia, approved in the Congress of Verona (1822) the invasion of the Spanish territories. The 31 of August of 1823, battle of Trocadero, in Cadiz, put end to "El Trienio Liberal" (1820-1823) and established again the absolutist monarchy of Fernando VII.
  • Pragmatic Sanction of Ferdinand VII

    Pragmatic Sanction of Ferdinand VII
    On 1830, Ferdinand VII promulgated the pragmatic sanction that left the old Salic law (which had been established by Felipe V, giving priority to the male but wouldn't let the woman rule in the absence of male descendants) void. Since the beginning of his reign there was no more heir to the throne than his brother Don Carlos. He married María Cristina of Naples and in less than a year the King announced a descendant, the infant Isabel. (...)
  • Pragmatic Sanction of Ferdinand VII (II)

    Pragmatic Sanction of Ferdinand VII (II)
    the King ordered repealed the pragmatic sanction due to the presure of carlist people. On September 28, 1832, the King reverted the process thanks to Luisa Carlota. There were no more moves and a year later the monarch died. Its consequence was the war.
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    First Carlist War

    It started with the death of Ferdinand VII(1833-40). Charles(Isabel II`s brother)didn't accept the Pragmatic Law because his rights to throne were lowered and a dynastic conflict raised. With the death of the King, his woman Maria Cristina of Bourbon took the Regency in name of his daughter Isabel. Charles rebelled and a Carlist war started. He was proclaimed King at different places while Carlist uprisings occurred throughout the country
    http://www.apunteshistoria.info/guerras-carlistas-resumen
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    Isabel II

    Isabel II was Queen of Spain between 1833 and 1868, year in which she was sent out of the throne by the Glorious revolution. Her reign occupied one of the most complex and turbulent periods of the 19th century, characterized by political changes that brought liberal revolutions. She was named queen thanks to his father Ferdinand who promulgated the Pragmatic sanction, which abolished the Sadic Law
    http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/portales/reyes_y_reinas_espana_contemporanea/isabel_ii_biografia/
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    Second Carlist War

    In 1846 broke the second Carlist War. It primarily took place in Catalonia. The pretext was the marriage of Isabel II. A link between the two branches of the Bourbons was thought but Montemolín who sought to be recognized as King achieved the failure of the initiative. Nevertheless, Isabel II ended up marrying with his cousin Francis of Assisi of Bourbon
    http://www.apunteshistoria.info/guerras-carlistas-resumen
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    First Republic

    The first Republic refers to the government that ruled Spain between 1864, by the end of military regency in the wake of the War of the Bourbon Restoration, and 1927, when the republic fell in a communist revolution. It was initially successful in rebuilding Spain and maintaining control over Africa and expanding through India, but it declined in the early 20th century, experiencing deep social and economic divisions.
    http://althistory.wikia.com/wiki/First_Republic_of_Spain_(Napoleon's_World)
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution (1868)

    Spanish Glorious Revolution (1868)
    isabella was in France signing an alliance with Emperor Napoleon III when Admiral Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo issued a revolutionary proclamation at Cadiz, Spain, on September 18, 1868. This triggered uprisings in Madrid and other cities making the queen return to Spain, and exile liberal generals. At the Battle of Alcolea, near Cordoba, rebel forces led by General Francisco Serrano defeated the Spanish royal army under General Manuel Pavia y Lacy on September 28, 1868.
  • Spanish Glorious Revolution II

    Spanish Glorious Revolution II
    Isabella fled to France the next day and was declared deposed. A provisional government was established, which abolished the Jesuits, and ensured universal suffrage and freedom of the press. Serrano and Prim, the government leaders, summoned the Cortes, that promulgated a new constitution after voting to have a monarchical government. https://www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1800s/yr60/fspain1868.htm
  • Amadeous of Savoy II

    Amadeous of Savoy II
    However, soon rose opposition to Amadeo I, including voices from the army, from the aristocracy and, above all, from the Church, contrary to the existing Constitution of 1869. In addition, the growing financial and economic crisis caused the fall of successive Governments of Amadeo I, finally abdicated on February 1873
    http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/a/amadeo.htm
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    Amadeus of Savoy

    He was the King of Spain during 1870-73. Son of Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy, and María Adelaida de Austria, he inherited the title of Duke of Aosta. The revolution of 1868 caused the abdication of Isabel II, which forced general Prim, head of the Government, to find a monarch for the Spanish throne.He was decanted by Amadeo I, representative of the House of Savoy, which, according to her Treaty of Utrecht, had inheritance law in Spain in case of missing the Bourbon dynasty.
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    Third Carlist War

    The third Carlist war (1872-76) began when Carlist supporters, supported aspirations to the throne of Carlos VII after the dethroning of Isabel II, the failure of the reign of Amadeo of Savoy and the proclamation of the first Republic. The war occured mainly in Navarra and Catalonia and they were finally defeated by the troops of King Alfonso XII. This was the last Carlist War.
    http://www.apunteshistoria.info/guerras-carlistas-resumen
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    Cuban War

    On April 25 of 1898 the United States declared war on Spain due to the sinking of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15 of 1898. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10 of 1898. As a consequence Spain lost its control over the remains of its overseas empire , which were Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines Islands, Guam, and other islands and finally gave them to the United States of America
    https://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html